Egyptology/Old Kingdom monuments organized by ruler

From Wikiversity
Jump to navigation Jump to search

QuickLink to Main Home Page: Ancient Egyptian Monuments Project


[edit | edit source]

Horus or Throne Name: Khasekhemwy (sometimes Khasekhem)

Nebty name: Khasekhemwy-Nebty
Golden Falcon name: --
Personal name: Nebwyhetepimyef
Reign: 27 years; 2611 - 2584 (Dodson)
Predecessor: unclear (possibly Peribsen)
Successor: Djoser
Wife: Queen Nimaathap
Children: Djoser, and possibly Hetephirnebty (Djoser's wife). [1]

Last king of the 2nd dynasty. A longer Horus and Seth version of his name appears and looks like this
The name Khasekhemwy Hotep-Netjerwi-imef means "the Two Powerful Ones Have Risen And The Two Lords Are At Peace Within Him". Inscriptions on statues of Khasekhemwy indicate that he may have reunited Ancient Egypt after a period of strife that may have started during the reign of Peribsen. The inscription on Khasekhemwy's statue claim that he killed more than 47,000 northerners in order to re-establish control over both Upper and Lower Egypt. Some Egyptologists think that Khasekhemwy's marriage to Queen Nimaathap may have been a diplomatic one and that she may have been from the North.

Eventually Khasekhemwy built large mudbrick structures at Hierakonpolis and Abydos. Those structures were undertaken on a large scale and included enclosure walls. Near Abydos, in Beit Khallaf, several large mastabas were constructed. Again some of these were on a monumental scale. It has been conjectured that the largest mastaba at Beit Khallaf may be the tomb of Queen Nimaathap, but this is not certain. The other mastabas may have belonged to courtiers or to members of the royal family.

  • Tomb and Enclosure at Abydos Also known as Shunet ez-Zebib.

Digitalegypt's page about the tomb

  • "Fort" in Hierakonpolis This mudbrick structure measured approximately 47 x 57 meters and was constructed of mudbrick. Garstang discovered more than 166 predynasstic graves in the enclosure. The enclosure contains a structure near the east entrance referred to as a chapel. To quote the Hierakonpolis site:

"The flattening operations also allowed us to examine a bit more of the free-standing structure, or chapel, within the Fort, first uncovered by Garstang and re-explored by us in 1999. The mud-brick funerary enclosures of the Early Dynastic kings at Abydos also contained similar mud-brick chapels in their interiors, which, like that in the Fort, were usually placed close to the east gateway and laid out with walls askew to the orientation of the main enclosure. Generally simple three-room structures, Khasekhemwy made his at Abydos a more complicated affair composed of more than 9 rooms. At Hierakonpolis, he also embellished his chapel, outfitting it with at least two red granite column bases[..]"
The early name of "Fort" is likely a misnomer. The structure may have been a temple or even a palace.

Interactive Dig in Hierakonpolis

Digitalegypt site with a plan of the fort

  • Mastabas in Beit Khallaf This site is located near Abydos and features five mastabas, labeled K1, K2, K3, K4 and K5. Mastaba K1 is the largest and measures some 45 x 85 meters, and presently stands 8 meters high. Seal impressions of Queen Nimaathap were found at this site. For a time this mastaba was thought to be the burial site of King Khasekhemwy, but he is now thought to have been buried in Abydos.

EgyptSites Beit Khallaf page A description of the site with photographs.

  • Gisr el-Mudir in Saqqara Large enclosure in Saqqara thought to possibly date to the time or Khasekhemwy. It measures ca 350 X 650 m. The walls may have been more than 4.5 meters high.


[edit | edit source]

Horus or Throne Name: Netjerikhet

Nebty name: Nebti Netjerikhet
Golden Falcon name: (Bik-)Nebu
Personal name: Djoser

Reign: 19 years; 2584 - 2565 (Dodson)
Predecessor: Khasekhemwy
Successor: Sanakht
Wife: Queen Hetephirnebty
Children: King's daughther Intkaes [1]
First King of the third dynasty. Famous for his pyramid complex in Saqqara.

Djoser is attested in

  • Saqqara : tomb of Hesyre and other nobles
  • Abydos : seal impressions in tomb of Khasekhemwy.
  • Heliopolis : Shrine
  • Hierakonpolis : seal impressions
  • Elephantine : seal impressions
  • Bet Khallaf : seal impressions
  • Sinai : Inscription at Maghara near the turquoise mines.

See also Djoser at Digitalegypt


[edit | edit source]

Horus or Throne Name: Sanakht

Nebty name: --
Golden Falcon name: --
Personal name: Nebka
Reign: 9 years; 2565 - 2556 (Dodson)
Predecessor: Djoser
Successor: Sekhemkhet
Wife: NN
Children: NN [1]

  • Beit Khallaf: Sanakht's (partial) cartouche was found in Mastaba K2.

