Esperanto/Grammar

From Wikiversity
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This page gives an overview of the grammar of Esperanto. To read more about it, see Esperanto grammar at Wikipedia

Personal pronouns[edit]

singular plural
first person mi (I) ni (we)
second person vi (you)
third
person
masculine li (he) ili (they)
feminine ŝi (she)
epicene ĝi (it)
indefinite oni (one)
reflexive si (self)

Prefixes[edit]

This is a list of Esperanto prefixes.

Prefix Audio Meaning Example Audio Translation
bo- in-law bopatro father-in-law
dis- distribution distranĉi to cut/chop up
ek- beginning ekbrili ignite
eks- ended eksedzino ex-wife
fi- disgusting, nasty fihomo wicked person
ge- both sexes gepatroj parents (both sexs)
mal- opposite maldoni take
mis- wrongly mislegi misread
pra- since long prapatroj forefathers
re- repetitive relegi reread
vic- step-
vice-
spare
vicfilo
vicprezidanto
vicrado
stepson
vice-president
spare wheel

Suffixes[edit]

This is a list of Esperanto suffixes. If a part-of-speech ending is included, this indicates which form is considered the base form (object/action/characteristic), see Lesson 4

Suffix Audio Meaning Example Audio Translation
-aĉ- cheap, poor quality domaĉo shack
-adi prolonged paroladi ramble
-ado action martelado hammering
-aĵo to make a noun

something that originates from the noun
belaĵo
konstruaĵo
bovaĵo
something beautiful
building
beef
-ano member/citizen insulano
kanadano
islander
Canadian
-aro group estraro governing board
-ĉjo male nickname paĉjo daddy
-ebla possibility videbla visible
-eco -ness dolĉeco sweetness
-edo* biological family (technical) numidedo Guinea fowls
-eg- bigger ventego windstorm
-ejo a place preĝejo church/temple (place of prayer)
-ema tendency ŝparema thrifty
-enda should/must legenda that should be read
-ero small part salero grain of salt
-estro leader urbestro mayor
-et- smaller rideti smile (little laugh)
-io country Francio France
-ido offspring ĉevalido colt
-igi to cause purigi to (make) clean
-iĝi become ruĝiĝi to redden, to blush
-ilo tool ŝlosilo key (lock tool)
-ino female patrino mother
-inda worthy admirinda admirable
-ingo holder, sheath kandelingo candle-holder
-ismo an ism, a doctrine komunismo communism
-isto profession biciklisto (professional) cyclist
(-iva)1 able to kreiva creative
-njo female nickname panjo mommy
-obla times/fold duobla double
-ona part kvarona
kvarono
quarter
a quarter
-ope group sesope with six (people)
(-oza)1 full of muskuloza muscular
-ujo container
fruit tree (archaic)
country (archaic)
monujo
pomujo
Francujo
purse/wallet
apple tree
France
-ulo trait
member of a zoological group
stultulo
mamulo
fool
mammal
-umo
-umi
-uma
ad hoc komunumo
kolumo
palpebrumi
akvumi
ŝtonumi
dekstrume
community
collar
to wink
to water
to stone, to execute by stoning
clockwise
  1. Originally from Ido.

Correlatives[edit]

Correlatives ki- ti- i- ĉi- neni-
-u
(person/thing)
ki-u
(who)
ti-u
(this/that person/thing)
i-u
(some/a person/thing)
ĉi-u
(every person/thing)
neni-u
(no person/thing)
-o
(thing)
ki-o
(what)
ti-o
(that)
i-o
(some thing)
ĉi-o
(every thing)
neni-o
(no thing)
-a
(type/kind)
ki-a
(what type, which kind)
ti-a
(this/that type/kind)
i-a
(some/a type/kind)
ĉi-a
(every type/kind)
neni-a
(no type/kind)
-e
(place, location)
ki-e
(where)
ti-e
(there)
i-e
(some place)
ĉi-e
(every place)
neni-e
(no place)
-om
(quantity)
ki-om
(how many)
ti-om
(this many)
i-om
(some amount)
ĉi-om
(every amount)
neni-om
(no amount)
-am
(time)
ki-am
(when)
ti-am
(then)
i-am
(some time)
ĉi-am
(every time, always)
neni-am
(no time, never)
-es
(ownership)
ki-es
(whose)
ti-es
(their)
i-es
(some/any one's)
ĉi-es
(everyone's)
neni-es
(no one's)
-al
(causation)
ki-al
(why)
ti-al
(because)
i-al
(for some reason)
ĉi-al
(for all reasons)
neni-al
(for no reason)
-el
(method)
ki-el
(how, in what way)
ti-el
(this way)
i-el
((in) some way)
ĉi-el
(in every way)
neni-el
(in no way)