Ancient Egyptian vocalization project/List of vocalized forms

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This list is the core of the Ancient Egyptian vocalization project. It is supposed to become a compilation of all known reconstructed forms of the ancient Egyptian language, sorted alphabetically (in the traditional order). Please feel free to add - whether your reconstruction is based on Akkadian, Greek, Coptic, Meroitic, Hebrew, rhyme or puns in works of Egyptian literature, peculiarities of the writing system or phonetic considerations - just make sure to explain your reasoning or to provide a source if copying from another work. Thanks in advance!

See also: Ancient Egyptian vocalization project/General principles

Note: Please add new words using the alphabetic order, listing plurals, nisbes and other derivatives under the main entry. Use v/v: for an unknown vowel and state which period of the Egyptian language you think the reconstruction is valid for (where possible).


Abbreviations for commonly used reference works[edit | edit source]

The following list is meant to make referencing the sources easier (endnotes would take up significantly more space). Please use this format and add the page number to make future look-ups easier!

  • AE: Antonio Loprieno "Ancient Egyptian - A linguistic introduction"
  • EAS: Wolfgang Schenkel "Einfuehrung in die Altaegyptische Sprachwissenschaft"
  • EP: Carsten Peust: "Egyptian Phonology"

Note: There are many conventions for transcribing Egyptian consonants. The following set was chosen to obtain (subjectively) maximum intercompatibility combined with ease of use for editing.

ɜ[edit | edit source]

ɜbd [ɜabád] (EAS, 64) (AE, 53) - month Copt: Sg. ΕϐΟΤ,

ɜbdw [ɜabūdaw] (AE, 53) - months Copt: Pl. ΕϐΗΤ and [e'bote]

ɜpp [ʻAʼpāpī] - snake Apep Copt: Ⲁⲫⲱⲫ, Greek: Ἄποφις

ʲ[edit | edit source]

ʲɜq.t [ʲuRqat] (AE, 32) - vegetables Afroas: wrķ

ʲwn [ʲa'win] (AE, 31) - color Afroas: *lwn; Sem: *lawn

ʲwn [Āwanu] - Heliopolis

ʲwr.tʲ [ʲa'wirtVʲ] (AE, 78) - she is pregnant → [ʔaʔeʔtɘ]