EgyptSites page on Beit Khallaf


[edit | edit source]

Horus or Throne Name: Sekhemkhet

Nebty name: --
Golden Falcon name: --
Personal name: Djoser-Ti
Reign: 6 years; 2556 - 2550 (Dodson)
Predecessor: Sanakht
Successor: Khaba
Wife: Possibly queen Djesernebty-ankh or Djeseret-nebty (Stadelman and Helck - reading of the name is uncertain)
Children: NN [1]

  • Step pyramid in Saqqara
  • Inscription in the Sinai.

Sekhemkhet page on digitalegypt


[edit | edit source]

Horus or Throne Name: Khaba

Nebty name: --
Golden Falcon name: --
Personal name: Teti? or Nebkare
Reign: 6 years; 2550 - 2544 (Dodson)
Predecessor: Sekhemkhet
Successor: Huni
Wife: NN
Children: NN [1]
Third dynasty king.

  • Zawiyet el-Aryan: Possibly location of Khaba's step pyramid. And a mastaba from his reign.
  • Hierakonpolis: Seal impression found within the town enclosure. [2]
  • Elephantine: Seal impression

Khaba at Digital Egypt

Horus or Throne Name: Qahedjet?
Personal name: Huni

Reign: 24 years; 2544 - 2520 (Dodson)
Predecessor: Khaba
Successor: Snefru
Wives: Possibly Queen Djefatnebti;
Queen Meresankh I - the mother of Snefru - was a lesser wife of Huni
Children: Princess/Queen Hetepheres I and possibly Snefru [1]

  • Fortress at the Island of Elephantine.
  • Stepped pyramid at Meidum: It is thought that Huni started the stepped pyramid at Meidum which was later taken over by Snefru and turned into a true pyramid.
  • Small step pyramid at Elephantine. Likely ritual in nature.


[edit | edit source]

Horus or Throne Name: Nebmaet
Nebty name: Neb-maat-nebty
Golden Falcon name: Bik-nub
Personal name: Snefru (or Seneferu)


Reign: 50 years; 2520 - 2470 (Dodson)
Predecessor: Huni
Successor: Khufu
Wife: Queen Hetepheres I
Children: Khufu; Princes Ranefer, Kanefer, Akhhaf, Iynefer, Rahotep, Netjeraperef and Nefermaat;
Princess Merytiotes I, Nefertnesu, and Nefertkau [1]

Snefru was the first king of the fourth dynasty.

  • Dashur: The The Bent Pyramid and The Red Pyramid were constructed in Dashur.
  • Meidum: The Meidum Pyramid was the first structure constructed during Snefru's reign.
  • Dashur Royal necropolis: Mastabas of prince Iynefer, and prince Kanefer (named Eldest King's Son) [1]
  • Meidum Royal necropolis: Mastabas of prince Nefermaat (Vizier), Rahotep (High Priest of Ra in Heliopolis), and prince Ranefer[1]
  • Giza Royal necropolis: Mastaba of prince Ankhhaf (Vizier) (G7510), and King's daughter Nefertkau (G7050). These tombs may date to the reign of Khufu. [1]
  • Hierakonpolis: Seal impression
  • Sinai: Inscription at Maghara near the turquoise mines.
  • el-Hammamiya: Rock-tombs dating to the time of Khufu show that the sphere of influence extended down to southern Egypt. The tombs include Khakhent (Chief of the Tens of Upper Egypt) and his wife Khentkaus and a King's daughter Ifi and her husband Khakhent (also Chief of the Tens of Upper Egypt)

Snefru is mentioned on the Palermo stone as having conducted a campaign against Nubia.

Snefru at digitalegypt


[edit | edit source]

Horus or throne name: Medjedu
Nebty name: Nebty-r-medjed
Golden Falcon name: Bikwy-nub
Personal Name: (Khnum-)Khufu


Reign: 23 years; 2470 - 2447 (Dodson)
Predecessor: Snefru
Successor: Djedefre
Wife: Queen Meritites I, Queen Henutsen, Maybe Nefertkau was aQueen as well.
Children: Princes Kawab, Djedefre, Khafre, Hordjedef, Minkhaf, Babaef, Bauefre, Khufukhaf I, and Horbaef. Maybe Nefermaat II;
The Princesses Hetepheres II, Neferetiabet, Meritites II, and Meresankh II. [1]

