Endangered languages of Europe

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This learning resource is part of the Wikilang project.

Europe has several endangered languages that are at risk of falling out of use, generally because they have few surviving speakers.

UNESCO defines four levels of language endangerment, from the less endangered to the most endangered: vulnerable, definitely endangered, severely endangered and critically endangered. Once a language loses all of its native speakers, it becomes an extinct language.

List of endangered languages of Europe[edit | edit source]

Note: This list doesn't include endangered languages from Russia that are not present in another European country.

Language Countries Status
Abaza Turkey, Russia Definitely endangered
Abkhaz Georgia, Russia, Turkey Vulnerable
Adyge Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Macedonia, Russia, Syria, Turkey Vulnerable
Alemannic Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Liechtenstein, Switzerland Vulnerable
Alpine Provençal (Vivaro-Alpine) France, Italy Definitely endangered
Aragonese Spain Definitely endangered
Arbanasi Croatia Severely endangered
Arbëresh Italy Definitely endangered
Aromanian Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Serbia Definitely endangered
Arvanitika Greece Severely endangered
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic Armenia, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey Definitely endangered
Asturian-Leonese Portugal, Spain Definitely endangered
Auvergnat France Severely endangered
Balkan Gagauz Turkish Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Turkey Critically endangered
Banat Bulgarian Romania, Serbia Definitely endangered
Basque France, Spain Vulnerable
Bats Georgia Severely endangered
Bavarian Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Switzerland Vulnerable
Belarusian Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Ukraine Vulnerable
Bohtan Neo-Aramaic Georgia, Russia Severely endangered
Breton France Severely endangered
Budukh Azerbaijan Severely endangered
Burgenland Croatian Austria, Hungary, Slovakia Definitely endangered
Burgundian France Severely endangered
Cappadocian Greek Greece Critically endangered
Catalan (Algherese) Italy Definitely endangered
Chaldean Neo-Aramaic Armenia, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey Definitely endangered
Champenois Belgium, France Severely endangered
Cimbrian Italy Definitely endangered
Cornish United Kingdom Critically endangered
Corsican France, Italy Definitely endangered
Crimean Tatar Bulgaria, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Definitely endangered
Crimean Turkish Ukraine Severely endangered
Cypriot Arabic Cyprus Severely endangered
Dungan Kazakhstan Definitely endangered
East Franconian Czech Republic, Germany Vulnerable
Emilian-Romagnol Italy, San Martino Definitely endangered
Faroese Faroe Islands Vulnerable
Franc-Comtois France, Switzerland Severely endangered
Francoprovençal France, Switzerland Severely endangered
Friulian Italy Definitely endangered]]
Gagauz Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Romania, Turkey, Russia, Ukraine Definitely endangered
Gallo France Severely endangered
Gallurese Italy Definitely endangered
Gascon France, Spain Definitely endangered
Griko Italy Severely endangereduee
Guernésiais Guernsey Severely endangered
Hértevin Turkey Critically endangered
Homshetsma Georgia, Russia, Turkey Severely endangered
Inari Finland Severely endangered
Irish Ireland, United Kingdom Definitely endangered
Istriot Croatia Severely endangered
Istro-Romanian Croatia Severely endangered
Jèrriais Jersey Severely endangered
Judezmo (Judaeo-Spanish) Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Macedonia, Morocco, Romania, Turkey, Serbia Severly endangered
Juhuri Azerbaijan, Russia Definitely endangered
Kabard-Cherkes Russia, Turkey Vulnerable
Karaim Lithuania Severely endangered
Karelian Finland, Russia Definitely endangered
Kashubian Poland Severely endangered
Khinalug Azerbaijan Severely endangered
Kryts (Kryz) Azerbaijan Severely endangered
Ladin Italy Definitively endangered
Languedocian (Lengadocian) France Severely endangered
Latgalian Latvia, Russia Vulnerable
Laz Georgia, Turkey Definitely endangered
Lezgian Azebaijan, Russia Vulnerable
Ligurian France, Italy, Monaco Definitely endangered
Limburgish Belgium, Germany, Netherlands Vulnerable
Limousin France Severely endangered
Livonian Latvia Critically endangered
Lombard Italy, Switzerland Definitely endangered
Lorrain Belgium, France Severely endangered
Low Saxon (Plattdüütsch) Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Poland, Russia Vulnerable
Lower Sorbian (Serbski) Germany Definitively endangered
Lule Saami Norway, Sweden Severely endangered
Manx Isle of Man Critically endangered
Mariupolitan Greek Ukraine Severely endangered
Megleno-Romanian Greece, Macedonia Severely endangered
Mingrelian Georgia Definitely endangered
Mòcheno Italy Definitely endangered
Molise Croatian (Slavomolisano) Italy Severely endangered
Moselle Franconian Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg Vulnerable
Nogay Romania Severely endangered
Norman France Severely endangered
North Frisian Germany Severely endangered
North Saami (Njukča) Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden Definitely endangered
Olonetsian Finland, Russia Definitely endangered
Ossete Georgia, Russia Vulnerable
Pannonian Rusyn Croatia, Serbia Definitely endangered
Picard Belgium, France Severely endangered
Piedmontese Italy Definitely endangered
Pite Saami Norway, Sweden Critically endangered
Plautdietsch Ukraine Definitely endangered
Poitevin-Saintongeais France Severely endangered
Polesian Belarus, Poland, Ukraine Vulnerable
Pontic Greek Armenia, Georgia, Greece, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine Definitely endangered
Provençal France Severely endangered
Rhenish Franconian (Rhine Franconian) France, Germany Vulnerable
Romani Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, Servia Definitely endangered
Romansh Switzerland Definitely endangered
Rusyn Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Vulnerable
Rutul Azerbaijan, Russia Definitely endangered
Sassarese Italy Definitely endangered
Saterlan Frisian Germany Severely endangered
Scanian Denmark, Sweden Vulnerable
Scots United Kingdom Vulnerable
Scottish Gaelic Canada, United Kingdom Definitely endangered
Skolt Saami Denmark, Norway, Russia Severely endangered
Sardinian Italy Definitively endangered
Sicilian Italy Vulnerable
Sorbian Germany Definitely endangered
South Italian Italy Vulnerable
South Jutish (South Jutlandic) Denmark, Germany Definitely endangered
South Estonian (Võro-Seto) Estonia, Russia Definitely endangered
South Saami Norway, Sweden Severely endangered
Svan Georgia Definitely endangered
Swabian German Italy Severely endangered
Swiss German Italy Severely endangered
Talysh Azerbaijan, Iran Vulnerable
Tat Azerbaijan Severely endangered
Torlakian (Torlak) Albania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia Vulnerable
Transylvanian Saxon Romania Severely endangered
Turoyo Syria, Turkey Severely endangered
Tsakhur Azerbaijan, Russia Definitely endangered
Tsakonian Greece Critically endangered
Udi Azerbaijan, Georgia Severely endangered
Ume Saami Sweden Critically endangered
Upper Sorbian (Serbsce) Germany Definitely endangered
Urum Georgia, Russia, Ukraine Definitely endangered
Venetian Croatia, Italy, Slovenia Vulnerable
Walloon Belgium, France, Luxembourg Definitely endangered
Walser German Italy Severely endangered
Welsh Argentina, Chile, United Kingdom Vulnerable
West Flemish Belgium, France, Netherlands Vulnerable
West Frisian Netherlands Vulnerable
Western Armenian Turkey Definitely endangered
Wymysorys (Vilamovian) Poland Severely endangered
Yiddish Ausria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine Definitely endangered
Zazaki Turkey Vulnerable