ʲb [ʲib] (AE, 31) - heart Afroas: *lib

ʲmʲ [ʲamíʲ] - he who is in, which is in

ʲm.t [ʲāmʲat] - she who is in

ʲmn [amānu] - Amun

ʲmnʲ [ʲamīniʲ] - he who is in the west

ʲmn.t [ʲamnat] (AE, 56) - right side

ʲmn.tʲ [ʲa'mintiʲ] (AE, 56) - West Copt: EMNT

ʲmn.tt [ʲa'mintit] (AE, 57) - Western Land, Afterlife, Amentet Copt: AMNTE

ʲmr.wt [ʲa'mirwat] (AE, 250) - Inundation Copt: AMHIPI

ʲfdw [ʲaf'daw], fem. ʲfd.t [ʲaf'dat] - four Copt: ϤΤΟΟΥ

ʲ.ʲnʲ [ʲa'niʲ] (AE, 81) - fetch! (imperative!) Copt: E/ANAI

ʲnk [ʲa'nak] - I Copt: ΑΝΟΚ

ʲnn [ʲa'nan] - we Copt: ΑΝΟΝ

ʲnpw [ʲa'na:pa(w)] - Anubis Copt: ANOYП, Akk: a-na-pa

ʲr=f [ʲa'raf] - to him Copt: EPOϤ

ʲr.t [ʲīrit] - to do, to make → [ʔi:rɘ] (1,000 BCE) Copt: EIPE

ʲrʲ=f [ʲarīʲuf] (AE, 86) - he makes

ʲrʲ.n=k [ʲarnak/ʲariʲnak] (AE, 77) - you make

ʲrr=s [ʲa'rārVs] (AE, 79) - she does

ʲr.t [ʲārat] - eye

ʲqʲ [ˤuʲqVʲ] (AE, 47) - consecration Copt: AEIK

ʲsw.t [ʲiswat] (AE, 50) - price Copt: ACOY

ʲzr [ʲazrVw] (AE, 31) - tamarisk

ʲḥʲ [ʲa'ḥiʲ] (AE, 58) - ox Copt: EϨE

ʲḥ.w [ʲa'ḥiww] (AE, 58) - oxes Copt: EϨEY

ʲt [ʲātVʲ] (AE, 33, 35, 36) - father Copt: EIωΤ

ʲtʲ.w [ʲatʲaw] (AE, 49) - fathers Copt: EIAϮ

ʲt=f [ʲātʲif] (AE, 36) - his father

ʲtrw [ʲatraw] (AE, 47) - river Copt: EIOPE

ʲdmʲ [ʲV'dU:mVʲ] (AE, 245) - red linen Hebr: 'ēṭûn

ʲ.ḏd [ʲa'ḏid] (AE, 81) - say! (imperative) Copt: AϪI

ˤ[edit | edit source]

ˤɜ [ˤaR] (AE, 260) - big

ˤff.j [ˤuffiʲ] - fly (insect) Copt: AϤ

ˤnḫ [ˤaná:ḫ] - life, to live

ˤnḫ [ˤa'ná:ḫ], pl. ˤnḫ.w [ˤa'ná:ḫw] (AE, 58) - oath Copt: ANAϢ, ANAYϢ

ˤq.w [ˤaqwuw] (AE, 53) - food, income

ˤšɜ [ˤi'šiR] (AE, 46) - many, to become many Copt: AϢAI

ˤḏɜ [ˤaḏɜV] (EP, 124) - guilty Copt: OϪ

W[edit | edit source]

wɜḏ [wāRiḏ] (AE, 31) - green Sem: *warq; Copt: OYωT

wɜḏ.wrʲ [wāRiḏ'wūriʲ] (AE, 83) - sea

wˤb [wī'ab] (AE, 30, 44) - priest Copt: ΟΥΗΗϐ

wˤb [wa'ắb] (AE,30) - to be pure, to become pure Copt: OYOП

wˤbw [wǎ'baw] (AE, 30) - he is pure (stative form)

wˤw [wuˤˤuw], fem. wˤ.t [wuˤˤut] - one Copt: OYAI

wˤw [wīˤiw] (AE, 39) - soldier → [we:ˤɘ] Akk: ú-i-ú (1,000) → ú-e-eḫ / ú-e-e - ú-e-ú

wˤr.ty [wuˤrūtVj] (AE, 60) - (two) legs Copt: OYEPHTE

wbḫ [wa'baḫ] (AE, 37) - to become white Copt: OYϐAϢ

wbn [wabāna] - to rise (like sun), to shine

wn [wan] (AE, 16) - to be, to exist Copt: OYON

wpw.t [wapwat] (AE, 49, 57) - occupation Copt: EIOПE

wpw.ty [wap'wūtiʲ] (AE, 37, 57) - messenger Meroitic: apote

wpw.tyw [wap'wūtʲVw] (AE, 37) - messengers Akk: ứ-pu-ti, ứ-pu-ut

wrʲ [wūriʲ] (AE, 260) - great

wsḫ [wiḫat] (AE, 47) - breadth Copt: OYEϢCE

wsḫ [sǎḫat] (AE, 53) - field

wdḥ [wi'daḥ] (AE, 50) - fruit Copt: OYTAϨ

wḏɜ [wV'ḏiRV] (EP, 124) - to be safe Copt: OYϪAI

wḏɜ [wiḏRV] (EP, 124) - to go away Copt: OYEITE

B[edit | edit source]

bʲn [bāʲin] (AE, 33) - bad (m.) Copt: ϐωωNE

bʲn.t [báɜnat] (AE, 60) - bad (f.) Copt: ϐOONE

bʲn.t [baʲnVt] (AE, 248) - harp Copt: ϐOINE

bnn [bānana] - phoenix

br [bār] - cargo boat Greek: βαρις

bz.tʲ [buztVʲ] (AE, 78) - you have been introduced → [best] (1,000 BCE)

bst.t [wubesti] - Bastet

P[edit | edit source]

pr [pāruw] (ΑE, 12) - house

prʲ [pīraʲ] (AE, 260) - one who has come out

pr.t=k [pirtVk] (AE, 89) - your going forth

pr.t [pu'rut] (AE, 57) - seed Copt: (E)ϐPA

pḥ [pāḥ] - strength

pḥ.wʲ [paḥwVʲ] (AE, 60) - buttocks Copt: ПAϨOY

psd.w [pisi:ḏaw], fem. psd.t [pisi:ḏat] - nine Copt: ΨIT

pšs.t [pušsat] (AE, 47) - half Copt: ПIϢE/ПAϢE

pt [pit] (AE, 49, 57) - sky Copt: ПЕ

p.wt [pīwat] (AE, 59) - skies Copt: ПHYE

Ptḥ [Pītaḥ] (AE, 34) - god Ptah Greek: Фθα

pḏ.t [pīḏat] (AE, 38) - bow Akk: pi-ta; Copt: ПITE

F[edit | edit source]

