Counseling/Personality class notes

From Wikiversity
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Personality Framework

Personality Personality is a pattern of characteristic thinking, feeling, and behaving that distinguishes one person from another and is stable over time

Study of the whole person in terms of species-typical characteristics and individual differences Species typical: individuals are alike, or similar

Traits inferred from behavior


  • stability
  • consistent


  • personality configurations predispose to emotional states

Eight keys: unconscious Freud: unconscious is the largest determinant of what you do Sense of identity Ego forces Erikson, ego development Biology serotonin low levels Conditioning and learning pavlov, skinner, watson Cognitive schema, automatic thoughts not events but meaning of event epiquidus beliefs determine how you interpert reality Traits and skills katell isinc mccerigh Spirituality Existential concerns humanistic Theology Interactions Environment


Think, Feel, Behave

Feels Think about What they do

Behavioral approach and avoidance Do one thing and do another Cognitive dissonance

Approaches, ways to study personality Nomothetic Most of psych large groups, hundreds quick inexpensive superficial

Ideographic Case studies, a single person in-depth results don't generalize--external validity

Ways to think Grand theories (unusual)

  • Freud
  • Millon personality disorders

Single dimensions

  • focused
  • locus of control, internal external

Changes vs stability


  • psychotherapy
  • Religion
  • life and death experience

Personality is stable with age

  • 30 yrs
  • Freud 5-6yrs


  • Stability


zeitgeist, spirit of the times, victorian

conservative, behaving properly and doing good works

no sexuality in conversations, Freud was considered offensive

Victorian public self and private self causes split, neurosis of the day

Freud parents mother analie 20 yrs younger than father family of 8 freud oldest and favorite of mother

father Jacob, jewish wool merchant, Antisemitism during time

Oedipus complex: sons unconsciously want to kill fathers

focus was neurology, and went into psychiatricy

cocaine experiments, looking for "hit"

Daughter Anna Freud, defense mechanisms

hypotherapy, abandoned for

Free association

Associates with Breuer, father figure, helped Frd get establised

Anna O. Bertha Pappenheim (client) 23 yrs, hysterical neurosis samataform disorder

Developed talking cure, by talking the symptoms disappeared

talk therapy at the basis of all psychotherapy (PT)

childhood sexual seduction

abused repress, drive into unconscious emerge in disguised form problems are a function of childhood trauma that is forgotten

depressed as adult, traces to childhood, what happened in childhood

analyze dreams path to unconscious

manifest content, story line

latent content, underlying meaning

uses term psychoanalysis

psychodyanmics erikson

developed frear of dying, travel phobia

1900 interpretation of dreams

1906 jung and frd correspond

therory of personality younger than frd, jung would take-over

both come to america, 1913, break with jng

frd demanding loyality, broke off, never spoke again

jng analytic psych

1918 lost money on stocks

1923 cancer pain continues to work

33 operations

1930 heart attack

1933 hitler

1938 flee anti-semitism, nazis burned books,

1939 died of morphine OD

Victorians saw his work as pornography

females inferior


not liked, authoritarian

Psychic determinism -- calling, money,

Unconscious driving life, no free will

Conscious pre-conscious unconscious

get to unconscious via dreams, dreams are royal road

Eros sexuality and life instincts Thanatos aggression and death instincts

Brain organ Mind id ego se

Superego right and wrong, conscious

Ego balance aware of reality demands

ID (it) pleasure principle uncivilized, selfish, illogical, pleasure seeking unconscious set of biological drives, pleasure based, not concerned with consequences

Born as ID, ego sup ego develop at 5

we are not aware of how ID drives behavior

Ego (I) rational and realistic operates according to reality principle Delay gratification of IDs urges until appropriate outlets or situations are found ID prompts you to do things, Ego keeps you in check compromise formation balance the demands of external reality with the ID

Superego (over I) standards about right and wrong, irrationally demanding for perfection two parts: Ego ideal conscience

Ego ideal (approved by parents) compromise formation (dissapproved by parents)

Super ego, what you can and cannot do

Structures in are conflict, causing anxiety:

  • realistic - threat from environment
  • neurotic - id attempting to overpower ego (dominance), about to do something wrong, and against society
  • moral - superego attempts to overpower ego, guilt

Mental energy psychic energy of the mind is called libido energy is finite energy must be vented

Catharsis hypothesis if a person has aggressive impulses, they have to observe that type of agression to vent it (has not held up, agression builds up from learning)

Psycho-sexual development:

Libido invested in stages (theory)

  • Oral
  • Anal
  • Phallic
  • Latency
  • Genital

Invested in different erogonis zones throughout the body at each stage there may be problematic development as an adult

First three are curcial over- or under-invested fixation fixated at a stage

oral stage 0-18 months, care crucial if energy is invested in a moderate way (ideal) moderate care: trust, give and received, self-reliance

Bad, too much, or too little, libodonal investment results in character problems when older

unhealthy development, turn into

Oral passive personality

  • everything should come to you
  • dependence and narcissism
  • excessive eating, drinking, and cigar smoking
  • good listener and gullible

Oral agressive

  • cannot count on anyone
  • cynical, pessismistic and bitingly sarcastic
  • nail biting

Anal stage, 1.5 - 3 yrs control over anay sphincters parents toilet training,

moderate praise for toilet training not too harsh or lenient healthy development, personal autonomy, independent, and taking initiative w/o guilt

kids want to be independent

me do -- learn self-control

meaning of the word no

terrible twos 2-3 years

expections create personality configuration later in life

  • harsh
  • lenient

anal-explosive type

  • disorganized
  • disorderly
  • cruel

anal-retentive type

  • stingy
  • over-regulated
  • excessive need for productivity
  • workalholics

punitive environment results in perfectionist personality

harsh environment, not able to meet demands, become passive-agressive or negativistic, go through life with a "chip on your shoulder"

Phallic (age 3-6, worst idea)

  • complicated controversial
  • adjustments to the opposite sex are made at this stage
  • Oedipus and Electra complexes
  • males and females resolve this stage differently
  • superego develops by the end of this stage

Oedipus: Boys want to kill their fathers and sleep with their mothers. But boys fear that that their fathers will castrate them. Boy identifies with father and symbolically shares mother.

Electra: Girls suffer from penis-envy making them angry with their mothers for not providing them with a penis. Girls somehow resolve this. Frd referred to women as the "dark continent."

Emerging sexual feelings Emerging conscience resolution dictates how you handle sexuality as an adult fixation causes sexual rigity, guilt-prone, condemning or conversely loose and promiscuous, or phallic.

Latency stage (6-12) cooling off period no localization of libidinal energy social interests replace sexual interests but, attraction can occur by age 4 before sexual maturity sexual drive is sublimated by school, friends, hobbies, and sports

Genital (12+) development of emotional ties focus outward instead of inward Frd: what is mental heath? Being able to love and work.

Defense mechanisms (useful, DSM) ID, Ego, Superego external demands from reality

ID (do it), superego (don't do it) ID, superego, and reality impact the ego to cause anxiety. Defense mechanisms handle this, such as denial (dismissal), or repression (block idea).

Defense mechanisms are (normal and unconscious) psychological strategies to ward off negative affect, or uncomfortable feelings. Bend reality to be more like we want reality to be.

Valliant's defenses Type -- action Mature - sublimation Neurotic - sexualization Immature - regression Narcissistic - distortion

Defenses in therapy:

Gain insight (intellectual awareness) Change behavior (move away from repetitive compulsions)

Ego defenses repression:

  • secondary -- trauma, drive what is concious and drive into the unconcious
  • primary -- trauma remains in the unconcious, stops the idea or emotion before it reaches conciousness

Difference between repression and denial: Denial: be aware of an event, but underplay it by not focusing on it Repression: complete repression means you have totally forgotten about something

Dissociation: sudden and drastic alteration of an aspect of consciousness, identity, or behavior to relieve emotional stress. "Spacing out" daydreaming shifts of identity.

Identification: someone adopts the characterists of another person and attempts to assume them as their own. A famous person will dress a certain way, and people about that age will adopt his style of dress.

Displacement: transfering emtional energy from one place to another. Things are bad at work, where you keep quiet, and then transfer energy to the home, where you vent. Transfer hostility from boss to family. Slam doors instead of argue.

Distortion: replace actual situation with another to meet inner needs. Someone may be psychpathic, but their partner seems them as normal.

Idealization-devaluation: exceedingly positive or negative qualities are ascribed to a person. See only the positive or negative characterists, such as with couples after some time. "Is there anything positive you can say about your spouse?"

Isolation of affect: stripping off emotion associated with an idea.

Passive-aggressiveness: angry at you but if you ask them they don't tell you. expression of hostility in a non-confrontational manner. Ask people for advice but don't take it (personality disorders).

Projection: casting one's own thoughts onto another because the caster cannot handle the idea of having these thoughts so one pretends someone else is having these thoughts. One party accuses the other of being unfaithful, but it is really the accuser being unfaithful. They make it another person's problem.

Splitting: view reality in two versions, black and white thinking, totally hate you but like others. Serious, PD, can change very quickly.

Projective identification: beliefs about about another person are translated into behavior that confirms the original belief. Self-prophesy.