  • Pyramid complex in Giza
  • Sinai : Inscription at Maghara near the turquoise mines.
  • Ivory statuette found in store room in Abydos (this may not have been related to original activity during reignt of Khufu though). [2]
  • El Kab: grafitti showing boats; one with the name of Khufu, the other with a hard to descipher name thought to be Sharu (Snefru?)[2]
  • Hierakonpolis: A diorite dish with the name of Khufu was found in the temple enclosure.[2]
  • Island of Siheil: grafitti from the time of Khufu. [2]


[edit | edit source]
Hetepheres II as a sphinx from Abu Rawash

Horus or throne name: Kheper
Nebty name: Kheper-em-nebty
Golden Falcon name: Biku-nub

Nomen: Djedefre


Reign: 8 years; 2447 - 2439 (Dodson)
Predecessor: Khufu
Successor: Setka? or maybe Baka?
Wife: Queen Hetepheres II and Queen Khentetka
Children: Princes Setka, Hornit, Baka, Nikaudjedefre and the Princesses Hetepheres and Neferhetepes. [1]

  • Pyramid complex at Abu Roash.
    • Pyramid
    • Mortuary Temple to the east of the pyramid (but off set to the north)
    • Causeway - approaches the pyramid from the north-east (not east)
    • The Valley Temple was planned at the end of the causeway.
    • One boat pit, located next to the mortuary temple. [3]
  • Mentioned in tomb in Giza.

Djedefre at digitalegypt


[edit | edit source]

Horus or throne name: User-ib
Nebty name: User-em-nebty
Golden Falcon name: Netjer-nub-sekhem
Personal Name: Khafre

Reign: 23 years; 2437 - 2414 (Dodson)
Predecessor: Setka or Baka? Or possibly Djedefre?
Successor: Menkaure
Wife: Queen Meresankh III, Queen Meresankh II?, maybe Khamerernebty, Hekenuhedjet and Persenet were Queens as well.
Children: Princes Nebemakhet, Du(ae)nre, Niuserre(Neuserre), Khenterka, Ankhmare (Ankhemre), Iunmin, Iunre (Yunre), Menkaure, Sekhemkare, Nikaure, Akhre, and Babaf (Khnembaf in some publications)
The Princesses Shepseskau, Nubhotep, Rekhetre, Hemetre (?), and Khamernebty II. [1]

  • Pyramid complex in Giza
    • Pyramid
    • Mortuary Temple to the east of the pyramid. This mortuary temple was larger than those previously built.
    • Causeway - approaches the pyramid from the east.
    • The Valley Temple.
    • Five boat pits. [3]
  • Seal impressions at Buhen
  • Cylinder seal found at Byblos
  • Calcite bowl found at Ebla
  • Cylinder seal at a tomb near el-Raqaqna (near Abydos) [2]

Khafre at digitalegypt


[edit | edit source]

Horus or throne name: Ka-khet
Nebty name: Ka-nebty
Golden Falcon name: Netjeru-nub-netjery
Personal Name: Menkaure

Reign: 18 years; 2414 - 2396 (Dodson)
Predecessor: Khafre
Successor: Shepseskaf
Wife: Queen Khamerernebty II and possibly Queen Rekhetre (?)
Children: Princes Khuenre, Shepseskaf?, and Sekemre?; Possibly Khentkaues I? [1]

  • Pyramid complex in Giza
    • Pyramid
    • Mortuary Temple
    • Causeway
    • The Valley Temple.
    • Boat pits. [3]
  • Tombs of nobles in Giza (Debhen, Sekhemkare, Nisutpunetjer)
  • Tomb of Nikaankh at Tehne
  • Objects at Byblos
  • Seals at Buhen
  • Cylinder seals at El-Kab; outside north wall of town enclosure.[2]
  • Sealings found at Abydos [2]

Menkaure at Digitalegypt


[edit | edit source]

Horus or throne name: Shepses-khet
Nebty name: Shepses-nebty
Golden Falcon name: --
Personal Name: Shepseskaf

Reign: 4 years; 2396 - 2392 (Dodson)
Predecessor: Menkaure
Successor: Userkaf
Wife: Unknown, maybe Khentkaues I, maybe Bunefer
Children: -- [1]

  • Mastabat el-Faraun: Shepseskaf's funerary monument in Saqqara.
  • Tombs of nobles in Giza (Sekhemkare, Nisutpunetjer)
  • Tomb of Nikaankh at Tehne
  • Sealings found at Abydos [2]

Shepseskaf at Digitalegypt


[edit | edit source]
  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 Aidan Dodson and Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt: A Genealogical Sourcebook of the Pharaohs, 2004, Thames & Hudson
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Porter and Moss, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings; Part III; Pdf version downloaded from
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt, Thames and Hudson, 2000