fɜʲ.t [faRʲat] (AE, 87) - carrying → [faʔʔ] (1,000 BCE); Copt: ϤOE

M[edit | edit source]

m [ʲamāʔ] (AE, 81) - come! (m.) (imperative) Copt: AMOY

m [ʲamīʔ] (AE, 81) - come! (f.) (imperative) Copt: AMH

m ʲr.w [ʔVm'ʔāraw] (AE, 99) - not to do Copt: MПωP

mɜˤt [muRˤat] (AE, 39) - truth → [muʔˤɘ] (1,000 BCE); El Amarna letters in Akkadian to Amenhotep III call pharaoh Ni-ib-mu-wa-ri-ia Akk: -mu-a; Copt: ME/ MEI

mˤḥˤw.t [maˤḥíˤwat] (AE, 53) - tomb

mw [māw] (AE, 12, 44) - water Copt: MOOY/ MAY/ MωOΥ

mw.t [muʔwat] (AE, 245) - mother Copt: MAAY

mn [mān] (AE, 36, 53) - to stay, to remain, to be stable; Akk: Royal name of king Seti I mn-mɜˤ.t-rˤw /minmuʔˤɘ'riˤɘ/ is mi-in-mu-a-ri- (1,000 BCE) 'Ra is stable of truth' ; Copt: MOYN

mn [min] (AE, 87) - stable Greek: Mεμ

mn nfr - [minnafir] (AE, 57) - enduring beauty Greek: Мεμφις Copt: MNEϤ [menfɘ]

mrw [mūraw] (AE, 250) - river bank Copt: MHP

mrw.t [marūt] - love, desire

mrʲ.t [mirʲit] (AE, 89) - to love → [meʔʔ] (1,000 BCE); Copt: ME

mrʲ.t=f [mir'ʲītVf] (AE, 99) - to love him Copt: MEPITϤ

mrr=f [marāruf] (AE, 86) - which he loved

mrʲw [marʲiw] (AE, 38) - beloved Akk: ma-a'-ia/ ma-a-i

mrʲ nṯr [māriʲ'naṯar] (AE, 99) - pious Copt: MAINOYTE

mḥʲ.t [ma'ḥīʲVT] (AE, 39) - Northwind → [mɘ'ḥe:ʔ] ; Akk: ma-ḫe-e (1,000 BCE)

Mḥʲ.t [ma'ḥūʲVt] (AE, 39) - Goddess Mehit → [mɘ'ḥu:ʔ] ; Akk: ma-ḫu-ú (1,000 BCE); Greek: Mχης

msʲ.w [masʲaw] (AE, 78) - he was born

msḏw [masḏiw] (AE, 55) - enemy

msḏw.t [mas'ḏīwat] (AE, 87) - hated → [mɘs'de"wɘ]; Copt: MECTH

mšʲ [mašˤVʲ] (AE, 44) - to walk Copt: MOOϢE

mdw [maduw] (AE, 58) - word

mdw.w [mā'dūw] (AE, 36, 37) - words Copt: MTAY

N[edit | edit source]

n(n) [nai] - no

nɜ-msḥ.w [naR-masḥaw] (EP, 67) - crocodiles Akk: nam-su-ḫa

nʲw.t [nūʔat] (AE, 245) - city, Thebes Akk: né-e

nb [nīb] – every Copt: NIBI, NIBЄ

nb [nīb] (AE, 36, 55) - lord El Amarna letters in Akkadian to Amenhotep III call pharaoh Ni-ib-mu-wa-ri-ia (from his royal cartouche nb-mɜɜ-rˤ 'Ra is the lord of the truth); Copt: NEП

nb.f [nībif] (AE, 55) - his lord Greek: νηφχις

nb.t [nībat] - lady

nb.t ḥw.t [nībat ḥāwit] - Nephthys (lit. Lady of the Enclosure) Greek: Νέφθυς

nbw [nābaw] (AE, 41, 248) - gold Copt: NOYϐ

nfr [nāfir], fem. nfr.t [nafrat] (EAS,89) (AE, 39) - good, beautiful, perfect → [na:fɘ(ʔ)] (1,000 BCE); Akk: na-a-pa (Dyn. XIX); Copt: NOYФE