Rationalization: covering up unacceptable acts and ideas with seemingly acceptable explanations.

Reaction formation: (reversal formation) unacceptable wishes are transformed to their opposite. Converting rejection to something you didn't want anyway. Behaving in a way that is opposite to the way you feel.

Regression: return to earlier levels of functioning to avoid conflict. Curl up into a ball rather than get into a fight.

Schizoid fantasy: living life out in your head such that you don't have to be involved with people. Used to escape and as a means of gratification so that others are not required for emotional involvement. Ideal spouse is so perfect that no one will ever attain that level so relationships remain a fantasy.

Sexualization: people are constantly colored with sexual overtones such as frequent sexual jokes.

Somatization: psychological difficulties are expressed into physical problems. Rather than deal with a problem, they get a backache.

Denial - reality is ignored. Painful situation do think about it, push it out of your mind to make it less emotionally intense. Refusal to acknowledge some painful external or subjective reality obvous to others.

Omnipotence - image of oneself as superior, powerful, or intelligent to overcome profound feelings of inadequacy, threatening eventualities, or feelings. Such as appears in narcissism.

Sublimation: Process by which unacceptable emotions, such as sexual or agressive drives, are channeled into social acceptable behavior. Agressive person may become prize fighter.

Neo Analytic Freud ID dominated Psychoanalytic

New analysis, psychodynamic, social aspects rather than biological Jung, Adler, Horney, Anna Freud, Mahler, Kohut, Erikson--Object relations

Millon: classical psychoanalytic is more ID-based; neoanalytic, ego-based, Object-relations, superego-based

Jung depth or analytic psychology Jg's writing filled with contradictions and inconsistancies Religous mother minister's daughter open to alt ideas, occult, parapsychological, spirituality Jg two people: schoolboy, wise old man wary of women introverted lonely imaginative visions, religious or psychotic jg had affairs jg frd correspond 1906 broke off 1916, less sex more on spirituality personality of future orientation

Conscious ego, similar to frd's ego is conscious embodies sense of self developed 4yrs

Unconscious consists of two layers personal unconscious accessible by person, frd believed that only a psych type could past and future material

people can't see future sense what will happen dreams will predict future

personal unconscious serves to compensate for concious tendencies passive person will have aggressive dreams, extrovet will have introverted dreams

collective unconscious

Archetypes level below personal unconscious symbols of primordial images that are common to all people derived from the emotional reactions of ancestors predispose us to react in predictable ways

Archetypes show up in art outward expression of archtypal images are symbols mandala

Hero and wise old man archetypes in stories and movies

People have intimate knowledge of other gender, and are bisexual

  • anima -- female element of man
  • animus -- male element of woman

Persona -- socially acceptable, idealized image of what people can be

Archtypes: Shadow -- dark side of personality, unacceptable impulses

  • spontaneity
  • creativity

Mother - wise grandmother Hero - savior, champion Demon - Satan, anti-Christ, vampire, evil

Complexes emotionally charged feelings and ideas that relate to a theme complexes result from an individual's repeated experiences whereas archtypes are ancenstral memories that can influence a complex inferiority, superiority, power (control), acheivement complex

Attitudes and Functions intorversion-extraversion are attitudes sensing-intuiting, thinking-feeling are functions operationalized by the MBTI, and enhanced by the Briggs with judging and perceiving Jgs 8 types, MB has 16

Jung Introversion / Extroversion I-E Sensing / Intuiting S-N Thinking / Feeling T-F

Meyers-Briggs Judging / Perceiving J-P

Energizing - how a person is energized Extroversion (E) - get energy from a crowd Introversion (I) - get energy from internal ideas

Attending - what a person pays attention to Sensing (S) - obtaining information in through normal senses, and noticing what is actual, focus on the concrete (bodily relaxation therapy) Intuition (N) - Unconscious perceiving, or obtaining information through "sixth sense" and noticing what might be -- speculate beyond the facts, hunches -- tend to daydream (imagination therapy)

Deciding - how a person decides Thinking (T) - organizing and structuring information to decide logical, objective and detached non-emotional ways, intellectual Feeling (F) - organizing and structuring information to decide in a personal, value-oriented way, personal, subjective

Living - preferred lifestyle Judgment (J) - planned and organized (never late, ahead of time, wear a watch, route planning, academic planners, military) Perception (P) - living spontonaously and flexibly (do one thing, shift off do other things) P's can change direction, adaptable

Jung's view of health: some one has a balance of traits, having the capacity for both introversion and extroversion. Healthy mix adapt well to a variety of circumstances.

Adler frail sick child Individual psychology unique motivations of people

basic human motivation drive for superiority, upward

basic human problem inferiority complex, feelings of weakness or inadequacy occurs when need for self-improvement is blocked

Compensated narcisist, compensate in an exaggerated way superiority/inferior complex can be the same

anti-social PD, compensation, exterior is hyper-masculine persona, underneath feel weak and inadequate

feelings of inferiority are natural and prompt you to do better: compensation

feel powerless at home, motivates you to be independent

Horney (Hornai) optimistic womb envy struggled with depression

Neurosis betrayal not being loved helpless about that love

Concept of basic evil lack of warmth for child indifferent, not necessarily abusive oscillation between over indulgence and rejection unfulfilled promises, ridiculing independent thinking, disturbing friendships, spoiling child's interests

Child encounters basic evil reaction is hostility hostility is repressed, as it threatens parental bond repression causes basic anxiety: characteristics--feeling lonely and helpless

Erikson: neo-Freudian Psychosocial theory ego psychologist psychosocial theory

8 stages: trust vs mistrust can I trust others learn to trust others occurs through consistent caregiving mistrust largely due to opposite

Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt, Can I take care of myself learning to be autonomous, can I feed and dress myself? If not, negative self-image, shame and doubt about abilities

Initiative vs Guilt can I do things?

Children attempt to grow up and take on activities beyond their capability which causes conflict with parents. Must learn to take initiative without impinging on the rights of others

Industry vs inferiority Comparison to others master of social and academic skills comparison occurs positive, industry negative, inferiority

Identity vs role confusion

Who am I

establishment of identity vs role confusion abandon parental values many don't establish sense of self

Intimacy vs Isolation +find companionship and love -inability to create strong social ties, isolation, loneliness

Generativity vs stagnation how can I give to others? + teaching, parenting, mentoring - stagnation, self-centered middle adulthood

Ego integrity vs despair what have done with my life +wisdom from life experiences meaning order pleasant reflections -sense of despair, lack of accomplishment, unrealized goals late adulthood 65+

Object relations (superego)

father/mother person (child's internal psychic world) impacted by mother/father interrelationship

introjection (defense mechanism) internalizing influence of mother/father interrelationship

introjection: bring inside a symbolic representation between mom and dad

what you see as a child provides a template for how you understand relationships

when the relationships are inside, the two parts of the relationship are called objects, which represent significant people

identification, take on characterists of one of the people becomes the self-object (who identify with), and other becomes object representation

We see ourselves as the parent we identify with, and the rest of the world as the parent we don't identify with

perveive partner as as the other object, even if they are not like that

person and external person is: object relatedness relationship between the self-object and the person: object relations


  • Fromm
  • Rank

Eysenck (1916-1997) critical of psychoanalysis saying it is fictional untestable

Scientific approach (WWII) reviewed case histories 700 maladjusted patients developed, two-factor model: (big 2, neuroticism, introversion/extroversion) factor analysis: multivariate data reduction technique, or reduce a lot of descriptors or meansures categorized sets

Neuroticism: disorganized personality, dependency, narrow interests, dismissal from military service, parental psychopathology (parents had mental illness), unsatisfactory home: neurotically maladjusted - obsessive, anxious hysterical - somatiform disorders, physical problems with no physical basis

Introvert (non-neurotic, phlegmatic) high level ARAS structure of the brain up from the spinal chord to the thalamus high reving and condition well Lymbic system low level, or VB

Extrovert (non-neurotic, sanguine) low level of arousal associated with the ARAS, low level of the VB

Neurotic introvert (dysthymic, melencholic) high on ARAS and VB Neurotic extravert (hysteric, choleric) low on ARAS, high on VB

Yerkes-Dodson Law Inverted U between performance and arousal level optimal performance low arousal level - low performance - sleepy high arousal level - low performance -anxiety

Easy task, neurotic extravert does best high level of arousal Difficult task, normal extravert will do best

Psychoticism 3rd dimension (1970s) Score on a continium, extreme psychotic reactions, schizocism anti-social tendencies, may even be artistic variety set of genes that are activated manifestation depends on set of genes that are activated

PEN model EPQ Eysenck personality questionnaire psychoticism, extroversion, neuroticism

3 dimensional (factors are independent, low med high no influence between dimensions) dimensions at 90 degress and scores can rate anywhere criminal: high on psychoticism, extroversion, neuroticism impulisivity more connected with psychoticism

Psychopaths (Kluckly): Primary (lack remorse, conscience) - higher on psychoticism relative to neuroticism Secondary (break rules, but feel remorse) - higher on neruoticism relative to pscyhoticism

