Bible/King James/Documentary Hypothesis/Deuteronomist source/First Deuteronomist Version/Kosher
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According to the documentary hypothesis, the Torah is composed from a number of originally independant sources joined by a redactor. One of these supposed sources is named the "Deuteronomist", due to it composing the vast majority of the text of Deuteronomy. Under the usual form of the hypothesis, the deuteronomist text is believed to have come in two editions, the earlier one, known as "Dtr1", being written around the time of king Josiah by someone from the same circle as Jeremiah.
Though considered to have been written as a coherent work by a single author, the text can be broken down into a number of distinct components. One of these separable elements is the list of clean and unclean food, appearing at Deuteronomy 14:3-20, which is a major source for determining Kosher foods. It is similar, though not identical, to the list in the Priestly source at Leviticus 11, which may be due to using the same source document, or oral tradition, or the Deuteronomist version being based on that of the Priestly source.
The numbering of the text does not necessarily reflect that of the original
The list of clean and unclean food[edit | edit source]
1 Thou shalt not eat any abominable thing.
2 These are the beasts which ye shall eat: the ox, the sheep, and the goat,
3 The hart, and the roebuck, and the fallow deer, and the wild goat, and the pygarg, and the wild ox, and the chamois.
4 And every beast that parteth the hoof, and cleaveth the cleft into two claws, and cheweth the cud among the beasts, that ye shall eat.
5 Nevertheless these ye shall not eat of them that chew the cud, or of them that divide the cloven hoof;
6 As the camel, and the hare, and the coney: for they chew the cud, but divide not the hoof; therefore they are unclean unto you.
7 And the swine, because it divideth the hoof, yet cheweth not the cud, it is unclean unto you:
8 Ye shall not eat of their flesh, nor touch their dead carcase.
9 These ye shall eat of all that are in the waters: all that have fins and scales shall ye eat:
10 And whatsoever hath not fins and scales ye may not eat; it is unclean unto you.
11 Of all clean birds ye shall eat.
12 But these are they of which ye shall not eat: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,
13 And the glede, and the kite, and the vulture after his kind,
14 And every raven after his kind,
15 And the owl, and the night hawk, and the cuckow, and the hawk after his kind,
16 The little owl, and the great owl, and the swan,
17 And the pelican, and the gier eagle, and the cormorant,
18 And the stork, and the heron after her kind, and the lapwing, and the bat.
19 And every creeping thing that flieth is unclean unto you: they shall not be eaten.
20 But of all clean fowls ye may eat.