nfr.t [nāfrat] - perfection, beauty

ns [nis] (AE,31) - tongue Copt: λΑc Sem: liš-ān

nsw-bjt [insiw-bīʲVt] - King of Upper and Lower Egypt → [ensɘbīʲɘ] (1,000 BCE); Akk.: in-si-bi-ya[1]

nhzʲ [nihVsʲV] (EP, 98) - to awake Copt: NEϨCE

nḥḏ.t [nuḥḏat] (AE, 251) - tooth Copt: NAϪPE

nkt [nu'kut] - (AE, 251) thing Copt: NKA

nṯr [nāṯar], pl. nṯr.w [naṯūraw] (AE, 13, 35, 45, 53) - god Copt.: NOYTE, NTAIP

nṯr.t [naṯārat] (AE, 35) - goddess Copt: NTωΡΕ

nṯrʲ [nuṯriʲ], fem. ntr.t [nuṯrit] (AE, 53) - divine

nḏm [nāḏim], fem. nḏm.t [naḏmat] (AE, 32) - sweet Sem: *n'm

R[edit | edit source]

r [rāR] (AE, 58) - mouth, utterance, magic spell, speech Copt: PO

r.w [rā:Raw] (AE, 58) - mouths, utterances, magic spells, speeches Copt: PωOY

[ri:ˤu(w)] (AE, 39) - sun, sun god → [re:ˤɘ] (1,000 BCE) ;El Amarna letters in Akkadian to Amenhotep III call pharaoh Ni-ib-mu-wa-ri-ia (from his royal cartouche nb-mɜɜ-rˤ 'Ra is the lord of the truth', also Nim-mu-ria, Mi-im-mu-ri-ia, Im-mu-ri-ia, Nam-hurya Akk: ri-ia/ re-e; Coptic: PE

rmṯ [ra:maṯ] (AE, 36, 45) - man Copt: PωΜΕ

md.t rmṯ [madat'ra:maṯ] (AE, 57) - thing of man, mankind Copt: MNTPωΜΕ

rmṯ ˤɜ [ra:maṯ'ɜaR] (AE, 57) - great man, rich Copt: PMΜAO

rn [rin] (AE, 46) - name → [ren] (1,000 BCE) Copt: PAN

rnp.t [ranpat] (AE, 59) - year Copt: POMПE

rnp.wt [ran'pawwat] (AE, 59) - years Copt: PMПOOYE

rdw [ra:duw] (AE, 58) - plant Copt: PωT

rdw.w [raduwaw] (AE, 58) - plants Copt: POϮ

H[edit | edit source]

hɜbw [haRbuw] (AE, 59) - event Copt: ϩωϐ

hɜbw.w [haR'bu:waw] (AE, 59) - event Copt: ϩϐHYE

hɜb=f [hVR'bif] (AE, 77) - he sends

hʲbw [hiʲbaw] (ΑΕ, 48) - ibis → [hi:b] Copt: ϩIП

hʲbʲ.w [hiʲ'ba:ʲVw] (ΑΕ, 48) - ibises Copt: ϩIϐωΙ

hrw [harwuw] (AE, 36) - day Copt: ϩOOY

hrw.w [haruww] (AE, 58) - days Copt: ϩPEY

hnw [hi:niw] (AE, 88) - bent

[edit | edit source]

ḥɜ.t [ḥuʀīt] (AE, 41) - front, beginning [ḥuʀīt] → [ḥe] (EP,224); Akk: pa-re-a-ma-ḫu-ú (2,000 BCE) → ma-an-ti-me-AN-ḫe-e (1,000 BCE); Copt: ϩH

ḥɜ.tʲ [ḥu'ʀītij] (AE, 72) - first

ḥʲpw [ḥuʲpVw] - god Apis → [ḥeʔp(Vw)] Copt: ϩAПЕ

ḥw.t [ḥāwit] - mansion, palace, sanctum Gr: Αἴγυπτος (< Ḥāwit-kuз-Pitáḥ the temple of the ka of Ptah)