PEN psychoticism

1. agressive, cold, egocentric, impersonal, 2. antisocial, unempathic, creative


1. social, lively, active, assertive, 2. carefree, dominant, surgent (interpersonally dominant)


1. anxious, depressed, guilt-prone, 2. irrational, shy, moody, emotional

Learning Perspective on Personality

Behavioral perspective

  • No such thing as personality
  • Rejects notion of traits
  • Behavior a function of the environment
  • People and animals are similar
  • Equipotentiality
  • Born as a blank slate
  • built on tradition of empiricism / rationalism

Classical, Operent -- reflexive, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, discrimination

Classical conditioning Pavlov, respondent stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response toat originally evoked by another stimulus neutral stimulus NS unconditioned stimulus UCS unconditioned response UCR conditioned stimulus CS conditioned response CR

Pre-conditioning Phase 1 NS, tone, bell, something you see, feel, or hear (no effect) UCS, food UR, salivation

Phase 2 Pair up NS with USC NS presented just before the USC NS does nothing at first, but becomes a CS

Post conditioning CS creates response without UCS

Conditioned reflex: NS snap finger UC bright light into eyes -> eyes constrict (reflexive, not learned) 100 times

Balloons in room that are being popping -- sound is (UCS) - startle response (UCR) Hand movement pops the balloon, several hundred times. Hand movement (CS) with out popping balloon will get startle response (CR)

NS -> CS


Clockwork orange Aversive counter conditioning

John D Watson Radical behaviorism Opposite of genetics

============================[edit | edit source]

1) pre-condition Conditioned stimulus (CS Bell) causes no response

Unconditioned stimulus (UCS food) causes Unconditioned Response (UCR salivation)

2) combine CS-bell with UCS-food to cause UCR-salivation

3) CS-bell (conditioned stimulus) causes CR-salivation (conditioned response)

============================[edit | edit source]

CS white rat USC gong --> Fear CR, UCR

Temporal arrangement backwards conditioning

UCS is first then CS feel bite, then see spider

Forward conditioning UCS and CS presented at same time

short delay 1/2 sec to 1 sec (optimal) CS then UCS

Long delay CS continually presnted, then UCS habituation weakens it

Trace CS initially presented and terminated, then UCS after a while

Forward condition with a short delay is optimal

Extinction and spontaneous recovery

extinction gradual weaking and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency cs without ucs makes cr go away

spontaneous recovery -- partial recovery of a conditioned response disinibition -- distraction causes the conditioned response to recover with a delay during extinction, one day, there will be a partial recovery, happens a few time

Stimulus generalization new, but similar, condition stimulus elicits a conditioned response

Stimulus discrimination over time things that are close to the response will elicit response over time

Experimental Neurosis competing excitatory and inhibitory conditioned responses

Circle -> salivation

Oval -> salivation

With no food with oval then CR goes a way for oval

When circle gradually becomes an oval, the animal becomes confused -- personality changes under this condition

Experimental Neurosis The confusion will be different with different excitable or inhibitory neural systems, balance of excitatory or inhibitory neurons.

Different patterns for EN

1. anxious 2. rigid 3. angry

Eyzink applies it to people

Different reactions are functions of conditionability first order -- condition dog to salivate to metronome

black square just before metronome but without meat higher order -- that black square will elicit a response

Blocking phase 1 Light - shock - fear, light - fear

Blocking phase 2 light + tone simultaneously tone is blocked

temporal difference will result in non-blocking

Conditioned compensatory responses (results are different than the UCS) Drug use cues associated with drug use (friends, place, smells, behaviors prior to use) cause craving as a CR which is the opposite of the drug pleasure.

Hunger and drug are different because they use different bodily functions

Extinction drug approach -- extinction, provide cues but no drugs so that the response to the cues goes away -- without UCS, cravings go away

Operant condition -- voluntary behavior, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, discrimination

Instrumental condition -- Throndike trial and error learning Instrumental in achieving a goal, cat solves problem to get benefit and trial is over

law of effect -- behaviors that are followed by satisfying consequences tend to be repeated skinner -- behaviors that are followed by reinforcement are repeated

operant behavior -- operates on the environment to produce a particular effect,

operant conditioning -- a form of learning whereby voluntary behavior comes to be controlled by consequences

A -> B -> C

3 term contingency --antecedent, behavior, consequence

antecedent -- discriminative stimulus (SD & S delta) SD is the behavior that you get a benefit from: reinforcing effect S delta had no reinforcing effect

Reinforced and punished Reinforcement -- more likely that it will occur in the future Punished -- less likely

Positive reinforcement -- get something primary reinforcer -- coffee secondary reinforcer -- exchanged for a primary reinforcer, money

negative reinforcement -- remove aversive condition, take motrin, get rid of head ache avoidance reconditioning

positive punishment -- something aversive is being added eat too fast stomach ache

negative punishment -- take away something with a negative result get a ticket, time-out

Do something and nothing happens

Shaping depends on behavioral ability, depends on behavior. Define a goal, start and end points (goal), what is a reinforcer and what is reinforcing for a person determine the steps

successive approximations toward a goal process whereby reinforcements are giving for behavior toward a goal reinforcment is givin for approximations toward a desired goal

Schedules of reinforcement Continious reinforcement (CRF) good to start when shaping behavior one to one correspondence

Non-continuous (intermittent, partial) only some responses are reinforced 4 basic types

Fixed ratio (FR) -- reinforcement delivered after fixed number of correct responses low resistance to extinction

Intermittent Reinforcement fixed interval -- reinforcement for next correct response after a fixed amount of time since last reinforcement low resistance to extinction

Variable ration -- reinforcement after varying number of correct responses high resistance to extinction -- gambling, sports, fishing (keep trying)

Variable interval -- reinforcement after varying time since last reinforcement high resistance to extinction -- phone ringing

Extinction B -> C B -> nothing results in decrease in B

B (tantrum) -> C (attention) reinforces tantrums reinforcement trap: negative reinforcement for parent to give attention

Extinction burst, surge in responding, behave aggressively, extinction over time If you don't get reinforcer, you get angry Tantrum will get worse with extinction burst with negative reinforcement.

Two-factor model 1st phase acquisition Classical conditionng

2nd phase -- maintenance Operant conditioning

Phobia observational learning Phase 1 watch a model -- acquisition Phase 2 - operant conditioning -- maintence

Avoid something you fear, negative reinforcement Watch someone fear something, and fear that thing too.

Negative reinforcement -- something being taken away


Operant conditioning BF Skinner

Social learning

People learn through observing others’ behavior, attitudes, and outcomes of those behaviors.

Bandura’s model of personality


Distinctiveness Affective Valence Complexity Value to us

(1) high status (2) respected (3) powerful (4) successful (5) similar to observer (6) positive, warm, sociable


storing of information encoding remembering making sense of information


ability to enact a behavior physical capabilities


willingness to do if reinforced, behavior is more likely to occur

Vicarious Processes

vicarious punishment occurs when a model performs a behavior but is punished

Bandura’s Bobo Doll Study

1) reinforced 2) punished 3) nothing



occurs when one

Model -> Observer

person, the Model, performs a behavior, and this performance prompts imitation of that behavior by another person the


Somebody shows you something, it is much easier than reading about it for simple tasks

Advantages of Modeling

produces rapid gains

natural method of teaching

Tying a Tie?

Learning to play guitar

Disadvantages undesirable behavior can be modeled

a parent’s punishment imitated as aggression on the play ground

parent serves as a model for agression by hitting a child

"I did not want to kill somebody, but there comes a time when the only way you can make a statement is to pick up a gun."

Copy cat attempts get news attention creating modeling

Albert Bandura

b. 1925 Mundare, Alberta B.A. 1949 @ UBC Ph.D. 1952 @ University of Iowa 1953 Stanford 1973 APA president

Bandura’s Model

Observational Learning

Attention, pay attention Retention, retain the memory Reproduction, be able to reproduce the information Motivation motivated to learn and share it


What factors influence attention?

Distinctiveness - unique looking

Affective Valence - emotion surrounding such as with a car accident

Complexity - tend to pay attention to moderate complexity, not to hard, not too easy

Value to us - interest in the topic, if no value, no interest

Who do we pay attention to? (1) high status (2) respected (3) powerful (4) successful (5) similar to observer (6) positive, warm, sociable

Retention storing of information or encoding trying to remember what we look at, and also make sense of the object, play it over in our mind again, a sense of rehearsal


making sense of information


ability to enact a behavior modeling behavior, physically capable of enacting the behavior physical capabilities

Motivation willingness to do

if we see someone being reinforced, we are more likely to model the behavior

Vicarious Processes vicarious reinforcement occurs when a model behaves and is reinforced

vicarious punishment occurs when a model performs a behavior but is punished we see someone punished, less likely we will do it

Bandura’s Bobo Doll Study 72 children (4ish)

1) reinforced -- adult being reinforced for hurting doll 2) punished -- adult was punished for hurting doll 3) nothing -- adult hurt doll and nothing happened

Some of the children found new ways for being aggressive with the doll including pointing gun at the doll

What effect does watching television have on children?

