Automotive Technology/Wheels

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Camber[edit | edit source]

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Camber is the angle of lean of the wheel away from the vertical when viewed from the front of the vehicle. If the wheel leans too far, uneven wear will occur.

Positive camber[edit | edit source]

When the top of the wheel is leaning away from the car. Too much positive camber causes tires to wear on the outside edge.

Negative camber[edit | edit source]

When the top of the wheel is leaning in towards the car. Too much negative camber causes tires to wear on the inside edge.

The camber angle is designed and adjusted for each vehicle to optimize the tyre’s behavior on the straight and during a turn. If there is too much difference between the camber angles of the front wheels, the vehicle will tend to pull to one side.

Toe[edit | edit source]

Toe identifies the direction in which the tyres are pointing relative to the centre line of the vehicle. Toe is usually expressed as the difference in distance between the front of the wheels and the rear of the wheels on the same axle.

Toe settings affect the handling characteristics of the vehicle and its straight line stability.

Toe-in[edit | edit source]

When the front of the wheels on an axle are closer together than the rear of the wheels. If there is too much toe-in, the tire tread will tend to wear more on the outside edges. The tread will also wear in a feathered manner which can be felt by running your hands across the tread of the tire.

Toe-out[edit | edit source]

When the rear of the wheels on an axle are closer together than the front of the wheels. If there is too much toe-out, the tire tread will tend to wear more on the inner edges. The tread will also wear in a feathered manner which can be felt by running your hands across the tread of the tire.