Estonian orthography of Votic dictionary

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Estonian orthography for Votic language (1990.) [1][edit]

The biggest "Dictionary of Votic language" ever ("Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat") by Elna Adler and Merle Leppik uses Estonian orthography, where "" is replaced with "õ", macron with doubled vowel and "л" with "l" etc.

Yet " k, p, t " never mark geminates as they do in the middle of Estonian words, but single fortis plosives the way they are used in the beginning of Estonian words and in Uralic Phonetic Alphabet .


Differences from the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet [edit]

  • A proper font ( Code2000 or other) is required in your computer to see the diacritic signs.


The transcription used in that dictionary follows phonemic not phonetic principles ignoring contextual allophones and individual peculiarities of certain speakers [2], which presumes that it's users know the true standard of this endangered language, which is almost instinct.


  1. Intrusive schwɑ vowels are ignored. E.g. " õhzɑll " < " e̮hə̑zɑл "
  2. Doubled vowel has replaced macron and it's equivalents used with a vowel. E.g. " viiteesee " < " vītēsē ", " nɑɑpuri " < " nɑ̂puri " [3], " sɑɑtii " < " sɑ̠ti̠ " [4]
    1. Doubled vowel marks shortened long vowels . E.g. " mentii lidnɑɑ õppõõmɑɑ" < " mentì lidnɑ̀ e̮ppè̮mɑ̀ "
    2. Single vowel marks any sporadic prolonged short vowel . E.g. " tuli tševä " < " tùli tšèvä "
    3. Single vowel marks any sporadic shortened short vowel . E.g. " konnɑ " < " konnɑ̆ "
    4. Grave accent is the only diacritic mark, which has been preserved on any (actually the first) component of a diphthong only to emphasize this characteristic prolongɑtion of Pontizõõ dialect . E.g. " tǜö "
  3. Doubled consonant has replaced macron and it's equivalents used with a consonant . E.g. " lämmittämin " < " läm̄it̄ämin ", " pɑĺĺo " < " pɑl̄́o " [5], " äd́d́ä " < " äd̠́ä " [6]
    1. Doubled consonant marks shortened long consonants . E.g. " meress " < " meres̀ "
    2. Single consonant marks any sporadic prolonged short consonant . E.g. " ɑrotɑG " < " ɑrot̀ɑG "
    3. Single consonant marks also a shortened short consonant . E.g. " tšäje " < " tšäʲe "
    4. Breve is the only diacritic mark, which has been preserved on any (actually the first) component of a geminɑte only to emphasize this characteristic shortening of Eastern Votic , Mati and Kõrvõttula dialect . E.g. " ɑkkunɑl̆lɑɑ "
  4. · marks a stressed vowel only
    1. if the primary stress is not on the first syllable . E.g. " ɑtpe·ettõi ", " ɑlɑzo·rkoo "
    2. if the secondary stress in this sentence is equal to the primary stress . E.g. " lɑ·ihukkõ·in "


Following punctuation is ignored:

  1.   ̮   marking a sandhi . E.g. " mehet saivad viinaa " < " mehet ̮ saivad ̮ vinà ".
  2. ' marking an omitted phoneme (usually in the end of a word [7] [8] [9] [10]) . E.g. " saunass " < " saunass' " [11], " b õllu ani annõttava " < " 'B õllu ani annõttava " [12].


