|This resource includes primary and/or secondary research. Learn more about original research at Wikiversity.|
This article is about whether Atlantis existed and the possible locations of Atlantis. 10,000 years BC water levels were lower than they were today. The legend of Atlantis was in existence around 9600 B.C. before it was claimed to fall into the sea. Ancient Greece was not in existence around this time, so accounts of Greece interacting with Atlantis may be fictional, but based on other accounts.
There are hypothesis to the location of ancient Atlantis, or whether it really ever existed.
Is Atlantis fiction?
Plato's account seems like fiction. Ancient Greece came into existence around the 9th century B.C, and Atlantis was around in 9,600 B.C. Did the histories of these two civilizations cross paths?
Plato's account could be of a real Atlantis, but of a fictional Greek interaction with this civilization.
Could Plato have combined Santorini's geological and civilization history with a real account of Atlantis, to fabricate a new fiction?
Aristotle mentions Plato creating fables of civilizations then destroying them.
Let us go to the source. Aristotle was hung up in realism and is known as the father of modern medicine. Plato, on the other hand, was an idealist who looked to theory rather than evidence. Therefore, he was more likely to rely on the historical and ideological evidence of the oral folklore tradition. Both of the philosophers, Aristotle and Plato have their place in the scientific methods used for research today.
Rise in sea level
The island of Santorini (Thera) is circular in shape, and is the corpse residual of a massive volcanic detonation which dates are coincidental to most pre-history Atlantis theory (5000-12,000 B.C). The explosion was so massive it is conceptualized that the resulting tsunami(s) destroyed many coastal nations in that area of the Mediterranean and wiped out any immediate civilization habitating on or withing a many, many mile radius of Thera- including a massive destruction to the island of Crete. Crete has well documented Minoan ruins dating to at least 3500 B.C. possibly much earlier. The now (extinct) Minoan civilization is unique and does not cohabit Greko-Roman civilizations, and is considered to be unique and Sovereign in culture, art, economy, religion and government. This has led many believers to strongly relate the Minoan civilization to the Atlantean hypothesis. Strong geophysical and historical evidence supports that the Minoan civilization may in fact have been one and the same- the lost civilization of Atlantis.
Could the Azores Plateau or Islands be the ancient location of Atlantis? This plateau is located over a rift where tectonic plates pull apart from each other. Could the separation of these plate masses have caused this plateau to sink?
Unlike some other candidates for Atlantis which only have one volcano or even NO volcanoes, the Azores Islands have either on one volcano or several on each of the Azores islands, many are not extinct. Check it out here on wikipedia... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_volcanoes_in_Portugal also, you may want to look over this website http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/portugal.html that lists 15 volcanoes, many considered still active, although if they are associated with a supervolcano and its caldera, plus a mantle plume, I seriously doubt if any listged on either site are truly extinct, but instead just dormant. Again, please remember, all of these volcanoes these are associated with the mid-Atlantic ridge, 3 continental plares AND a supervolcano caldera that is fed by a mantle plume.
Mount Pico is the highest mountain in the Atlantic ocean. It is the cone of a Stratovolcano and its formation is about 10,000 years old according to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Pico
This correlates with the time frame given by Plato in his writings. Coincidence or confirmation of the accuracy of Plato's story?
In addition tsunamis flooded the Atlantic 8 - 10 k years ago as indicated in this site. http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-27224243
This would be part of the disturbance in the Atlantic Ocean when Atlantis sank as the result of an underwater Supervolcanic eruption in or near the Azores that caused the demise of Atlantis. There are other records of tsunamis around the Atlantic basin that roughly correspond with Plato's original time line. In addition, there were tsunamis in the Mediterranean sea that correspond to the time line.
The flood of the Black Sea through the Bosporus occurred around 10,000 years ago.
according to http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/ctl/clihis10k.html
Could this breach have been the result of tsunamis from the sinking of Atlantis?
To confirm this theory of Atlantis in the Azores only requires one to gather information already available. It takes time, but fortunately it takes no money.
J. Garner PhD
Hypothesis by J. Garner PhD
The original discussion of the Azores as a location for Atlantis began on the Azores site. It evolved over a period of several years, beginning in 2009. Geological correlation started to become apparent to me. Although correlation cannot be used as direct evidence, the evidence seems to be accumulating and science seems to be providing increasing research to uphold this hypothesis. It was moved here so that the discussion might continue, with people discussing not the evidence that Atlantis was located somewhere other than the Azores, and at another time, but that Atlantis was located exactly where Plato said it was located and it existed exactly when he said that it existed. My Master's Degree is in Physics, and my Doctorate is in Education. As time permits, I will add items to support this hypothesis. Thanks,
The more that one studies super-volcanoes the more one understands that the Azores Islands and the sunken caldera of the supervolcano there presents a unique geological formation on the Planet Earth.
