Comparative Teaching of Old Greek and Latin/Lesson 01 Part 2

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Comparative Teaching of Old Greek and Latin Lesson 01 Part 2

Translated from the Greek Wikipedia|Wikiversity: "Συγκριτική διδασκαλία των κλασικών γλωσσών / (Comparative Teaching of the Classical Languages)"

LESSON 01 PART 2. Spirits, accents, sounds and letters.

1.2. Texts. Analyse and translate the texts:

(Each text should be separated in periods, each period in sentences and each sentence should be analysed grammatically and syntacticly and later be translated.)


1. Αἱ δεύτεραι φροντίδες σοφώτεραί εἰσι.

2. Βίαιος διδάσκαλος ὁ πόλεμός ἐστι.

3. Γυναιξὶ κόσμον ἡ σιγὴ φέρει.

4. Δανείζει Θεῷ ὁ ἐλεῶν πτωχόν.

5. Μακάριοι οἱ πτωχοὶ τῷ πνεύματί εἰσι.


6. Una salus victis est, nullam spera’re salu’tem.

7. Verba volant, scripta manent.

8. Grae’cia capta ferrum victo’rem cepit.

9. Erra’re huma’num est.

10. Dum spiro spero.

Vocabulary - comments:

(Substantives will be given and should be learned with their genitive, adjectives and pronouns with the three genders, adverbs with the three degrees and verbs with their initial tenses - in Latin the present, the perfect, the supine and the present infinitive.)


φροντίδες: the cares, thoughts, ἡ φροντίς, -ίδος, δεύτεραι: the second, δεύτερος, δευτέρα, δεύτερον.

σοφώτεραι: more wise, σοφώτερος, σοφωτέρα σοφώτερον.

εἰσί: auxiliary verb, they are, initial tenses: εἰμί, ἦν, ἔσομαι, ἐγενόμην, γέγονα, ἐγεγόνειν, present indicative: εἰμί, εἶ, ἐστί, ἐσμέν, ἐστέ, εἰσί, imperfect indicative: ἦν, ἦσθα, ἦν, ἦμεν, ἦτε, ἦσαν, future indicative: ἔσομαι, ἔσει, ἔσεται και ἔσται, ἐσόμεθα, ἔσεσθε, ἔσονται.

βίαιος: violent, adjectival determination, βίαιος, βιαία, βίαιον, διδάσκαλος: teacher, predicative.

πόλεμος: the war, subject of the verb ἐστί.

γυναιξί: to the women, indirect object, singular number: ἡ γυνή, τῆς γυναικός, τῇ γυναικί, τὴν γυναῖκα, ὦ γύναι.

κόσμον: the ornament, jewel, ὁ κόσμος, -ου, direct object.

σιγή: the silence, feminine of the 1st declension, subject of the verb φέρει.

φέρει: it brings, initial tenses: φέρω, ἔφερον, οἴσω, ἤνεγκα και ἤνεγκον, ἐνήνοχα, ἐνηνόχειν, of the same root: φόρος, φορά, φερέγγυος = reliable, αμφορέας, φερνή (dowry), φώρ (thief), φαρέτρα, δίφρος, οἰστέον, ποδηνεκής, φωριαμός, φέρετρο = coffin, φοράδα = mare, διένεξη = conflict, φέρσιμο, fero, structures: φέρω τι, circumlocutions: ἄγω καὶ φέρω (to seize), βαρέως φέρω, ψῆφον φέρω, πλέον φέρομαι (to have the advantage), εὖ φέρομαι (to be happy), φέρε + imperative (come, go on).

δανείζει: he lends, verb of the sentence, Θεῷ: to God, dative, object, ὁ ἐλεῶν: who has a pity, present active participle, subject of the verb δανείζει, πτωχόν: the poor man, object of the participle.