Effect of Media Violence on Children

Gerbner, counts the kills

1) Desensitization

2) Increased Aggression

3) Mean World Syndrome

Reciprocal Determinism (Banduras & Aaron Beck)

personal, environmental, behavioral factors

Personal factors personality traits biological states cognitive factors

Environment -- outside the environment, physical and people

Behavior, we think about things and it affects behavior

What we do effects the environment, and potentially effects the behavior of other people

What we think about the affects of our behavior, but we also monitor our behavior

What we do affects people in our environment, and people in our environment affect our behavior

people feed off each other positive attitude affects people that way

Self-efficacy defined

optimistic self-belief

belief that one can perform novel or difficult tasks

to cope with adversity

facilitates goal-setting and effort investment

low self-efficacy, more likely to give up

Cognitive View of Personality


Cognition plays a significant role in personality and psychopathology

Cognition Forms:

Automatic Thoughts Processing Errors Schema (core beliefs)

Basic model

Thinking Causes Feeling/Behavior

It’s not events that disturb us, it is what we think about these events.

Epititus: not events that disturb us, but what we think about them how we interpert reality affects us days that we are not 100%, I am not feeling right, external reality might be different, but get positive feedback sometimes things are not as they seem,

how we perceive reality is a function of what we have experienced in the past we don't always experience reality accurately

Events -- things in external environment Schema -- beliefs and rules about ourselves and other people

Automatic thoughts -- thoughts in the moment When events occur to us we process them through schema which then ultimately affects what we think in the moment

What we think about drives our behavior, affects our emotions causes us to do things, causes us to feel things

what we do affects the behavior of other people and vice versa

our emotions color what we think about and how we process information causing distortions

cognitive distortions

difference between distortions and schema

Schema and automatic thoughts what you think

Distrtions are how you reason

how you feel affects what you do what you do affects how you feel

your behaviors, emtions, what other people do, processing errors affect what you think about

Characteristics of Automatic Thoughts

Almost always believed



Events represent neutral or conditioned stimulai things in bandura/beck model that act as an unconditioned stimulus behavior of others is acting as an unconditioned stimulus thoughts we are having are acting as unconditioned stimulus our own behavior could be an unconditioned stimulus

conditioned and unconditioned response will be emotions

parallel between beck and pavlov

link between conditioned stimulia to emotions which is conditioned response


Antecedent - behavior - response our overt behavior has a parallel with skinner's behavior other people's behavior represents skinner's consequense

how we reinforce what we do

becks unique piece are congintive distortions

broader than distortions, including schema

environment of schema of incompetence, low self-efficacy, automantic thoughts that "you cannot pull this off"

negative looks from audience

if you believe this it will cause anxiety and fear, get visibly nervous, maybe not give presentations at all

nervousness attracts more attention, reinforces automatic thoughts that you can't do it lowering efficacy

automatic thoughts drive emotional states and when we get anxious affects manner in which we process information

very angry -- not thinking straight, distortions

What looks means is over interperted, mind reading

could be that students pick up that you are nervous but empathize

automatic thoughts pop into our heads they are reflexive, we believe them,

family environment conditions thoughts

idiosyncratic -- individual to a person

automatic thoughts are spontaneous and reflexive

Simple rules that worked in past

Idiosyncratic -- unique to a person

Persistent and self-perpetuating we think in habitual ways

Different from public statements what we say to ourselves is different from what we say to others

Automatic thoughts Repeat habitual themes depressive schema, depressed automatic thoughts and see failure and dissapointment people that are angry will focus on injustices people that are anxious will focus on catastrophies

Learned can be unlearned


filtering, tunnel vision, disqualifing the positive tendency to look at only one aspect of a situation

prone to depression

positives are discounted negatives are counted

Polarized thinking black and white thinking


tendency to view the world as either this or that with us or against us I trust you or I don't see your self in a dicotimous way, either great or miserable but not an integration of the two

Overgeneralization conclusion based on a single event or piece of evidence you don't do well on an exam, and your conclusion is you will not get a degree someone does something once and you always do this

global labels, such as someone does something you don't like and assume that that they are all bad, name calling nobody is

all bad

includes global labels for people and places e.g., jerk, stupid, etc. contains a grain of truth ignores all contrary evidence

Mind Reading you assume you know how others are thinking then you make a judgment about them you make assumptions about how others are reacting to you if you believe that someone does not like you, it affects your behavior, so that you will do things to make them not like

you -- send out hositle vibes, get people upset, the get hostile, and you can say you knew it all along

Catastrophizing imagines the worst possible outcome worst case scenarios

Magnifying/Minimizing blow things out of proportion (or opposite)

magnifying, band female baseplayer, looks in direction of table, bass player likes me

job after job fail, yet don't count significance of it

words: “huge, impossible, overwhelming”

Personalization constant comparing yourself to others relate everything to yourself they are richer, look better depressed make upward comparisons to superior people

person is a causal factor (when not)

girl had fight with sister and wished she would die, and sister died blamed herself for death

Shoulds operating from a list of inflexible rules

shouds to other people, if they do not meet standards then you find fault with them religious issues, you should believe what I believe

applies to self and others

deviation from rules is bad

judging and finding fault

Magical Reasoning

Thinking will make it happen (praying on something?) self-fulling profecy, emotion has effect on environment, and event happens magical reasoning, nothing is being done to make it happen

Emotional Reasoning

I feel it, therefore it is true.

Schema Schema automatic thoughts can be changed

mental structures that guide behaviour hardwired we believe things about ourselves that are painful, we try to avoid thinking about it -- bury it.

sef-efficacy influences what we see and remember sometimes called rules or beliefs a product of previous learning

Schemas Orders the world Promotes efficiency Reduces the amount of info we need to process dont have to learn to drive every time we get into a car

Usually adaptive, sometimes unadaptive shorcuts, use a rule to that fails to consider exceptions

Types of Schema About things About procedures -- drive a car About ourselves About others

Cognitive Personality “Styles” (13)

The Vigilant Style love autonomy and indepedence keep their own counsel cautious and perceptive stand up for themselves alert to criticism thin-skinned high premium on loyalty

when it becomes a distorter, personality disorder

like to argue, coldly logical, sue you, anxiety, distant, overly-rational, weaker defective, hiearchy relate to superiors

in one way, boot lickers above, and abusive to people below

The Solitary Style

are comfortable being alone are independent even-tempered, calm, unsentimental are stoic (indifferent to pain and pleasure) not driven by sexual needs unswayed by praise or criticism skitzoid personality disorder unable to form close relationships lack warmth no eccentricities to their behavior introverted and lack emotion in their presentation loners, absent-minded, detached, not connected, no humor, uninteresting daydream rather than have friendships, marriage is rare

The Idiosyncratic Style rich inner fantasy life few close relationships eccentric do their own thing have an expanding reality drawn to abstract and speculative thinking keen observers of others extreme: skitzotypal types, paranoid, strange thoughts, magical thinking, flat inappropriate, dress oddly, hypersenstive,

The Adventurous Style attack before you are attacked Nonconforming like challenge and dares Independent, tend to be persuasive like to keep moving may be hell-raisers and mischief makers courageous and bold no regrets (i.e., live in the present) rule breaking, socially deviant

The Mercurial Style variety of schema (Beck) always be romantically attached to someone intense, emotionally active and reactive uninhibited, spontaneous, high energy open-minded skilled at distancing themselves from reality when it is painful or harsh extreme: borderline personality disorder, unstable, self-mutilating

The Dramatic Style story tellers, need to impress people live in an emotional world, rich imaginations tell entertaining stories, like attention pay a lot of attention to appearance seductive, engaging and charming, get involved in relationships quickly eagerly respond to new ideas and suggestions from others histrionic: overly emotional, excessively attention seeking

The Self-Confident Style believe in themselves, high self-efficacy, may believe that they are better than others blieve that they need to make an impact on others, control activity of others expect to be treated well by others ambitious, power-seeking, interest in politics, competitive identify with people of rank and stature have fantasies of greatness are self-aware and poised Extreme: narsissitic personality disorder, grandiosity in their presentation, lack empathy, aggrandizement

The Sensitive Style likes the familiar, dont experiment, care about what other people think about them deeply concerned about what others think, thin-skinned cautious in dealing with others, polite best in scripted settings value privacy extreme: avoident personality disorde, hypersentstive, feelings of inadequacy, socially inhibited

The Devoted Style I need to be in a relationship, need someone else to take care of me otherwise I may perish in some way dedicated in relationships prefer the company of one or more don't like to be alone, good teamplayers tend to be deferential and respectful don't like to make other people angry because they are senstive to what other people think which is tied to protective

factor promote harmony and considerate find meaning in attachments with others dependent personality disorder, must be in a relationship, submissive and clingly, and fear seperation from allpowerful


The Conscientious Style (Type A personality) hardworking, individuals of conscience (like to do the right thing), like to do things the right way perfectionists, persevering, ordered, detail-oriented prudent (i.e., thrifty, careful, cautious) to accumulate things (i.e., pack rat) extreme: compulsive, have to be perfect, control over selves and others, inflexible, inneficient

Other Cognitive Types Albert Ellis

George Kelly

Humanistic Existentialism Existentialism

Big Questions…

Are we free to make choices?

What is the purpose of relationships with others?

