Bible/King James/Documentary Hypothesis/Priestly source/Levitical object descriptions
According to the documentary hypothesis, the torah was redacted together from a number of earlier source texts. The largest of these is referred to as the "Priestly source", due to its concentration on details which would be of interest to the Aaronid priesthood.
The reconstructed text of this source contains several elements which are separable from the narrative, including several laws, and descriptions of how rituals should be carried out. It is sometimes believed that these were originally separate documents held as priestly records, or simple observations. One of these separable elements is the description of the tabernacle, vestments, and associated objects.
This is expressed at Exodus 25, 26, 27, 28, 30:1-6, 30:17-25, and 30:34-36. A passage appearing to be based on it then appears at Exodus 31:1-11, and is then followed by a description of the construction of the objects at Exodus 35, 36, 37, 38, and 39, which almost completely duplicates the earlier description.
While the following text is based on that appearing in the relevant parts of Exodus, it does not duplicate it exactly, but reconstructs it from the point of view of an eye witness. The numbering of the text does not necessarily reflect that of the original
Part 1 - Introduction
1 Gold, and silver, and brass,
2 And blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen, and goats' hair,
3 And rams' skins dyed red, and badgers' skins, and shittim wood.
4 Oil for the light, spices for anointing oil, and for sweet incense,
5 Onyx stones, and stones to be set.
Part 2 - The Tabernacle
1 An Ark of shittim wood:
- A Two cubits and a half is the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth and height thereof.
- B An overlay of pure gold, within and without,
- C And upon it a crown of gold round about.
- D And four rings of gold for it, in the four corners thereof; two rings in the one side of it, and two rings in the other side of it.
- E And staves of shittim wood, with overlay of gold.
- F The staves in the rings by the sides of the ark, that the ark may be borne with them.
- H And in the ark the testimony.
2 And a mercy seat of pure gold:
- A Two cubits and a half the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof.
- B And two cherubims of gold, of beaten work, in the two ends of the mercy seat.
- C And one cherub on the one end, and the other cherub on the other end:
- D And the cherubims stretch forth their wings on high, covering the mercy seat with their wings,
- E And their faces look one to another; toward the mercy seat.
- F And the mercy seat lies above upon the ark;
- G And there the LORD will meet with thee, from above the mercy seat,
- H From between the two cherubims which are upon the ark of the testimony,
3 Also a table of shittim wood:
- A Two cubits the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof.
- B An overlay of pure gold, and a crown of gold round about.
- C And a border of an hand breadth round about, and a golden crown to the border round about.
- D And four rings of gold, in the four corners that are on the four feet thereof.
- E Over against the border, the rings for places of the staves to bear the table.
- F And the staves of shittim wood, with overlay of gold, that the table may be borne with them.
- G And the dishes thereof, and spoons thereof, and covers thereof, and bowls thereof, to cover withal: of pure gold.
- H And set upon the table shewbread alway.
4 And a candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work:
- A His shaft, and his branches, his bowls, his knops, and his flowers, of the same.
- B And six branches come out of the sides of it;
- C Three branches of the candlestick out of the one side, and three branches of the candlestick out of the other side:
- D Three bowls made like unto almonds, with a knop and a flower in one branch;
- E And three bowls made like almonds in the other branch, with a knop and a flower:
- F So in the six branches that come out of the candlestick.
- G And in the candlesticks, four bowls made like unto almonds, with their knops and their flowers.
- H And a knop under two branches of the same, and a knop under two branches of the same, .
- I And a knop under two branches of the same, according to the six branches that proceed out of the candlestick.
- J Their knops and their branches of the same: all one beaten work of pure gold.
- K And the seven lamps thereof: and they light the lamps thereof, that they give light over against it.
- L And the tongs thereof, and the snuffdishes thereof, of pure gold.
- M Of a talent of pure gold.
5 Moreover ten curtains of fine twined linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet:
- A With cherubims of cunning work.
- B The length of one curtain: eight and twenty cubits, and the breadth of one curtain four cubits: and every one of the curtains has one measure.
- C The five curtains coupled together one to another; and other five curtains coupled one to another.
- D And loops of blue upon the edge of the one curtain from the selvedge in the coupling;
- E And likewise in the uttermost edge of another curtain, in the coupling of the second.
- F Fifty loops in the one curtain, and fifty loops in the edge of the curtain that is in the coupling of the second; that the loops may take hold one of another.
- G And the curtains couple together with fifty taches of gold: and it forms one tabernacle.
6 And eleven curtains of goats' hair to be a covering upon the tabernacle:
- A The length of one curtain: thirty cubits, and the breadth of one curtain four cubits: and the eleven curtains all of one measure.
