Today being able to connect with the world while you are on the go is a natural habit by virtue of mobile networks and services you enjoy from service providers of GSM 2G, CDMA, WCDMA or 3G/UMTS and or HSPA. A few of us may be already using LTE or 4G devices for data connectivity already.What makes your user equipment work?, how are you able to talk to others as easily as you could on your plain old telephone system of PSTN? In this introductory discussion on mobile networks you can obtain answers to such questions.
Way back during 1980s, world has seen Advanced Mobile Phone Systems in the USA and primitive GSM networks emerged in Europe. The notion of cellular mobile communications emerged with studies performed by Bell Labs and conserted efforts of EU like strong bodies to make it a sustainable globally roaming friendly wireless communication system that is in practice still after more than three decades since its inception. While North American region has welcomed all emerging wireless technologies and standards to be incorporated in their nations, Europe predominantly retained strong affiliations with Groupe Spaciale mobile or GSM standard and its data versions such as GPRS, EDGE. 3GPP and 3GPP2 partnership projects have emerged giving a sense of project managerial support to promote standards and currently we have Release 15 being updated during 2014 June time frame as we read this article
From a 200 khz base band as used in GSM full duplex at 900 mhz range of spectrum, CDMA evolved as 1.23 mhz spectrum with a distictly different wireless paradigm of unique codes being used for users,Base Station, Mobile device networking elements and traffic channels. UMTS emerged as a wideband version of CDMA with a typical 5 Mhz bandwidth to cater for both voice and data requirements as per IMT2000 guidelines of ITU-R. With the advent of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing concepts from Wavelan of AT&T, primitive implementations of 1.4 mhz LTE have emerged during 2008 especially after WiMAX standard of IEEE 802.16 has started not being able to overcome Peak to Average Power Ratio issue in the uplink. Thus the wirless LTE uplink now uses SC-FDMA standard with 15 khz sub carriers. A Resource Block in LTE is a spectrum entity of 12 times 15000 hz sinusoidal waves that makes 180 khz just almost similar in size of a radio transeiver or RT with big boost in terms of being able to generate seven symbols per a slot on each and every sub carrier yielding two chunks of 84 resource elements per a milli second Thus with 20 Mhz spectrum allocation of LTE one gets a hundred resource blocks and 100.8 megabits per second throughput in the downlink.This can be accumulated upto 300 megabits per second using 4T4R MIMO. An advanced implementation of the same technology with Coordinated Multipoint and Carrier Aggregation can take the datarate to as high as 1 gbps and beyond as 3 gbps with 100 mhz spectrum allocation and coordinated beam forming of nearby eNodeBs towards the target UE to make such a huge data rate possible
Pages in category "Mobile Networks"
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