What is the meaning of life?

Different things for different people

get what you can get out of life life is about other people

Millon self-directed other-directed


1. experience is subjective 2. make meaning out of it

born in reaction to psychoanalysis and behaviorism (no freewill)

Existentialism: predates psychoanalysis

No freewill, deterministic philosphies psychoanaltyic behavioral

we determine our destiny and that the locus of control for our lives lies within Existentialism not a coherent theory of personality but a philosophy

locus of control lies within us

we are not in control of destiny: external locus of control things just happen to them and they have no control over it

internal locus of control: you have control over your life, and you can make things happen

Julian Rotter: internal vs external locus of control

existentialist philosophy is the underpinning of humantistic psychology

derives from people such as Kierkegaard, christian Nietzsche, atheist Jaspers, Heidegger, Sartre Buber

European: Binswanger, Boss,

Frankl, victor logo therapy therapy through meaning student of freud

Frankl - student of Freud and developed logotherapy

logotherapy = therapy through meaning

existential vacuum = experienced when we do not busy ourselves with routine and work

people who come to counseling may have lost the meanings of their lives

psychotic disorders are much more likely to abuse substances psychotic has no meaning in life and causes one to behave in maladaptive ways

having too much time on your hands is not a good thing, idleness is the devil's workshop

Frankle: concentration camp, formed idea that stuff happens around you but you still have the freedom to choose within your mind despite your circumstances

American: Rollo May Yalom

Carl Rogers (Humanism) Fritz Perls (Gestalt Psychology)

common thread among these approaches is the

focus on the conscious experiences the past and future are not as important as how you feel at this moment-- "in the moment" state of a person, rather than the traits

Existentialist position, ultimately humanism, emphasizes health rather than sickness not interested in diagnosis and pathology interested in fully functioning human being that lives the good life

how do they view illness? clients are not viewed as sick, but rather they are viewed as sick of life or awkward at living

respect of individuals

uniqueness of people

exploring new aspects of human behavior one of the interesting things about living quasi-introspective you learn a lot about yourself as you age

existence is not fixed

we continually recreate ourselves through our projects that we involve ourselves in

humanism = any philosophy which

  • recognizes the value and dignity of persons and
  • makes people the measure of all things

Six Existential Propositions a) We have the capacity for self-awareness

b) Freedom and Responsibility

c) Striving for Identity and be Relationships with Others

d) The Search for meaning

e) Anxiety as a condition for living

f) Awareness of death and nonbeing Capacity of Self-Awareness

The goal is not to eliminate anxiety, e

Perls, fritz : whenever you leave the sure bases of the now and become preoccupied with the future you will experience anxiety

live in the moment rather than the past or the future

living in the past may be associated with depression

we are finite we can act, or not act we can choose, and thus we can shape our destiny

we accept that we are going to do and hence won't exist anymore

we are basically alone, but we have the opportunity to relate to others but we have the capacity to relate to other people

Freedom and Responsibility we are free and we are responsible

free will

we are free to choose options

with freedom we must accept responsibility for our actions

if we don't accept responsibility for our actions, we act in what Sartre calls "bad faith"

existential guilt = occurs when we choose not to choose, or when we let others define or make choices for us

anyone who attempts to take choice away from us is creating an unhealthy relationship

Striving for Identity and be in Relationships with others

We are born alone part of the human condition is aloneness and

we cannot depend on anyone else for our own confirmation

clients come in for therapy and they feel their world is falling apart because they are not receiving confirmation from other people part of healthy living is that you want to be

define yourself from within and not from the outside people's opinions of you blow around like tumble weeds you have to be confident in who you are so define yourself from within

it is up to us to find meaning in our lives we cannot depend upon anyone else to do this for us

Striving for Identity and Relationship to Others we alone must give a sense of meaning to life

we alone must decide how we live

when we are able to stand alone and dip within ourselves for our own strength, our relationships with others are based on fulfillment, not our deprivation we are not counting on others to fulfill us it is not anyone else's responsibility in life to make us happy, you have to make yourself happy

Search for Meaning concerns the struggle for significance and purpose in life

therapists would encourage clients to help create a value system that is based on the client's way of being rather than someone else's way of being some are purely adopting the values of their parents, the existentialist sees the discarding of some parental values to define themselves

sometimes people experience meaninglessness counter this with work, relationships, and building a sense of self

we create meaning working, loving, and building

life is not meaningful in and of itself, rather an individual creates and discovers meaning in life

what do you do in your life that is meaningful for you

for some spiritual life gives you meaning, for some there is no spiritual life or relgion so what gives you meaning? what is it that you do in your life that makes you happy to be alive

Anxiety as Condition of Living when we make a decision or change, there will be anxiety

anxiety is normal but neurotic anxiety is not normal

neurotic anxiety = anxiety that is out of proportion to the situation

existentialist therapists do not strive to eliminate normal anxiety, rather life can not be lived, nor can death be faced without anxiety

"whenever you leave the sure basis of the now and become preoccupied with the future, you experience anxiety“ (Perls)

Anxiety as a Conditioning of Living Rogers…

when we receive information which is inconsistent with our self-concept we experience anxiety

the more inaccurate your self-concept, the more likely you will have clashes with other people

because other people are providing information back to you, feedback, that is inconsistent with your self-concept

to ward off anxiety, a person has to reinterpret the experience to make it congruent with their self-concept

Awareness of Death and Nonbeing awareness of death as a basic condition gives significance to life

we value life more if we know we will die

Erikson: when you look back over your life, did you accomplish the things you attempted to accomplish

even if you don't succeed then life is a teacher

death means that we are finite and that we have a limited amount of time to do things Existential Trends

Reversal Theory (Apter, 1989)

suggests that our conscious experience shifts between telic and paratelic modes

telic mode = consciousness is goal directed thking aobut something in the future that you want to do in the future space out go some place else

paratelic mode = consciousness is direct to the pleasure of the activity at hand present oriented in the moment exitensialist focused in the present


Csikszentmihalyi has argued for a psychology of optimal experience

autotelic experiences occur when you are completely absorbed by what you are doing

you are able to experience "flow“

lose track of time or yourself while doing the work

Abraham Maslow Maslow Humanism (Allport, 1930) 1908-70

Humaism comes from allport

1960s and 1970s

Third Force Psychology

Humanistic view of Behaviorism Narrow sterile view of human nature humanists say that animals do not have the same experiences as humans therefore the behavioral use of animals is bogus

Humanistic view of Psychoanalytic Focus on emotional disturbance Psychoanalitic is pessamistic to the humanist, if people do get corrupted, it is not because of how they were born, but how things happened

Maslow Brooklyn, New York

Intense drive to succeed

Unhappy childhood Father –”loved whiskey and woman” and fighting Mother – hatred for her, punishing hated his mother did not go to her funeral mother killed stray kittens that he brought home

Scrawny, large nose Inferiority complex Academically inclined (IQ = 195)

Married at 20, his cousin Bertha initially a fan of behaviorism in the 1930s

Training in experimental psychology

PhD 1934 University of Wisconsin

Taught in New York in the 1930-1940s

1951 – 1969 Brandeis University

President of APA 1967 died 1970 heart attack

Hierarchy of Needs

what are characteristics of the ideal person

  • intelligent
  • moral
  • compassionate
  • sense of humor

1. Self-actualization (weakest) 2. Esteem 3. Belongingness 4. Safety 5. Physiological (strongest)

Instinctoid needs = hereditary component

One need dominates personality

Self-acutalization is a being need other needs are deficient needs

self-actualization is rare and does not come till later in life prioritizing self-actualization results in happiness, contentment, and fulfillment

we work our way up the chain, we can partially self-satisfy lower needs and still rise to the top, selfactualization

Characteristics of Needs Vary in strength Higher needs appear later in life SA does not arise until midlife Lower needs called Deficient Needs

SA called Being Needs contentment, happiness, fulfillment

We work our way up the need chain Total satisfaction does not need to occur

Hierarchy of Needs

Physiological Needs food, shelter, water

Safety Needs If unsatisfied – infants and neurotic adults Manifest by over need for structure/order

Belongingness Needs close relationship with friend, lover, mate or even being part of group Hierarchy of Needs Esteem Needs

Two needs for esteem From self and others

Derived from status, recognition or social success – feelings of self-worth Failure to achieve – inferiority, helpless Self Actualization Highest need (Being Need)

Maximal realization of potential

Takes many forms

Conditions to SA Free from society constraints Not distracted by lower needs Secure in self-image Realistic knowledge of self Exceptions to SA Fasting until death

Religious figures

Cognitive Needs Innate need to know and understand

Exists outside the hierarchy of needs

Need to know stronger than need to understand

Appears in late infancy

SA depends on satisfaction of cognitive need Maslow B-motivation Drive toward self-actualization Less than 1% of the population

D-motivation (deficiency) Drive toward every other need Chacteristics of Self-actualizers Efficient perception of reality Acceptance of self and others Spontaneous and natural Focus on problems outside themselves Need for privacy/sense of detachment Fresh appreciation and Peak experiences Social Interest and Profound relations Democratic Creative Resistant to enculturation

Failure to SA Inadequate education

Improper child-rearing practices

Jonah complex The fear that maximizing our potential will lead to a situation with which we will be unable to cope

Maslow’s view on human nature Freewill

Balance of nature versus nurture Balance of past and present

Uniqueness of people

Emphasis on growth

Optimistic view

Assessment of Maslow’s Theory Started with the study of Ruth Benedict and Max Wertheimer

For historical figures, he worked with biographical material

For living persons, he used interviews, free association and projective tests

Data collection not rigorous or controlled

Assessment He referred to his program as consisting of a serious of pilot studies.