- B And five curtains couple by themselves, and six curtains by themselves, and the sixth curtain double in the forefront of the tabernacle.
- C And fifty loops on the edge of the one curtain that is outmost in the coupling, and fifty loops in the edge of the curtain which coupleth the second.
- D And fifty taches of brass in the loops, to couple the tent together, that it may be one.
7 And the remnant that remaineth of the curtains of the tent,
- A The half curtain that remaineth, hangeth over the backside of the tabernacle.
- B And a cubit on the one side, and a cubit on the other side of that which remaineth in the length of the curtains of the tent,
- C Hangeth over the sides of the tabernacle on this side and on that side, to cover it.
8 And a covering for the tent of rams' skins dyed red, and a covering above of badgers' skins.
9 And boards for the tabernacle of shittim wood standing up.
- A Ten cubits the length of a board, and a cubit and a half the breadth of one board.
- B Two tenons in one board, set in order one against another:
- C Thus for all the boards of the tabernacle.
- D And twenty boards on the south side southward.
- E And forty sockets of silver under the twenty boards;
- F Two sockets under one board for his two tenons, and two sockets under another board for his two tenons.
- G And for the second side of the tabernacle on the north side: twenty boards:
- H And their forty sockets of silver; two sockets under one board, and two sockets under another board.
- I And for the sides of the tabernacle westward: six boards.
- J And two boards for the corners of the tabernacle in the two sides.
- K And they couple together beneath, and they couple together above the head of it unto one ring:
- L Thus for them both; for the two corners.
- M And eight boards, and their sockets of silver, sixteen sockets;
- N Two sockets under one board, and two sockets under another board.
10 And bars of shittim wood;
- A Five for the boards of the one side of the tabernacle, and five bars for the boards of the other side of the tabernacle,
- B And five bars for the boards of the side of the tabernacle, for the two sides westward.
- C And the middle bar in the midst of the boards reacheth from end to end.
- D And for the boards an overlay of gold, and rings of gold for places for the bars: and an overlay of gold for the bars.
11 And a vail of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen of cunning work: with cherubims:
- A And it hangeth upon four pillars of shittim wood overlaid with gold: their hooks of gold, upon the four sockets of silver.
- B And the vail hangeth up under the taches, and within the vail the ark of the testimony:
- C And the vail divideth between the holy place and the most holy.
12 And the mercy seat lieth upon the ark of the testimony in the most holy place.
13 And thou the table lieth without the vail, on the north side.
14 And the candlestick over against the table on the side of the tabernacle toward the south:
15 And an hanging for the door of the tent,
- A Of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, wrought with needlework.
- B And for the hanging five pillars of shittim wood, .
- C And an overlay for them of gold, and their hooks of gold:
- D And five sockets of brass for them.
16 And an altar of shittim wood, before the door of the tabernacle of the tent of the congregation:
- A Hollow with boards
- B Five cubits long, and five cubits broad; foursquare: and the height thereof three cubits.
- C And the horns of it upon the four corners thereof:
- D His horns of the same: and an overlay for it of brass.
- E And pans to receive his ashes, and his shovels, and his basons, and his fleshhooks, and his firepans:
- F All the vessels thereof made of brass.
17 And for it a grate of network of brass;
- A And upon the net: four brasen rings in the four corners thereof.
- B And it lieth under the compass of the altar beneath, that the net may be even to the midst of the altar.
18 And staves for the altar, staves of shittim wood, and an overlay for them of brass.
- A And the staves lieth in the rings, and the staves upon the two sides of the altar, to bear it.
19 And the court of the tabernacle:
- A For the south side southward:
- i Hangings for the court of fine twined linen of an hundred cubits long for one side:
- ii And the twenty pillars thereof and their twenty sockets of brass;
- iii The hooks of the pillars and their fillets of silver.
- B And likewise for the north side
- i In length hangings of an hundred cubits long,
- ii And his twenty pillars and their twenty sockets of brass;
- iii The hooks of the pillars and their fillets of silver.
- C And for the breadth of the court on the west side
- i Hangings of fifty cubits:
- ii Their pillars ten, and their sockets ten.
- D And the breadth of the court on the east side eastward is fifty cubits.
- i The hangings of one side of the gate is fifteen cubits: their pillars three, and their sockets three.
- ii And on the other side lieth hangings of fifteen cubits: their pillars three, and their sockets three.
- E And for the gate of the court is an hanging of twenty cubits,
- i Of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, wrought with needlework:
- ii And their pillars four, and their sockets four.
- F All the pillars round about the court filleted with silver; their hooks of silver, and their sockets of brass.
- G The length of the court is an hundred cubits, and the breadth fifty every where, and the height five cubits
20 All the vessels of the tabernacle in all the service thereof, and all the pins thereof, and all the pins of the court, of brass.