  1. has replaced č and t́š́ . E.g. " tšivi " < " čivi ", " tšiin " < " t́š́īn ".
  2. l (which should precede only a front wovel) has replaced л everywhere . E.g. " lɑulu " < " лɑuлu ".
  3. h has replaced ʜ . E.g. " pihɑ " < " piʜɑ ".
  4. Ordinary lower case letters mark any turned letters for a reduced vowel . E.g. " pɑikkɑ " < " pɑikkɒ ".
  5. Ordinary lower case letters mark any voiceless vowel . E.g. " siällä " < " siällÄ ".
    1. Upper case letters have been preserved only to emphasize characteristic voiceless vowels of Kukkuzi dialect . E.g. " siällÄ ".
  6. j has replaced starting a syllable . E.g. " ɑhjo " < " ɑhi̭o ".
  7. õ has replaced , and ə̂. E.g. " toovvõ " < " tovvə̂ ", " õnnõvɑ " < " e̮nne̮vɑ ", " jõkɑ " < " jkɑ ".
  8. y has replaced and . E.g. " gryba " < " grba ", " õnnõvɑd by " < " e̮nne̮vɑd  ̮ b ".
  9. has replaced ḙ̮̆ė̮ and ė̮e̮. E.g. " sitḙ̮̆ė̮ " < " sityõ ", " vyõrɑZ " < " vė̮e̮rɑZ ".
  10. ü has replaced ü˱ etc. E.g. " täün " < " täü˱n ".
  11. k has replaced . E.g. " propk " < " prop ".
  12. o has replaced etc. E.g. " pɑĺĺo " < " pɑl̨ĺ ", " jɑrvi " < " jɑ˲rvi ".
  13. k has replaced . E.g. " mikä " < " miä ".
  14. ĺ has replaced etc. E.g. " pääĺie " < " pǟl̨ėe ".
  15. u has replaced etc. E.g. " nɑizikkuɑ " < " nɑizikkɑ ".
  16. χ has replaced χ˯ . E.g. " χott " < " χ˯ott ".
  17. n has replaced . E.g. " hään " < " hǟ " Kukkuzi dialect.
  18. n has replaced ñ . E.g. " penzii " < " peñzi " .
  19. u has replaced etc. E.g. " ɑr̆ruɑ " < " ɑr̆rɑ ".
  20. uo has replaced ȯo etc. E.g. " ɑruo " < " ɑrȯo ".
  21. has replaced ȯɑ etc. E.g. " ɑr̆roɑ " < " ɑr̆rȯɑ ".
  22. ɑ has replaced ɑ̇ . E.g. " t́ɑ̇t́ɑ̇ " < " t́ɑ̇t́ɑ̇ ".
  23. ie has replaced ėe . E.g. " senie " < " senėe ".
  24. ɑu has replaced ɑṷ etc. E.g. " liukuɑ " < " liṷkuɑ̭ ".




See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.1. p.14-17(, 36-39 in Russian)
  2. Словарь водского языка - Vadja keele sõnaraamat. v.1. p.15(, 37 in Russian)
  3. Ahlqvist , A. 1856 , Wotisk grammatik jemte språkprof och ordförteckning , Helsingfors (Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae 5).
  4. E. N. Setälä (E. N. Setälän vatjalaismuistiinpanot = Les notes d' E. N. Setäläsur la langue vote / painokuntoon toim. ja julk. Lauri Posti ja Seppo Suhonen, Suomalais-ugrilaisen seuran toimituksia ; 135,3 Helsinki 1964)
  5. Ленсу Я. Я. Материалы по говорам води // Западно-финский сборник. — Л., 1930.
  6. E. N. Setälä (E. N. Setälän vatjalaismuistiinpanot = Les notes d' E. N. Setäläsur la langue vote / painokuntoon toim. ja julk. Lauri Posti ja Seppo Suhonen, Suomalais-ugrilaisen seuran toimituksia ; 135,3 Helsinki 1964)
  7. Ahlqvist , A. 1856 , Wotisk grammatik jemte språkprof och ordförteckning , Helsingfors (Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae 5).
  8. Alava V. Vatjalaisia häätapoja. Häälauluja ja itkuja. — Helsinki, 1909. (Suomi IV)
  9. "E. N. Setälä" (E. N. Setälän vatjalaismuistiinpanot = Les notes d' E. N. Setälä sur la langue vote / painokuntoon toim. ja julk. Lauri Posti ja Seppo Suhonen, Suomalais-ugrilaisen seuran toimituksia ; 135,3 Helsinki 1964)
  10. Tsvetkov, Dmitri (Дмитри Цветков): Vadja keele grammatika. (Эсимэйн' ваддя чээлэ грамаатикк - Первая грамматика водьцкого языка) Tallinn, 2008/1922. (in Russian with Estonian translation)
  11. Alava V. Vatjalaisia häätapoja. Häälauluja ja itkuja. — Helsinki, 1909. (Suomi IV)
  12. Alava V. Vatjalaisia häätapoja. Häälauluja ja itkuja. — Helsinki, 1909. (Suomi IV)
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