He is describing an ideal, but how did he arrive at this conclusion?

Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) Shostrom (1964) Self-report, 150 pairs of statements POI Positively correlated with Emotional health, creativity, academic achievement, autonomy, racial tolerance

Negatively correlated with Alcoholism, neuroticism, depression and hypochondriasis

POI scores increase gradually with age

Self-determination Theory Ryan and Deci, 2000

People have an innate tendency to express their interests, exercise their interests, develop their capabilities and overcome challenges

Three basic needs: Competence- mastery of tasks Autonomy – freedom to act on one’s choices Relatedness – feeling connected with others

Positive Psychology "studies the strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive."

"to find and nurture genius and talent” "to make life more fullfilling” not to cure mental illness

Martin Seligman the father of positive psychology Carl Rogers Carl Rogers Originated client-centered or person-centered therapy

Believes we are rational beings ruled by a conscious perception or our selves and our experiential world

Focus on the present

Inborn tendency to self-actualize Rogers Oak Park, Illinois Strict religious background Suppression of displays of emotions Virtue of hard work Had little social life outside his family Competitive with his brother Felt lonely – inspired his theory of personality

Started with agriculture then to theology Swung from fundamentalist to liberal

Rogers PhD – 1931 1940 – moved from clinical to academia Ohio State University 1945 – 1957: University of Chicago 1957-1963: University of Wisconsin

APA President 1946

Received APA’s Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award and Distinguished Professional Contribution Award Rogers Self at the core of personality We are motivated to self-actualize

Actualization tendency Emcompasses all physiological and psychological needs

Actualization begins in womb Responsible for maturation Is genetically determined

Rogers Full development is not automatic

Involves struggle and pain

Organismic valuing process The process by which we judge experiences in terms of their value for fostering or hindering our actualization and growth Rogers reality of our environment depends on our perception of it

perception is subjective

Phenomenology (experiential inner world)

The only reality we can be sure of is our inner perception of reality

Our inner reality is private and only we can know it

Development of the Self Need for positive regard Acceptance, love and approval from others

Lack of it thwarts SA and development of self

Unconditional Positive Regard Love that is independent of behavior

Reciprocal influence – when we give love to others, it come back to us

Rogers Conditions of worth A belief that we are worthy of approval only when we express desirable behaviors and attitudes and refrain from expressing those that bring disapproval from others

Conditional positive regard Approval love or acceptance granted only when a person expresses desirable behaviors attitudes Rogers Incongruence A discrepancy between a person’s self-concept and aspects of his or her experiences

“We should love everyone” Then feel hatred towards another

Results in anxiety

To decrease the anxiety, we deny the hatred Rogers Psychological adjustment is the result of compatibility between our self-concept and our experiences

Aspects of self are not denied or distorted

Goal – all facets of the self are developed and become a fully functioning person

leading the “good life” Fully functioning people All aspects of self are developed

Awareness of experience Not defensive, reality not distorted Self-concept is not threatened Open to Positive and Negative Experiences Wider range of emotions Fully Functioning People

Fresh appreciation of experience Experiences cannot be predicted We participate in fully in experience

Trust in one’s own behavior and feelings Trust own reactions rather than being guided by someone’s judgments Nothing is threatening, all is experienced Trust the emotional and intuitive side rather than the intellectual

Fully Functioning People Freedom of choice Power in knowing future depends on choices

Creativity and spontaneity

Continual need to grow, maximize oneself Rogers used the word “actualizing” not “actualized”

The latter implies a static personality

Rogers on Human Nature

  • Freewill
  • Nurture
  • Present experiences
  • Uniqueness balanced with universality
  • Growth
  • Optimism
  • Rogers in Action

What do you think about the difference between the two therapists?

The Idea of a Trait What is a Trait?


Stable in contrast to personality state

Bipolar high, medium or low on any given trait

Independent -- factors are independent, you can score high or low on any trait factor Ezyink

Broad -- summary of all behaviors

Four Positions on Traits 1) Neuropsychological structures Allport, Eysenck, Gray, Cloninger

2) Traits Influence Behavior

Traits exist, they are internal, and exert some sort of influence on our behavior traits assert a causal influence on what we do Cattell Wiggins, Goldberg, Costa & McCrae

3) Act-frequency Buss & Craik Traits are descriptive summary categories for behavior. traits are behavior

4) Linguistic Categories Mischel Traits do not exist outside the mind of the observer Do not exert influence on behavior

History of Traits Theophrastus – 4th century B.C. student of artistole Created character types – “The Penurious Man” cheap, divide up bill exactly, horder

Galen – A.D. 130-200 Temperament Types humors of body

Immanual Kant recast the temperament types dimensions of activity and feelings

Wilhelm Wundt emotional strength and emotional variability

History of Traits Kretschmer (1921), Sheldon (1940) Theory of Constitutional Psychology you body shape influences your personality

Francis Galton (1884) Personality can be gleaned from language natural language describes people lexical hypothesis go to a dictionary

Allport (1937) Personality: A Psychological Interpretation One of the first modern trait theories History of Traits


Common Trait dimensions of human functioning upon which many different people are likely to differ what is the big picture, uncover big 5 Nomothetic

Personal Traits* Instrument in describing a person’s uniqueness Ideographic to get correct view of personality you have to look at personal traits

Allport – Types of Traits

Cardinal pervasive trait of person descriptive of an individual 1 or 2 traits that are very descriptive

Central Wide range of dispositions descriptors 5 to 10

  • punctual
  • conscientiousness

Secondary less critical to description of the person situationally based brought out by situations, or environmental types of factors laid back, easy going, kind conscientious, jealousy, punctual

History of Traits

Raymond B. Cattell – 1940s statistical analysis goal – predict behavior

to understand personality get data from a variety of areas

L Data – Life data transcripts, letters, diaries, peer-ratings

Q Data – Questionnaires self-reports

T Data – Test data behavioral observations from laboratory

Factor analysis how measures cluster together matrix algebra a year to go through calculations

make something complicated and make it simple multivariate data reduction technique

Surface traits (187 Qs) manifest traits

Source traits (16 PF) underlying factors of an inventory

specification equation differentially weighed traits to predicted behavior number of traits sales behavior traits that predict selling things friendly out-going

Hans Eysenck Three factors – PEN Factor analysis

Orthogonal Rotation (Eysenck – 3 factors) when you look at the solution not correlated Scope on of analysis was wrong so he came up with only 3

Not corrleated When you look at the solution you want the factors to be at 90 deg to each other

Oblique Rotations (Cattell – 16 factors)

certain factors are correlated

History of Traits – Big Five

Galton 1800s – lexical hypothesis english

Klages (1926), Baumgarten (1933) follow up german

Allport and Odbert (1936) – 4500 traits american

Cattell (1943) – 4500 to 171 to 16 PF

Fiske (1949) – five factors

Tupes and Christal (1961) – five factors

Norman (1963) – five factors

took a long time to piece together as data was not followed up and different naming conventions were being used

Tupes and Christal (1961)

Pivotal study “obscure technical report” – US Air Force

Surgency/Extraversion Emotional Stability Culture Agreeableness Conscientiousness

The Big Five coined by Lew Goldberg 1980s article talks about experiences 70s confused, then created the big 5

Big 5 are ajective-based NEO-PIR phrase-based

John Digman (1990) annual review of psychology, this guy has put this together how the big 5 predicts personality disorders

Jerry Wiggins (1980s to 1990s) mozart of psych

The Person Situation Debate

predicts behavior: person or traits or situation

The Attack on Traits 1960s several psychologists began to lead a "situationist“

Walter Mischel

disillusionment with the whole idea of consistent individual differences disillusion with traits

testing for traits, but merely assessing situation

6 Attacks on Traits Personality is in the eye of the beholder

assumption: people can not agree in assigning traits to others

support for this position comes from two sources

1) errors in judgment 2) lack of agreement between judges

Errors in judgment

"implicit personality theories" if you possess one trait then you posses another conscientious then you are intelligent - not true

fundamental attribution error, or explanation the tendency to explain behavior in terms of traits with out the situation do what you because of some some sort of internal disposition

Lack of agreement between judges? self and peer-ratings correlations (adjectives) .40 (Conscientiousness) .50 (Neuroticism)

good correlation

self and peer-ratings correlations (phrases) .30 (Agreeableness) .57 (Openness)

eye of beholder argument does not hold as correlation should be zero

people agree on rating self and peer

Agreement due to Barnum Effect

assumption: people can agree, but don't distinguish between people being rated

the base rate problem explains how astrology and other pseudoscientific prediction specialists can be so accurate

not true because people agree, would not be able to provide differential ratings

evidence that refutes this argument is that there is agreement about where different people stand on the same trait Agreement due to shared use of invalid stereotypes assumption: people can distinguish between people being rated but do not really observe behavior

