Biology

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This image is a drawing of Haloquadratum walsbyi. Credit: Rotational.

On the right is a drawing of the archaean Haloquadratum walsbyi.

Biology is the study of living organisms, divided into many specialized fields that cover their morphology, physiology, anatomy, behavior, origin, and distribution.

Most of Wikiversity's content on Biology can currently be found via the School:Biology page.

Theoretical biology[edit]

Def. the "study of all life or living matter"[1] is called biology.

Zoology[edit]

The image shows a full length view of an adult blue whale. Credit: NOAA Fisheries (TBjornstad).

Def. "that part of biology which relates to the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct"[2] is called zoology.

Botany[edit]

This is a traditional cultural association between Maize, squash and beans, called Milpa in the region. Credit: Isabelle Fragniere.

Def. "[t]he scientific study of plants, ... [t]ypically those disciplines that involve the whole plant"[3] is called botany.

Usage notes:

"The scientific definition of what organisms should be considered plants changed dramatically during the 20th century. Bacteria, algae, and fungi are no longer considered plants by those who study them. Many textbooks do not reflect the most current thinking on classification."[4]

Archaeaology[edit]

This is an electron microscope image the archaean Halobacteria species strain NRC-1. Credit: NASA.

"This path has attracted 'archaeaologists' with great tenacity and drive, impressive creativity and dynamic thinking, and a capacity to expand a mental comfort zone to broker remarkable observations, often in view of reluctant acceptance."[5]

Def. the scientific study of the archaea is called archaeaology.

"The B recognition element (BRE) is a DNA sequence found in the promoter region of most genes in eukaryotes and Archaea.[6][7]"[8]

In the archaean from the Dead Sea imaged at the right, "We have completely fragmented their DNA. I mean we have completely destroyed it by bombarding it with [radiation]. And they can reassemble their entire chromosome and put it back into working order within several hours."[9]

Taxonomy[edit]

A collage depicts animal diversity using a collection of featured pictures. Credit: Justin.
Composite image illustrates the diversity of plants. Credit: Ryan Kitko.
  1. Superregnum Archaea,
  2. Superregnum Bacteria, and
  3. Superregnum Eukaryota.[10]

Superregnum: Archaea[11]

Regnum (Phyla):

  1. Crenarchaeota
  2. Euryarchaeota
  3. Korarchaeota

Superregnum: Bacteria[12]

Phyla

  1. Acidobacteria
  2. Actinobacteria
  3. Aquificae
  4. Chlamydiae
  5. Chloroflexi
  6. Chrysiogenetes
  7. Cyanobacteria
  8. Deferribacteres
  9. Deinococcus-Thermus
  10. Dictyoglomi
  11. Fibrobacteres
  12. Firmicutes
  13. Fusobacteria
  14. Gemmatimonadetes
  15. Nitrospirae
  16. Planctomycetes
  17. Proteobacteria
  18. Spirochaetes
  19. Thermodesulfobacteria
  20. Thermotogae
  21. Verrucomicrobia

Superregnum: Eukaryota[13] Regnums (Whittaker & Margulis, 1978): Animalia - Plantae - Fungi - Protista Regnums (Cavalier-Smith, 1981): Animalia - Plantae - Fungi - Chromista - Protozoa

Regnum: Animalia Phyla (36):

  1. Acanthocephala
  2. Annelida
  3. Arthropoda
  4. Brachiopoda
  5. Bryozoa
  6. Cephalorhyncha
  7. Chaetognatha
  8. Chordata
  9. Cnidaria
  10. Ctenophora
  11. Cycliophora
  12. Echinodermata
  13. Echiura
  14. Gastrotricha
  15. Gnathostomulida
  16. Hemichordata
  17. Kamptozoa
  18. Kinorhyncha
  19. Loricifera
  20. Micrognathozoa
  21. Mollusca
  22. Myxozoa
  23. Nematoda
  24. Nematomorpha
  25. Nemertea
  26. Onychophora
  27. Orthonectida
  28. Phoronida
  29. Placozoa
  30. Platyhelminthes
  31. Porifera
  32. Rhombozoa
  33. Rotifera
  34. Sipuncula
  35. Tardigrada
  36. Xenacoelomorpha

Regnum: Plantae[14] Divisiones (8): "Algae" (first four)

  1. Charophyta
  2. Chlorophyta
  3. Glaucophyta
  4. Rhodophyta
  5. Anthocerotophyta
  6. Bryophyta
  7. Marchantiophyta
  8. Tracheophyta

Popular Wikiversity Courses & Content[edit]

Popular Topics[edit]

Topics are also departments within the school of biology.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. "biology, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 23 February 2015. Retrieved 2015-02-23. 
  2. "zoology, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 8, 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-18. 
  3. "botany, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. July 18, 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-07. 
  4. "plant, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. August 7, 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-07. 
  5. Ricardo Cavicchioli (January 2011). "Archaea—timeline of the third domain". Nature Reviews Microbiology 9 (1): 51-61. http://www.nature.com/nrmicro/journal/v9/n1/full/nrmicro2482.html. Retrieved 2015-02-23. 
  6. Lagrange T, Kapanidis AN, Tang H, Reinberg D, Ebright RH (1998). "New core promoter element in RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription: sequence-specific DNA binding by transcription factor IIB". Genes & Development 12 (1): 34–44. doi:10.1101/gad.12.1.34. PMID 9420329. PMC 316406. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC316406/. 
  7. Littlefield O, Korkhin Y, Sigler PB (1999). "The structural basis for the oriented assembly of a TBP/TFB/promoter complex". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 96 (24): 13668–73. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.24.13668. PMID 10570130. PMC 24122. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC24122/. 
  8. "B recognition element, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. January 30, 2013. Retrieved 2013-01-30. 
  9. Adrienne Kish (September 10, 2004). "Secrets of a Salty Survivor A microbe that grows in the Dead Sea is teaching scientists about the art of DNA repair". Washington, DC USA: NASA. Retrieved 2014-05-15. 
  10. "Main Page, In: Wikispecies". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 17 January 2016. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  11. "Archaea, In: Wikispecies". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 22 November 2015. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  12. "Bacteria, In: Wikispecies". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 22 November 2015. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  13. "Eukaryota, In: Wikispecies". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 13 November 2015. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  14. "Plantae, In: Wikispecies". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 5 December 2015. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 

External links[edit]

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