Concise Spanish

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Spanish is spoken by around 500 million people, making it one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. It originated in Spain but has spread to other continents, most notably the Americas. This guide illustrates the grammar of the Spanish language in a very compact manner.

Pronunciation[edit | edit source]

Alphabet[edit | edit source]

The Spanish alphabet was last changed in 2010 by the Royal Spanish Academy.

Letter a b c d e f g h i j k l m n ñ o p q r s t u v w x y z
IPA /a/ /b/ /k/, /θ/ /d/ /e/ /f/ /g/, /x/ silent /i/ /x/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /ɲ/ /o/ /p/ /k/ /ɾ/, /r/ /s/ /t/ /u/ /b/ /w/, /b/ /ks/, /s/ /ʝ/, /i/ /θ/
Name a be ce de e efe ge hache i jota ka ele eme ene eñe o pe cu erre ese te u ve doble ve equis i griega zeta

Grammar[edit | edit source]

Word order[edit | edit source]

  • The most frequent word order is SVO (Subject-Verb-Object).

Verbs[edit | edit source]

Present tense[edit | edit source]

  • If the subject pronoun is in the first person (yo; usually omitted), then the verb endings -ar/-er/-ir are changed to -o.
    Bebo agua. I drink water.
  • The gerund of -ar verbs is marked with -ando, and the gerund of -er/-ir is marked with -iendo.
    Estoy hablando en español. I am speaking Spanish.
    Estoy comiendo pan. I am eating bread.

Vocabulary[edit | edit source]

Adjectives[edit | edit source]

alto tall, bueno good, fácil easy, feliz happy, grande big, pequeño small

Animals[edit | edit source]

animal m animal

ardilla f squirrel, burro m donkey, conejo m rabbit, cuervo m crow, delfín m dolphin, gato m cat, gusano m worm, mula f mule, oveja f sheep, pájaro m bird, pato m duck, pelícano m pelican, perro m dog, pez m fish, pingüino m penguin, rana f frog, ratón m mouse, serpiente f snake, toro m bull, tortuga f turtle, vaca f cow, zorro m fox

ala f wing, aleta f fin, cola f tail, cuerno m horn, pata f paw

Colors[edit | edit source]

color m color

amarillo yellow, anaranjado orange, azul blue, beige beige, beis (Spain) beige, blanco white, carmesí crimson, cian cyan, dorado gold, gris gray, magenta magenta, marrón brown, morado purple, naranja orange, negro black, plateado silver, púrpura purple, rojo red, rosado pink, verde green, violeta violet

Food[edit | edit source]

arándano m blueberry, cebolla f onion, cereza f cherry, fresa f strawberry, lechuga f lettuce, pan m bread, pollo m chicken, tomate m tomato

Household[edit | edit source]

almohada f pillow, cama f bed, cuchillo m knife, despensa f pantry, escalera f stairs, garaje m garage, llave f key, mesa f table, pared f wall, piso m floor, plato m plate, puerta f door, silla f chair, techo m ceiling/roof, ventana f window

Languages[edit | edit source]

alemán German, castellano Spanish, catalán Catalan, chino Chinese, coreano Korean, español Spanish, francés French, griego Greek, hindi Hindi, inglés English, italiano Italian, japonés Japanese, ruso Russian, suajili Swahili

Numbers[edit | edit source]

0 cero, 1 uno, 2 dos, 3 tres, 4 cuatro, 5 cinco, 6 seis, 7 siete, 8 ocho, 9 nueve

10 diez, 11 once, 12 doce, 13 trece, 14 catorce, 15 quince, 16 dieciséis, 17 diecisiete, 18 dieciocho, 19 diecinueve

20 veinte, 21 veintiuno, 22 veintidós, 23 veintitrés, 24 veinticuatro, 25 veinticinco, 26 veintiséis, 27 veintisiete, 28 veinteocho, 29 veintinueve

30 treinta, 31 treinta y uno, 32 treinta y dos, 33 treinta y tres, 34 treinta y cuatro, 35 treinta y cinco, 36 treinta y seis, 37 treinta y siete, 38 treinta y ocho, 39 treinta y nueve

40 cuarenta, 50 cincuenta, 60 sesenta, 70 setenta, 80 ochenta, 90 noventa

100 cien, 101 ciento uno, 151 ciento cincuenta y uno, 200 doscientos, 300 trescientos, 400 cuatrocientos, 500 quinientos, 600 seiscientos, 700 setecientos, 800 ochocientos, 900 novecientos

1,000 mil, 1,001 mil uno, 1,100 mil cien, 1,551 mil quinientos cincuenta y uno, 2,000 dos mil, 10,000 diez mil, 51,000 cincuenta y uno mil, 100,000 cien mil, 200,000 doscientos mil, 1,000,000 un millón, 2,000,000 dos millones, 2,500,000 dos millones quinientos

1,000,000,000 un millardo
1,000,000,000,000 un billón
1,000,000,000,000,000 mil billones
1,000,000,000,000,000,000 un trillón
1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 un cuatrillón
1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 un quintillón
1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 un sextillón
1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 un septillón
1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 un octillón
1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 un nonillón
1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 un decillón

Phrases[edit | edit source]

  • Hola Hello
  • Buenos días Good morning
  • Buenas tardes Good afternoon
  • Buenas noches Good night
  • ¿Cómo está usted? How are you? (formal)
  • ¿Cómo estás? How are you? (informal)
  • ¿Qué tal? What's up? (informal)
  • Bien Well
  • Así así So-so
  • Mal Bad
  • Gracias Thank you
  • De nada You're welcome
  • No hay de qué No problem
  • ¿Y tú? And you? (informal)
  • Lo siento I'm sorry
  • Por favor Please
  • Disculpe Excuse me / I'm sorry
  • Yes
  • No No
  • No sé I don't know
  • No tengo ni idea I have no idea
  • ¿Qué haces? What are you doing?
  • ¿Qué pasa? What's going on?
  • ¡Feliz Cumpleaños! Happy Birthday!
  • Adiós Goodbye
  • Hasta luego See you later
  • Nos vemos See you