But… the more you get to know someone, the more accurately you will rate their personality

Agreement due to talk rather than observation assumption: same as (3)

as you get to know somebody, you get a better understanding of their personality

people talk up a reputation for themselves and others, and that reputation sticks even though there may be no basis in reality not every one who drinks is a bad person

evidence that refutes this position is that there is agreement between unacquainted raters Consistency due to Situation assumption: people base trait ratings on behavioral observations, but the behavioral consistency is not due to traits

people talk up their personality and every one believes it people who are not acquainted will come up with same rating

evidence that refutes this argument is that ratings of personality predict behavior in completely novel settings Compared with situational pressures, cross-situational consistencies in behavior are too weak to be important assumption: there are trait-like consistencies in behavior, but they are irrelevant

the strongest critique of traits

the consistency in trait ratings is due to the situation and not the personality

if a person is talkable in one environment, then he will likely be talkative in another environment

Compared with situational pressures, cross-situational consistencies in behavior are too weak to be important


1. Traits are more than linguistic conveniences

2. Traits are stable

3. Aggregation shows that traits predict behavior quite well

4. Situational effects are often no stronger than trait effects

5. Trait psychologists have rallied around the Big Five The Big Five and the NEO The Big Five Five Factors: N, E, O, A, C

Lexical hypothesis

Factor Analysis

Coined by Goldberg (1981)

Costa and McCrae (NEO-PIR, 1992)

NEO = phrases The Big Five = adjectives

The Big Five Arguments For:

1) Framework for understanding other models of personality

The Big Five Arguments For

2) Stable across peer and self-reports.

The Big Five Arguments For:

3) Found in multiple languages e.g., English, Filipino, German, Dutch, Japanese, Chinese, Estonian, and Finnish Polish Italian The Big Five

Arguments against

There are two versions of the NEO-PI-R:

Form S for self reports Form R for observer ratings. rare for self-reports

240 items answered on a 5-point scale

(NEO-FFI), a 60-item version NEO-PIR History of the Instrument

NEO began in late 70s as a measure of N E O

NEO-PI (1985), NEO + domains for A and C

In 1989, adding the A and C facet scales

NEO-PI-R published in 1992.

NEO-PIR 17 years of age or older. No psychosis, dementia, etc.

No time limits 30-40 minutes to complete

NEO-PIR Mean = 50 SD = 10

Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness

Neuroticism Anxiety Hostility Depression Self-consciousness Impulsivity Vulnerabilty

Neuroticism heightened right hemisphere activity complaints about poor health greater number of illnesses

Lonely, less satisfied with life Psychological distress

sleeping issues, moody, problems with concentration, feelings easily hurt, irritability, feelings of inferiority

Question: if you did an assessment with high neuroticism a relfection of traits or a relfection of state


major predictor of divorce

use poor coping strategies, blaming themselves

irrational ideas, less able to control their impulses

dissatisfied with their jobs

less likely to quit smoking

health problems

pessimistic cognitive style -- learned optimist/pessimist


Extraversion (E) Jung introduced E in 1913 Warmth Gregariousness Assertiveness Activity Excitement-Seeking Positive Emotions

Extraversion a typology approach

Libido can flow in two directions:

Extraverts focus outward (Freud) energy flows outwards

Introverts focus inward (Jung) energy flows inwards


Extraversion Eysenck 1940s 1952 – reliable measures of E/N

E = outgoing, sociable, enthusiastic I = quiet, withdrawn, contemplative

E/I dimensional

ambiverts -- mix of introversion and extroversion

Extraversion Talk sooner, eye contact, gambling, sexually active, permissive sexual attitudes, higher sexual drive

Sales, marketing, personnel work, teaching

feel good about life (significant positive affect) less responsive to punishment (use positive reinforcment) persist in the face of punishment don't tend to learn from their mistakes

Eisnk extraverts are less sensitive

Talk therapy vs medication it better to use talk therapy with depressed extraverts and antidepressant medication with depressed introverts

Openness to Experience

Fantasy Aesthetics Feelings Actions Ideas Values

Openness Different names over the years Culture, intellect, intelligence

Association with IQ? r = .32 (vocabulary)

Welcome change and challenge shift careers

Intellectualization as defense mechanism Not likely to use denial

Highly imaginative, innovative, abstract

Openness to Experience susceptible to hypnoticism

use humour to deal with stress low O, Openness, use faith to cope

low O, correlated with authoritarianism

Authoritarian Personality Conventionalism Submission to authority Aggression over POV Anti-intraception (opposition to introspection,understanding of self) Superstitious Power and toughness Hostility toward people, Mean World Syndrome, you have to defend yourself Intolerance of ambiguity -- black and white Value simplicity

Agreeableness Trust Straightforwardness Altruism Compliance Modesty Tendermindedness

Agreeableness warm, empathetic, courteous, generous, flexible, moral, ethical, selfless, peace-loving

An interpersonal dimension

associated with attachment style

Agreeableness, warm pacific, empathetic, generous, courteous, peace-loving types, 2nd to introversion Low A difficult to work with may readily reject therapy mistrusting secure attachment

extremely high -- very high possibly dependent PD

high A - unhealthy dependence on the therapist sarcastic, confrontational, mistrusting

Combining A and E Simple versus complex structure

Circumplex = complex structure Item will load on more than one factor

Timothy Leary (1957) developed theory

Wiggins (1979) – IASR



  • Competence
  • Order
  • Dutifulness
  • Achievement Striving
  • Self-discipline
  • Deliberation

Conscientiousness orderly, efficient, precise, persistent, cautious, industrious disciplined, and reliable

don't miss class, rarely late analyze problems logically principled and goal-oriented internal locus of control and self-esteem good health habits

perceived as intelligent military leadership school achievement best students, conscientiousness major school component

low Cs erratic and inconsistent lazy, indecisive, extravagant and impractical

poor bets as friends and lovers hedonistic and interested in sex

poor outcome in therapy

The NEO and PDs

Personality Disorders

Personality Disorders (PDs)

self-defeating behaviors don't reflex according to the circumstances dialectical for borderline personality disorder distressing to people around the people, but not distressed themselves begin early 7-8 yrs old to death Cluster P pds attenuate by 40 egosyntonic natural for them, don't see anything wrong, implications for therapy, why would you come for treatment if you don't think anything is wrong?

1) Inflexible and maladaptive traits 2) Treatment 3) Distressing 4) Early onset and long-lasting 5) Ego-syntonic 6) Pervasive

Areas affected by PD 1) Cognition-belief system about themselves and other people 2) Interpersonal functioning - disorders of interpersonal functioning 3) Impulse control - capacity to delay gratifiction, undercontrol anti-social and borderline, overcontrol compulsive pd 4) Affectivity - emotional functioning, some are over-emotional, some are under emotional, some are emotionally inappropriate to a circumstance

Conceptualization Categories 10 plus NOS Medical Model DSM diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders

Dimensions Psychology Interpersonal Circumplex -- circular model of personality, plot personality disorders onto the circle The Big Five -- five broad factors of personality,

1. openness to experience 2. conscientiousness 3. agreeableness 4. extraversion 5. neuroticism

Types of DSM-IV PDs three clusters 10% of population Cluster A – odd or eccentric -- hardest to treat and they get worse over time, prospects poor as there is no trust

  • schizoid - introverted bland
  • paranoid
  • schizotypal - introverted eccentric

Cluster B – dramatic or erratic -- some hope for treatment, tend to get better over time

  • antisocial - no hope at all
  • borderline - some hope
  • histrionic
  • narcissistic

Cluster C – anxious or inhibited -- highest probability of success

  • avoidant
  • compulsive
  • dependent


Dimensional Models

Interpersonal circumplex -- inspired by T Leary Wiggams IASR interpersonal adjective scales 8 prototypes that can be blends. Opposite side of circle opposite characteristic. Farther out means less flexible 7 of 10 cannot be plotted, borderline compulsive and schzotypal

The Big Five coined by Lew Goldberg 1980s

Costa & McCrae – 1980 to 1990s NEO, NEO-PI, NEO-PIR Five-Factor Model

Openness to Experience Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism

Traits that make up disordered persons are the traits that make up normal people, but with disordered types they are more extreme.

You can conceptualize personality disorders using the big 5 as a frame work.

predict pd using NEO PRI global profile fascet scales

Paranoid PD

Distrust Suspicious Motives interpreted as malevolent

.5 to 2.5%

More common in males

Paranoid PD

  • Unjustified distrust
  • Appear tense, “Ready to Pounce”
  • Very sensitive to criticism
  • Excessive need for autonomy

Why would a paranoid type have a pet, unconditional love

Jealous, argumentative, counter attacking, unforgiving

Cause Mistaken beliefs? beck and friedman Roots in upbringing?