There is simply no other geological formation that comes close to mimicking this one. First, you DO have a supervolcano, and it is currently as active as the one at Yellowstone National Park in America. Except, this one is under water.
Furthermore, it is on the mid-Atlantic rift where new seafloor is being formed. In addition, it is at the intersection of the North American Plate, the European Plate and the African Plate.
Claiming that deep sea cores from millions of years ago proves that it has been underwater for millions of years is not quite accurate. You see, the Alps mountains have evidence that they were once the floor of a sea bed. This old Earth is a restless lady. If ground can go up it certainly can subside also, especially in an area of a unique geologic formation that science is only beginning to understand.
As I stated above in 2009, there is little research into the Azores as a location for Atlantis, but claims abound that place it's location at numbers of other places that Plato didn't even mention. The geologic formations are in the Azores to support Plato's story.
Furthermore, this website, http://www.cvarg.azores.gov.pt/seismic/index.html documents the current activity of the Supervolcano in the Azores and it is just as active as the Supervolcano at Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming in the USA. The only difference is that it is deep on the floor of the ocean. It is a collapsed caldera and it is still active.
Why can't Plato's documentation be accepted as written? After all, we still study his philosophy. However, when it comes to his historical writings, the establishment does everything that it can to deny the possibility that Atlantis is right where Plato said it was. I understand caution. If caution crosses the line to denial then sicentific knowledge is obstructed. Look how long it took the concept of Continental Drift to be widely accepted. There is a lot of research that still exists from cores taken form the floor of the Atlantic Ocean that is presently being ignored. as time permits I will present this evidence here in wikiversity. This is not spiritual mumbo-jumbo. It is not an Edgar Cayce prediction. It is a written record from one of the greatest philosophers who ever lived and modern research that supports Plato's writings.
Furthermore, Plato describes in perfect detail the scientific description of a supervolcanic eruption. How would he know this? It is time to shake of the bonds of gradualism and to realize that the last ice age ended at the time that Plato says the eruption occurred. There is evidence of spectacular mass extinctions, tsunami activity, and there is evidence of catastrophic climate change at that time.
This subject deserves discussion and research. Just saying it didn't happen on the flimsiest of evidence is not science, it is denial.
In evidence of Plato's description of Atlantis, the ground and the city, surrounded by concentric rings of land and rings of water or canals, all navigable from an ocean bay one can see that this is a rough description of a collapsed volcanic caldera. http://geology.com/articles/caldera/ Also, see http://www.geology.sdsu.edu/how_volcanoes_work/Calderas.html
It is an accepted fact that a 'hot spot' exists that has created the Hawaiian Island Chain. http://www.hawaii.edu/environment/ainakumuwai/html/ainakumuwaiislandformation.htm However, what might happen if this spot corresponded exactly with a rift zone?
With the two descriptions given picture a 'hot spot' passing under a rift zone. Is this what could have happened to Atlantis?
Might a 'hot spot' such as the one at Yellowstone or the one close to Iceland moving under a rift zone cause a portion of a plate to break off and have enough magma extruded from under it to cause it to collapse into the ocean?
The relatively new revelation that Supervolcanoes exist and have erupted in the past should cause the curious, the truly scientific minds, to re-examine Plato as a historian in addition to a philosopher. This especially true because his descriptions of the topography of Atlantis correspond with modern geological descriptions of how the Earth works. Plato did not know this, so how could it be made up?
With the discovery of a Supervolcano near Vesuvius, These volcanoes are not rare. But people still build castles and cities on top of the 'plugs' in their vents...
What a gorgeous castle. Just like the main castle Plato described...
- J. Garner PhD. aka RAYLEIGH22
A hypothesis without a theory to account for the rise and fall of a large piece of the floor of the Atlanic ocean seems incomplete. Indeed, it is incomplete. Therefore, to simplify matters, I should explain a possible mechanism to accomplish the seeming insurrmountable task of accomplishing the raising (or, rather the sinking) of the entire plateau in the area of the Azores islands.
The most simple, uncomplicated explaination without specifics I will call (Supervolcano plume hydralics) or simple hydralics. The specifics that describe the variations of magma present in the volcanoes of the Azores area may be found by reviewing the following piece of research.