ḥfɜw [ḥafɜaw] (AE, 55) - snake Copt: ϩOϤ

ḥm [ḥam] - man

ḥm nṯr [ḥam'naṯar] (AE, 57) - priest Copt: ϩONT

ḥm.t [ḥiʲmat] (AE, 59) - woman Copt: ϩIME

ḥm.wt [ḥiʲamwat] (AE, 49) - women Copt: ϩIOME

ḥnˤ [ḥāna] - together with, and

ḥnw [ḥīnaw] (AE, 38, 47) - jar → [ḥV'new] (1,000 BCE); Akk: ḫi-na; Copt: ϨNAY

ḥr [ḥar] (AE, 32, 56) - upon, face, for Afroas: *xal; Sem: *'al; Copt: ϨO

ḥr=f [ḥa'rif] (AE, 56) - his face Copt: ϨPAϤ

ḥrʲ [ḥaríʲ] (AE, 56) - upper part Copt: ϨPAI

Ḥr.(w) [Ḥāruw] (EAS, 36, 60) (AE, 38, 55) - Horus → [Ḥārɘ] → [Ḥor] (1,000 BCE); Assyr: dḪa-a-ra/mḪu-u-ru (1,000 BCE); Greek Ὡρος; Copt: ϩOP

ḥrʲ-pḏ.t [ḥariʲ'pīḏat] (AE, 39) - overseer of the troop → [ḥɘ:ri'pi:dɘ]; Akk: uḫ-ri-pí-ta

ḥḥ [ḥāḥ] - eternity, eternal, million, god Heh

ḥzʲw [ḥasʲiw] - praised → [ḥɘs'ʲeʔ] (1,000 BCE); Copt: ϨACIE

ḥqr [ḥa'qar] (AE, 248) - hungry → [ḥqoʔ] (1,000 BCE); Copt: ϨKO

ḥqr.tʲ [ḥa'qirtVʲ] (AE, 257) - she is hungry

ḥtp [ḥātip] (AE, 36) - pleasing

ḥtp=ṯ [ḥVt'piṯ] (AE, 82) - may you be satisfied → [ḥɘt'peʔ] (1,000 BCE)

ḥṯṯ.t [ḥaṯ'ṯat] (AE, 57) - armpit AϬO

[edit | edit source]

ḫɜw [ḫūʀuw] (AE, 250) - blow of the wind Copt: ϩH

ḫnmw [ḫa'nāmuw] - the god Khnum Greek: Χνούμ

ḫmnw [ḫa'ma:naw], fem. ḫmn.t [ḫa'ma:nat] - eight Copt: ϢΜΟΥΝ

ḫmtw [ḫamtaw], fem. ḫmt.t [ḫamtat] - three Copt: ϢOMT

ḫrw [ḫi'raw] (AE, 41) - voice Copt: ϩPOOY

ḫʕʲ=k [ḫaʕ'ʲak] - you will appear

ḫprw [ḫupraw] (AE, 55) - shape, form, transformation → [ḫuprɘ] ; Akkadian: ḫu-u'-ru (1,000 BCE)

ḫprw.w [ḫu'pirwaw] (AE, 37) - shapes, transformations → [ḫpeʔr] ; Akkadian:(a)ḫ-pi-ir

ḫpr [ḫupVr] - become (AΕ, 22) → [ḫa:pɘ], [ḫο:pɘ] (1,310 - 1,195 BCE) Copt: ϢωΠΕ

ḫpr.w [ḫapraw] (AΕ, 41) - has become (stative) Copt: ϢOΠ/ϢOOΠ

ḫt [ḫit] - tree, wood

H[edit | edit source]

ẖɜb.t [ẖa'ʀabʲVt] (AE, 245) - sickle Copt: XPOϐI

ẖˤq [ẖa'ˤaq] (AE, 248) - wool Copt: ϩKA

ẖt ['ẖūwat] (AE, 41) - body, belly → ['ẖūwa’] (1700 BCE) → ['ẖēw] (800 BCE); Copt: ϩH

ẖnw [ẖānaw] (AE, 48) - inside Copt: ϩOYΝ

ẖnn [ẖānan] (AE, 48) - to approach Copt: ϩωΝ

ẖr [ẖur] (AE, 58) - beneath

ẖrʲ [ẖuriʲ] (AE, 58) - lower part ϩPAI

ẖr.t [ẖurit] (AE, 58) - food ϩPE

Z[edit | edit source]

