# Boundary Value Problems/Lesson 5.2

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- Title: One 1D heat equation with several boundary conditions
- Objectives: Specifically what is to be retained by the learner.
- Setup of heat equation
- Solution of heat equation with homogeneous/nonhomogeneous Dirichlet, Neumann and mixed boudary conditions.

- Activities: Content directed at the learner to achieve learning objectives.
- Solve specific homework prooblems.

- Assessment: Determine lesson effectiveness in achieving the learning Objectives.
- Homework and quizzes

## Background[edit | edit source]

### The derivation of the Heat Equation[edit | edit source]

Heat Flow: Fourier's Law

What is heat? Heat is a form of energy that is measured in units of degree Celsius ^{[1]}.

For a gas this measure is the average kinetic energy

of the molecules in the gas.

For a solid heat is associated with vibrational energy of the crystalline structure.

Heat is measured by us in units of degrees, these are related to calories by the definition, one calorie is the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of one gram of water(at one atmosphere of pressure) by one degree Celsius.

## References[edit | edit source]

- ↑ a historical form of energy measurement is the calorie which is the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of one gram of water(at one atmosphere of pressure) by one degree Celsius.

### How heat flows?[edit | edit source]

Let represent a region of space in and be the temperature at a point in at a time . From observation you know that heat flows from a high temperature region to a lower temperature region. Mathematically we represent this as which is a vector pointing in the direction of decreasing temperatures. The negative gradient of is a vector that points in the direction that the temperature is decreasing the most. Heat is flowing in that direction, at least locally.

The heat flux vector describes a vector field in for the scalar field .

Think of as a a surface in . As shown below. **Fourier's Law**

The temperature in a bar extending from to at a time is . The flow of heat in the bar leads to the development of the General Heat Equation in one spatial dimension. At this time I have not entered the material for this from my notes. It is found in a variety of standard BVP and DE textbooks. The derivation leads to the following PDE with boundary conditions and initial condition.

The general form for the heat equation in one spatial dimension is:

PDE with the general boundary conditions

and the initial condition for .

- Dirichlet Boundary Conditions: If the problem is said to have Dirichlet boundary conditions.

where are Dirichlet BCs.
For this introductory work and are constants.

This will give us the simpler problem
with the boundary conditions

and the initial condition for .

We first solve the problem with the BCs set to a fixed temperature of . The case is the result of setting and

## Homogeneous Boundary conditions for fixed end temperatures, Dirichlet[edit | edit source]

The rod is insulated along it's length and contains no sources or sinks is :

The general form for the accompanying boundary conditions at either end of the rod is:

. Setting we have .

A quick knowledge check:

## Lesson on Heat equation in 1D with Nonhomogeneous Dirichlet Boundary Conditions[edit | edit source]

Solve a nonhomogeneous Dirichlet BC problems.

and .

- Setup the PDE and BCs

- Suppose the solution consists of a transitory component and a steady state component . To solve for we will develop two problems. One will be assigned the nonhomogeneous BCs, with nonzero end conditions and the second problem will be assigned homogeneous BCs and the IC, with zero end conditions and .

### Solve for steady state part of the solution [edit | edit source]

Just CLICK on the play button and the video will work , currently the thumnails for the uploads are messed up.

## Neumann[edit | edit source]

and for all "t" and so

and at the left and right boundaries when .

## Solution[edit | edit source]

Click on the PLAY arrow, video works. The thumbnails' jpeg images are the only thing messed up.

## Mixed: Fixed Temp and Convection[edit | edit source]

with the boundary conditions

and

and the initial condition for .

Lecture on setup of Heat equation for an insulated bar with one end held at a fixed temperature and the convective cooling applied to the second.

Lecture on solving for the steady steady of Heat equation for an insulated bar with one end held at a fixed temperature and the convective cooling applied to the second.

## Heat 1d : Insulated and convective BCs[edit | edit source]

A bar of length L is insulated along it's length. One end is open to the air which is at degrees and the other end is insulated so that there is no flow across the boundary.

The heat equation is then:
with the boundary condition s

at the insulated end and at the convective end.

The intial temperature distribution is given by the function:

Just click on the Play button and video works!. The first video sets up the problem and starts the solution process.

The next video continues with the solution of the transient part of the problem.

This last video completes the transient solution and writes the series solution u(x,t).