# Analysis of variance/General steps

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## General steps for ANOVAs

View the accompanying screencast: [1] |

- Establish the design and type of ANOVA. Clearly identify:
- IV(s) (categorical)
- DV(s) (at least interval), and
- CV(s) (dichotomous or at least interval) - for ANCOVA

- Develop a hypothesis and/or research question for each main and interaction effect
- Examine assumptions
- Examine descriptive statistics and histograms for each cell and marginal totals for the descriptive statistics
- Create bar, error-bar, or line graph
- Interpret significance test (
*F*) results and direction of main and interaction effects - Conduct follow-up tests if warranted
- Report and interpret effect sizes
- eta-square (omnibus) and partial eta-square
- standardised mean effect size (difference b/w two means, e.g., Cohen's
*d*)