[siɜ] (AE, 13) - son

zɜ=ʲ [si:Raʲ] (AE, 56) - my son

zɜ tɜ [siRtaR] (AE, 57) - basilisk Copt: CITE

zɜ.t [siɜat] - daughter

zʲnw [siʲnVw] (AE, 47) - physician Copt: CAEIN

znḥmw [sun'ḥu:mVw] (AE, 34) - locust Afroas: *sulxam; Sem: *sol'ām

zp [sāpa] - time

zẖɜw [sáhɜaw] (EAS, 65) - scribe Copt: CAϧ

zẖɜ.w [sáhɜa:waw] (EAS, 58) - scribes → [sɘẖ'ʔa:ʲ]; Copt: CϧOYI

zẖɜ [si'hiR] (AE, 46) - to write Coptic: CϨAI

Ś[edit | edit source]

sbɜ [subɜāwat] (AE, 59) - star

sbɜ.wt [subɜáwwat] (AE, 59) - constellation

sbɜw [sabɜíw] (AE, 60) - wise (m.) Copt: CAϐE

sbɜw.t [sabɜīwat] (AE, 60) - wise (f.) Copt: CAϐH

sp.t [sa:pat] (ΑΕ, 34) - lip Afroas: *ṥapat; Sem: *ṥapat

sp.tʲ [sāptVʲ] (AE, 60) - (two) lips Copt: CΠOTOY

spd.tʲ [sa'pidtVʲ] (AE, 78) - you are sharp (stative) → [sɘpedtɘ] → [spet] (1,000 BCE)

s.mn.t [simī:nit] (AE, 53, 250) - to establish Copt: CMINE

s.mn.tʲ [sa'mantVʲ] (AE, 257) - she was established

sfḫw ['safḫaw], fem. sfḫ.t ['safḫat] - seven Copt: ϢAϢϤ, Afroas.: *sṗɣ

sn [san] (AE, 46, 53) - brother Copt: CON

sn.t [sá:nat] (AE, 53) - sister Copt: CωNE

sn.w [sanú:waw] (AE, 53, 55) - brothers Copt: CNHY

snwj [sinuwwaj], fem. sntj [sinu:taj] - two Copt: CNAY

snsn [sansan] (AE, 53) - befriend

sḩn.t [siḩVntV] (AE, 81) - to command Copt: CAϨNE

s.ḩtp [saḩ'tip] (AE, 81) - pacify! (imperative) → [sḩtep] (1,000 BCE)

sḫm [sāḫam] (AE, 59), pl. sḫm.w [sáḫmaw] - power → [so:ḫm], [saḫm] (1,000 BCE)

s.t [uːsat] - Isis → [ʔuːsəʔ] (1,000 BCE)

stḫ [sūtaḫ] - Seth

stp [sā:tap] - to choose El Amarna letters in Akkadian give royal name of Ramses III as šá-te-ep-na-ri-a (stp-n-rˤ /satepna'ri:ˤa/ 'the one whom Re has chosen'); Copt: CωTΠ

stp=k(w) [sVt'pā:ku] (AE, 36) - I choose (stative)

stp=kʲ [satVpakVʲ] (AE, 78) - I was chosen

stp=tʲ [sVt'pa:taʲ] (AE, 257) - you choose (m.) (stative)

stp= [sVt'pa:tiʲ] (AE, 257) - you choose (f.) (stative)

stp=w [satpaw] (AE, 37) - it was chosen Copt: COTΠ

sḏm [sá:ḏam] (AE, 89) - to hear him

sḏm=f [saḏmVf] (AE, 53) - may he hears

sḏm [sáḏma=N] (AE, 53) - may N hear

sḏm=s [saḏāmas] (AE, 53) - that she hear

sḏm=f [saḏmaf] (AE, 53) - may he hears

sḏm.n=f [saḏímnaf] (AE, 53) - he heard

sḏm [sāḏim] (AE, 53) - he who hears

sḏmw [sáḏmiw] (AE, 53) - he who is heard

s.ḏd.w [saḏdiw] (AE, 87) - told → [sɘḏ'dej] (1,000 BCE) Copt: ϢϪHI

s.ḏd.t [siḏdit] (AE, 49) - cause to tell Copt: ϢAϪE

Š[edit | edit source]

šˤnw [šV'nuw] (AE, 47) - net → [šɘneʔ] (1,000 BCE); Copt: ϢNE

šwt [šawīt] - shadow

špʲ.tʲ [šapiʲtVʲ] (AE, 78) - she is ashamed → [šɘpi:tɘ] (1,000 BCE)