Treatment Nothing known to work

Other variations of paranoia

Other personality disorders borderline, schizotypal

Schizophrenia paranoid and undifferentiated

Delusional Disorders - fixed false beliefs, not impaired, paranoia is around a single theme Persecutory mafia are out to kill my family paranoia pd more diffuse

Substance-related amphetamines, marijuana abuse, steroids

Schizoid PD -- not schizophrenia Detachment from social relationships Restricted range of emotions

less than 1%

More common in males working in isolated job so that they dont have to have contact with others

Aloof, cold, indifferent

Asexual, social deficiencies, no pleasure in sex, or in porn no social syntax, norms, observers of life family upbringing dominant mother or father, so the schizoid withdraws

over lap with schizophrena autism and aspergers no intellectual deficiency

Observers of life

Negative symptoms Schizoid PD Causes

Family upbringing

Deficiencies of dopamine? Low levels correlated with detachment/aloofness

Schizoid PD Differential Diagnosis Schizophrenia Disorganized, undifferentiated

Developmental disorders autism

Other personality disorders schizotypal, paranoid

Schizotypal PD Discomfort in close relationships Cognitive or perceptual distortions Eccentricities of behavior

3 to 5%

More common in males

May later develop schizophrenia

Odd or bizarre

Ideas of reference or magical thinking “Clairvoyant or telepathic”

Unusual perceptual experiences Sensing the presence of the dead

Paranoia, hypersensitivity to criticism


Genetics seem to play a role

Exposure to influenza virus increases chances

Damage to left hemisphere

Schizotypal 30 to 50% also have major depressive disorder

Low dose antipsychotics (Haldol) Problem with side effects – stop taking meds

Social skills training

Taxi Driver movie

Antisocial PD Callous and remorseless

Negligent and reckless

3% males, 1% females

Dissipates after age 40

Irresponsible, impulsive, deceitful

Social predators, ruthless

Lacking in conscience, selfish

Violating social norms, no guilt or regret

Violation the rights of others

Lying and cheating

Substance abuse (83% )

Long-term outcome is poor

boys twice as likely to die from unnatural causes

Comes by many names Moral insanity Egopathy Sociopathy Dissocial PD Psychopathy

Psychopath born good but goes bad because of circumstances Sociopath born bad

Conceptualization of psychopaths

Hervey Cleckley – Mask of Sanity Described 16 characteristics of psychopaths

Robert Hare UBC Professor Forensic Psychologist PCL-R

Hare’s Model 1. glibness / superficial charm remorseless 2. grandiose sense of self-worth social deviance 3. need for stimulation / proneness to boredom

4. pathological lying 5. conning / manipulative 6. lack of remorse 7. shallow affect 8. callous / lack of empathy 9. parasitic lifestyle 10. poor behavior controls 16 fail to accept responsibility

PCL-R Data Collection

A) Interview Schedule (90-120 minutes) Interview with participant Lots of history, school, work, goals, drug use, sexual behavior Observer interpersonal style

B) Collateral Information (60 minutes) Based on file information To evaluate the credibility of information in “A” Part B can be used alone

PCL-R 3 point scale 0 = does not apply 1= applies to some extent 2 = applies to individual

Cutoffs Normal – Score of 5 Psychopath – Score of 30 or greater Hit Rate – 85% A good predictor of recidivism PCL-R versus DSM

DSM Focus on observable behavior -- factor 2

Hare Focus on personality traits and observable behavior

Overlap between the models, but not the same Both overlap with criminality Criminals versus Antisocials Antisocial put less effort into psychotherapy

Antisocial more likely to repeat criminal offenses

Psychopaths are more planful and selfish in action

Causes of Antisocial PD

Childhood origin – conduct disorder Risk increase if also ADHD

Lower IQ

Genetics Gene-environment interaction

Antisocial PD Causes

Cortical underarousal (Quay, 1965) Excessive theta waves when awake Cortical immaturity need more stimulation to operate

Fearless hypothesis (Lykken, 1957) Higher threshold for experiencing fear no inhibition

MAOA defects build up of different neurotransmitters


Rarely seek treatment Very manipulative Incarceration works… egosyntonic legal referral

Parenting training

Borderline PD

love hate you within minutes Unstable Relationships, Identity, Mood

most needy and draining


1 to 3%

75% of cases female

Symptoms gradually improve in 40s

6% die by suicide important to diagnose

Borderline PD Poor self-image Empty, “chaos junkies” cause problems just to get revved up At risk of killing themselves

Lack control over emotions Self-damaging (tension releasing) Impulsivity (at the core according to Links)

Mood disorders, substance abuse, bulimia great imposter, so much overlap, clinical mess

Spousal abusers Set high standards then punish for not meeting standard

Tends to improve in 30s and 40s Poor prognosis

Causes Genetic link with mood disorders

Information processing problems (memory bias)

70%+ report history of childhood sexual abuse

May be a disguised form of PTSD for some cases

Theory – Marsha Linehan


Drug – Lithium, Tricyclics, SSRIs, MAOIs

Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for borderline pd

  • CBT
  • Zen buddhism
  • religious people know about acceptance
  • radical acceptance

Some evidence it works

Histrionic PD

Attention-seeking Excessive emotionality


Equal between males and females? Histrionic PD Exaggerated emotions

Vain, self-centered, excessive need to be attended to

Seductive, more style than substance

Impulsive? – data does not support this perspective

Counterphobic attitude Co-morbidity, Differential diagnosis Male version

Two outcomes for males A) effeminate identity – celibate Very dominant mother, submissive father

B) hypermasculine – promiscuous, Mr. GQ Very submissive mother, no father present

Problems in future relationships Histrionic PD Causes

Hysteria – “the wandering uterus”

Impressionistic cognitive style

Temperament differences

An association with ASPD (2/3rds of histrionics)

Narcissistic PD Admiration needed Grandiosity Empathy is lacking

Less than 1%

More common in males

Unreasonable sense of self-importance Preoccupied with themselves Lack sensitivity and compassion for others

Need to be admired Expect special treatment

Envious and arrogant Prone to depression Narcissistic PD Cause?

Profound inferiority Compensatory mechanism

“Nobel Prize complex”

Lack of parental modeling (i.e., Agreeableness) Stunted growth

“The Culture of Narcissism” – Me Generation Avoidant PD Hypersensitivity Inadequacy Social Inhibition

Less than 1%

Equal number of males and females

Avoidant PD Coined by Millon

Low self-esteem, trouble trusting

Unworthy, unlikable

Undermine successes, lack belief in themselves



Behavioral Inhibition –heritable temperament factor involving tendency to avoid the unfamiliar

Rejecting and critical parents

Tend to internalize the “critical voice”

Remarkably similar to Social Phobia

Dependent PD Need to be taken care of Submissive and clinging behavior Fears of separation


Equal between males and females? Dependent PD

Needy Expression of disagreement is limited Excessive need for nurturance Decision making is difficult Self-Motivation is lacking

Preoccupied with being left alone Urgently seeks a relationship when one ends Self-confidence is lacking Helpless when alone Dpendent PD self-doubt, tends to belittle self low self-confidence, faith in others high need for reassurance rarely lives alone work below level of ability continually seek advice seek protection and dominance from others avoid positions of responsibility Factor Analytic View Livesley, Schroeder, and Jackson (1990)

two orthogonal factors

attachment was defined as needing someone

dependence was defined as the excessive need for advice, encouragement, etc.

Co-morbidity Compulsive Personality Disorder Perfectionism Orderliness Control

Not Flexible, Open or Efficient

4%, more males Compulsive PD Difficult to interview (loads of details – boring to listen to) Tend to control interview Lots of “news” little “weather” Detached, devoid of emotion

Compulsive PD Misses the forest for the trees Humourless, lacking spontaneity Goal is to accomplish work Fixated on details Rigid and inflexible Hoards money Few Leisure activities, can’t relax OCD versus OCPD Behaviors Intrusive Thoughts Uncomfortable Specific - cleaning Negative Reinforcement Anxious Drugs work AVD, DEP

PD NOS A residual category A dab of this and a dab of that Most commonly diagnosed PD Provisional Categories

Sadistic and Self-defeating (DSM-III-R, 1987)

Depressive and Negativistic (DSM-IV, 1994) All are PD NOS Depressive Somber, pessimistic, fatalistic, brooding Valueless, guilty, impotent Worthy of criticism and contempt

Depressive New scale, not a lot of validity Gloomy, passive, quiet, pessimistic Down, hard to please, defeatist Difficulty expressing anger High scores could be due to major depression or dysthymia

Sadistic Hostile, abrasive, cruel, dogmatic Explosive, intimidating, dominating opinionated and close-minded Sadistic Dominating, mean, cruel, aggressive Top Dog persona Publicly “ok” – successful Private “monster” Type A personalities

Negativistic Resentful, skeptical, discontented Resisting, inefficient Angry, moody, irritable, sullen Negativistic (Passive-aggressive) Twisted, conflicted personalities Irritable, hostile, negativistic complaining, disgruntled feel unappreciated, pout disillusioned Vacillate from compliance to oppositional Not official, PD NOS predictor of loss of control over emotions Indicator of serious psychiatric illness Masochistic effacing, servile, blameful Defeatist, self-condemning

Self-defeating PD Self-sacrificing, deserve to suffer Martyr-like, endures abuse Look for victimization Not a well-validated scale