"Constraints on melting processes and plume-ridge interaction from comprehensive study of the FAMOUS and North Famous segments, Mid-Atlantic Ridge." A. Gale, M. Laubier, S. Escrig, C.H. Langmuir Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard Universith, 20 Oxford Street, Cambridge MA 02138, USA.
A brief review of this research, especially fig.10, illustrates how the magma from the mantle plume flows under the lithospere and along this flow causes melt. The resulting mix of the magma which is part from the mantle plume, part magma from the Mid-atlantic ridge and part from the melting of the underside of the lithosphere supports the plateau. An eruption of all of the volcanos along the borders of this plate segment would be like letting the pressure off of a simple hydralic cylinder. As a result, the lithospere sinks. When the eruptions subside the lithosphere is at a lower level. This would also account for all of the variations in magmas from the various volcanos and why a flow from the Mid-Atlantic ridge is seemingly reversed, as is mentioned in several research papers.
It would also account for the ocean being unnavigatable for some number of years from the pumice that would be floating on top of the water after the sinking of Atlantis, aka, the Azores plateau.
Therefore, looking for the age of this crust of the segment of the lithospere would show the original time the section of the lithospere was formed, but would show little evidence of it sinking under the ocean. The remnants of river beds and so forth as described would indicate the approximate age of those features, but not how it came to be the present ocean floor or even how long it has been in its present position.
The volcanoes of the island of São Miguel in the Azores
The island of São Miguel in the Azores has three active central volcanoes. These are Sete Cidades, Fogo, and Furnas. Furnas does not have a cone but rather a steep-sided caldera approximately 8 km X 5 km across. The activity of Furmas is Plinian and it has a history of at least two significant eruptions in the time frame told by Plato’s description of Atlantis that resulted in caldera collapse and refilling. The first was 30,000 yrs BP and the second was 10,000 to 12,000 years BP. More recent eruptions have occurred, the first 1630 AD and new evidence suggests that another occurred during the human occupation of the Azores at about 1440 AD. 
Seewarte Seamounts are a cluster of seamounts in the Northern Atlantic that include Plato, and Atlantis Seamounts, understood to be just named after the legend.
Could the straits have been between Italy and Africa, instead of the straight of Gibraltar, thus making Atlantis location the western Mediterranean. If this were the case, Sardinia and Spain are candidates for Atlantis' location.
If Atlantis was a military as Plato described these sites if they have ruins could be the remnants of colonies of Atlantis, too. The problem is that no written history is available or even history of these times. We must remember that 10,000 to 12,000 years ago much of northern Europe in addition to America was covered with glaciers.
The mass extinctions and the ocean rise around the world occurred at about this time.
Atlantis' location from its use of natural energy sources:
1) It has been conjectured and documented that the Ancient civilization of Atlantis had access to an energy source sovereign to their nation alone. A technology that produced energy for many uses. The secret of which was fiercely protected by the island nation. This technology was supposedly responsible for the nation being able to accomplish the supposed wonders that it did. These wonders may have included and were not limited to: increased industrial production such as ship building and materials processing; civilian welfare and general standard of living; food and agriculture processing/ sterilization/ storage/ and quality; waste treatment and processing etc.
The knowledge and ability to utilize this limitless energy source was the supposed catalyst of the nations power and ability to impress its rule upon other lands. If, assuming that the ancient rumors are true regarding Atlantis, then a conservative yet not impossible postulate would conclude that a geothermal source of energy was the most probable source. The ability and knowledge of the ancient nation to harness this power for uses untold is however, a topic for discussion. However, if accepted as gospel, that would limit the possible resting place of the ancient nation to locations where not just modest but *significant* geothermal activity and instability existed and may still exist today. Azores archipelago beyond the pillars of Hercules, and the area around Crete and the island of ancient Thera are prime candidates that would support this hypothesis.
- Atlantis, History Channel, http://www.history.com/topics/atlantis
- Changing Sea Level and the Evolution of the Coastal Environment, http://www.texasbeyondhistory.net/coast/prehistory/images/sea-level.html
- J.E. Guest, J.L. Gaspar, P.D. Cole, G.Queiroz, A.M. Duncan, N. Wallenstein, T.Ferreira, J.M.R.Pacheco Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research (Impact Factor: 2.54). 09/1999; 92(1):1-29. DOI: 10.1016/S0377-0273(99)00064-5