šmsʲ [šimsiʲ] - to worship Copt: ϢMϢE

šny [šūnVʲ] (AE, 38) - tree → [še:nɘ]; Akk: si-ni (1,000 BCE)

šrr [ši:rar] (AE, 260) - small

Ḳ/Q[edit | edit source]

qbb [qa'bab] (AE, 42) - to cool Copt: XϐOϐ

qnʲ.t [qinʲit] (AE, 47) - to become fat Copt: KNNE/KNNIE

qrf [qa'raf] (AE, 46) - ambush Copt: KPOϤ

qdʲ [qādaʲ] (AE, 60) - to turn Copt: KωTE

qd.w [qu:daw] (AE, 78) - it was built

K[edit | edit source]

[kuR] - soul, ka

kɜm [kaRmVw] (AE, 31) - vineyard Sem: *karm

kɜmw [kaRmiw] (AE, 56) - gardener Copt: ϬME

kmm [ka'mam] (AE, 88) - to become black Copt: KMOM

km.t [kūmat] (AE, 42) - Egypt Copt: KHME

G[edit | edit source]

gɜw [ga:Riw] (AE, 260) - narrow Copt: KOYI

gmʲ.t [gī:mit] (AE, 42) - to find Copt: ϪIMI/ϬINE

grg.t [ga'rū:gat] (AE, 42) - dowry Copt: ϬPHϪI

gstʲ [gastVʲdmʲ] (AE, 245) - palette Hebr: qešet

T[edit | edit source]

[taʔ] (AE, 41, 49) - land Copt: TO

tɜ.wy [taRwVʲ] (AE, 38) - two lands → Akk: ta-a-wa

tɜš [ta'Raš] (AE, 56) - border Copt: TOϢ

tɜš.w [taRšaw] (AE, 59) - borders Copt: TOOϢ

tɜšʲ [taR'šiʲ] (AE, 56) - neighbor Copt: TEϢE

tɜšʲ.w [taR'šiʲwaw] (AE, 59) - neighbors → [tɘʔšeʲwɘ]; Copt: TEϢEEY

tpj [ta'piʲ] (AE, 36) - glorious, chief, above, first

tppwḥ [tap'pu:ḥ] (AE, 48) - apple Heb: תפוח‎; Copt: ϪMПЕϨ

tf [tif] (AE, 42) - spittle Copt: TAϤ

[edit | edit source]

ṯɜʲ.t [ṯi:Rʲit] (AE, 42) - to receive, to take Copt: ϪI

ṯʲw [ṯiʲu] - yes

ṯr.t [ṯa:rat] (AE, 42) - willow Copt: ΘωΡΙ

ṯzʲ.w [ṯasʲaw] (AE, 97) - he was exalted

D[edit | edit source]

[di:j] (AE. 82) - to give → [diʔ] (1,000 BCE)

djw [di:jaw], fem. [di:jat] - five Copt: TΙΟΥ

dwn [da:wan] (AE, 32) - to strech Sem: *ṭwl

db [dib] (AE, 41) - horn Copt: TAП

dbn [dī:ban] (AE, 38) - weight Akk: ti-ba-an

dp.t [dV:put] (AE, 58) - boat

dp.wt=f [dV:pwV:tif] (AE, 58) - his boat

dnʲ.t [danʲut] (AE, 40) - part Copt: TOE

[edit | edit source]

ḏb [ḏa:baˤ] (AE, 44) - to seal TωωϐΕ

ḏr.t [ḏārat] (AE, 22) - hand Copt: TωPE

ḏrʲ.w [ḏārʲaw] (AE, 22) - he is strong (stative) Copt: ϪOOP

ḏḥwtʲ [ḏiḥautī] - Toth

ḏd [ḏā:d] (AE, 53) - to speak, to say Copt: Ϫω

ḏd=f [ḏi:duf] (AE, 86) - he said

ḏdd.w [ḏVdV:diw] (AE, 87) - said

ḏdd.t [ḏVdVdat] (AE, 53) - what is said

ḏd.n=k [ḏidnuk] (AE, 53) - what you said

ḏd.n=n [ḏidnan] (AE, 77) - we said


  1. Wolfgang, Schenkel (1986). Das Wort für König (von Oberägypten). University Heidelberg. OCLC 811861925.