ἐλεῶ τινά: to have a pity, initial tenses: ἐλεέω, -ῶ, ἠλέουν, ἐλεήσω, ἠλέησα, ἠλέηκα, ἠλεήκειν, of the same root: ελεήμων, ανελέητος, ελεημοσύνη, ἀνελεημόνως, structures: ἐλεῶ τινα.

μακάριοι: happy, μακάριος, -ία, -ιον, ὁ, ἡ μάκαρ, τοῦ, τῆς μάκαρος, predicative.

οἱ πτωχοὶ: the poor men, subject of the verb εἰσί.

τῷ πνεύματι: at the spirit, dative of relation, τὸ πνεῦμα, τοῦ πνεύματος.


una: one, unus, una, unum, genitive uni'us, dative uni, absolute numeral one, one, one, adjectival determination.

salus: salvation, salus, -u'tis, feminine noun of the 3rd declension, subject of the verb est.

victis: to the defeated, victus, -a, -um, perfect participle of vinco, initial tenses: vinco, vici, victum, vi’ncere (defeat, win ), of the same root: vinci’bilis, victor (victor, winner), victo’ria (victory), victrix (victoress), victus.

est: is, exists, the auxiliary verb to be, initial tenses: sum, fui, esse, present indicative: sum, es, est, sumus, estis, sunt, imperfect indicative: eram, eras, erat, era’mus, era’tis, erant, future indicative: ero, eris, erit, e’rimus, e’ritis, erunt.

nullam: no one, nullus, -a, -um, no one, no one, no one, indefinite pronoun, adjectival determination.

spera’re: to hope, that they hope, present infinitive, initial tenses: spero, -a’vi, -a’tum, -a’re, I hope, of the same root: spes (the hope), despe’ro (I despair), despera’ntia (the despair), despera’tus, despera’nter (desperately).

salu’tem: salvation, accusative of singular, object of the infinitive sperare.

verba: the words, verbum, -i, word, verb, subject of the verb volant.

volant: they fly, initial tenses: volo, -a’vi, -a’tum, -a’re, I fly, of the same root: vola’tilis (volatile)), vola’ticus, vola’tus, -us, m, (flight).

scripta: the written, scriptum, -i, initial tenses: scribo, scripsi, scriptum, scri’bere, I write, of the same root: scriba (clerk), scri’ptio, scriptor, scriptum, scriptu’ra (the writing), scriptus, -us (the secretariat), subject of the verb manent.

manent: they remain, initial tenses: ma’neo, mansi, mansum, mane’re, I remain, of the same root: ma’nsio (residence), ma’nsito (I remain), mansus, perma’neo, perma’nsio, rema’neo, rema’nsio, μένω, μονή, μοναχός, αναμένω, παραμένω.

Grae’cia: Greece, Grae’cia, -ae, Graecus, -i, word of Greek origin, probably from the "Γραῖος" who was resident of the first Greek colony in Italy "Γραία", subject of the participle capta.

capta: after it was received, passive perfect participle, captus, -a, -um, initial tenses: ca’pio, cepi, captum, ca’pere, I receive, I take, of the same root: cape’sso, capsa (the box), ca’psula (small box), ca’ptio (the capture), capta’tio (arrest), capti’vus (captive), capto (I arest).

ferrum: the iron, the arms, ferrum, -i, n, the iron, object of the participle capta.

victo’rem: the victor, victor, -o'ris, the victor, victo’ria, -ae, the victory, from the verb vinco, object of the verb cepit.

cepit: it received, active perfect of the verb capio, I receive.

erra’re: to be mistaken, present infinitive of the verb erro, initial tenses: erro, -a’vi, -a’tum, -a’re, to make a mistake, of the same root: error (fault), erra’tio, errabu’ndus, erra’tor, erro, -o’nis, m (fallacy).

huma’num: human, huma’nus, -a, -um, human, homo, -inis, m, the man, predicative.

dum: as long as, provided that, time conjunction.

spiro: I breathe, initial tenses: spiro, -a’vi, -a’tum, -a’re.

To continue look at: Lesson 01 Part 3

To see the Introduction look at: Introduction