21 And a laver of brass, and his foot also of brass, to wash withal:
- A And with water therein.
- B Between the tabernacle of the congregation and the altar.
Part 3 - The Vestments
1 A breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a broidered coat, a mitre, and a girdle:
2 The ephod:
- A Of gold, of blue, and of purple, of scarlet, and fine twined linen, with cunning work.
- B The two shoulderpieces joined at the two edges thereof;
- C And the curious girdle of the ephod, which is upon it, of the same;
- i Even of gold, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen.
- D And two onyx stones, upon the shoulders of the ephod for stones of memorial unto the children of Israel:
- i And graven on them the names of the children of Israel: set in ouches of gold.
- ii Six of their names on one stone, and the other six names of the rest on the other stone, according to their birth.
- iii With the work of an engraver in stone, like the engravings of a signet,
- E And two chains of pure gold at the ends; of wreathen work, and the wreathen chains fasten to ouches of gold
3 Thebreastplate of judgment is of cunning work; after the work of the ephod;
- A Of gold, of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, and of fine twined linen.
- B Foursquare, it being doubled; a span the length thereof, and a span the breadth thereof.
- C And set in it settings of stones, even four rows of stones, upon his heart:
- i The first row a sardius, a topaz, and a carbuncle:
- ii And the second row an emerald, a sapphire, and a diamond.
- iii And the third row a ligure, an agate, and an amethyst.
- iv And the fourth row a beryl, and an onyx, and a jasper: they shall be set in gold in their inclosings.
- v Set in gold in their inclosings.
- vi And the stones shall be with the names of the children of Israel,
- a Twelve, according to their names, like the engravings of a signet;
- b Every one with his name shall they be according to the twelve tribes.
- C And upon the breastplate: two rings of gold on the two ends of the breastplate.
- D And two wreathen chains of gold in the two rings which are on the ends of the breastplate.
- E And the other two ends of the two wreathen chains fasten in the two ouches, and on the shoulderpieces of the ephod before it.
- F And two rings of gold, upon the two ends of the breastplate in the border thereof, which is in the side of the ephod inward.
- G And two other rings of gold on the two sides of the ephod underneath,
- H Toward the forepart thereof, over against the other coupling thereof, above the curious girdle of the ephod.
- I And they bind the breastplate by the rings thereof unto the rings of the ephod with a lace of blue,
- J That it may be above the curious girdle of the ephod, and that the breastplate be not loosed from the ephod.
- K And in the breastplate of judgment, upon the heart, the Urim and the Thummim;
4 And the robe of the ephod:
- A All of blue.
- B And an hole in the top of it, in the midst thereof:
- C A binding of woven work round about the hole of it, as it were the hole of an habergeon, that it be not rent.
- D And beneath upon the hem of it:
- i Pomegranates of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, round about the hem thereof;
- ii And bells of gold between them round about:
- iii A golden bell and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a pomegranate, upon the hem of the robe round about.
5 The mitre of fine linen:
- A Upon the forefront of the mitre; a plate of pure gold, on a blue lace
- i Graven upon it, like the engravings of a signet, HOLINESS TO THE LORD.
6 And a coat of fine linen, and a girdle of needlework.
7 And linen breeches to cover nakedness;
- A From the loins even unto the thighs they reach:
Part 4 - Incense, Oil, and Perfume
1 In the tabernacle of the congregation without the vail, which is before the testimony,
A Pure oil olive beaten for the light, to cause the lamp to burn always.
2 And an altar to burn incense upon:
- A Of shittim wood shalt thou make it.
- B A cubit length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof; foursquare:
- C And two cubits the height thereof: the horns thereof the same.
- D And for it an overlay of pure gold, the top thereof, and the sides thereof round about, and the horns thereof;
- E And unto it a crown of gold round about.
- F And two golden rings under the crown of it, by the two corners thereof, upon the two sides of it; places for the staves to bear it withal.
- G And staves of shittim wood, and an overlay for them of gold.
- H And the alter lieth before the vail that is by the ark of the testimony, before the mercy seat that is over the testimony.
3 And holy anointing oil:
- A Its principal spices, of pure myrrh five hundred shekels,
- B And of sweet cinnamon half so much, Even two hundred and fifty shekels,
- C And of sweet calamus two hundred and fifty shekels,
- D And of cassia five hundred shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary,
- E And of oil olive an hin:
4 And a perfume:
- A Sweet spices, stacte, and onycha, and galbanum;
- B These sweet spices with pure frankincense: of each a like weight:
- C Tempered together, pure and holy:
- D Some of it beaten very small, and put before the testimony in the tabernacle of the congregation,