# Boundary Value Problems/Lesson 4.1

#### Sturm Liouville and Orthogonal Functions

The solutions in this BVP course will ALL be expressed as series built on orthogonal functions. Understanding that the simple problem $X''+{\lambda }^{2}X=0$ with the boundary conditions $\alpha _{1}X(a)+\alpha _{2}X'(a)=0$ and $\beta _{1}X(b)+\beta _{2}X'(b)=0$ leads to solutions $X(x)$ that are orthogonal functions is crucial. Once this concept is grasped the majority of the work in this course is repetitive.
In the following notes think of the function $\Phi (x)$ as a substitution for $X(x)$ .

TO SEE ALL OF THE PAGES DOUBLE CLICK ON THE FIRST PAGE. THEN YOU WILL BE ABLE TO DOWNLOAD NOTES. THESE WILL BE CONVERTED FOR THE WIKI AALD (at a later date) #### Fourier Series

From the above work, solving the problem:
$X''+{\lambda }^{2}X=0$ with the boundary conditions $X(0)=0$ and $X(L)=0$ leads to an infinite number of solutions $X_{n}(x)=\Phi _{n}(x)=sin\left({\frac {n\pi }{L}}x\right)$ . These are eigenfunctions with eigenvalues $\lambda _{n}={\frac {n\pi }{L}}$ ## Homework Assignment from Powell's sixth edition Boundary Value Problems page 71.

### Project 1.2

This is a fourier series application problem.
You are given the piecewise defined function $f(t)$ shown in the following graph.

The positive unit pulse is 150 μs in duration and is followed by a 100 μs interval where f(t) =0. Then f(t) is a negative unit pulse for 150 μs once again returning to zero. This pattern is repeated every 2860 μs. We will attempt to represent f(t) as a Fourier series,

1. Determine the value of the period: Ans. Period is 2860 μs. The time for a complete repetition of the waveform.
2. Find the Fourier Series representation: $f(t)=a_{0}+\sum _{n=1}^{\infty }a_{n}cos(n\pi t/a)+b_{n}sin(n\pi t/a)$ .The video provides an explanation of the determining the coefficients $a_{0},a_{n},b_{n}$ . The results are:$a_{0}=0$ $a_{n}={\frac {\sin \left({\frac {15}{143}}\,n\,\pi \right)+\sin \left({\frac {25}{143}}\,n\,\pi \right)-\sin \left({\frac {40}{143}}\,n\,\pi \right)}{n\pi }}$ $b_{n}={\frac {-\left(-1+\cos \left({\frac {15}{143}}\,n\,\pi \right)+\cos \left({\frac {25}{143}}\,n\,\pi \right)-\cos \left({\frac {40}{143}}\,n\,\pi \right)\right)}{n\pi }}$ 1. Using 100 terms an approximation is; 2. Shift $f(t)$ right or left by an amount $b$ such that the resulting periodic function is an odd function. Here is a plot of shifting it to the left half way between the +1 and -1 pulses. This is a shiift of b= 200 μs. The new funnction is $f(t+200)$ . A plot follows: . It could also be shifted to the right by 1230 μs, that is $f(t-1230)$ is the new function.