A Neo-Hookean model is an extension of w:Hooke's law for the case of large w:deformations. The model of neo-Hookean solid is usable for w:plastics and w:rubber-like substances.

The response of a neo-Hookean material, or hyperelastic material, to an applied stress differs from that of a linear elastic material. While a linear elastic material has a linear relationship between applied stress and strain, a neo-Hookean material does not. A hyperelastic material will initially be linear, but at a certain point, the stress-strain curve will plateau due to the release of energy as heat while straining the material. Then, at another point, the w:elastic modulus of the material will increase again.

This hyperelasticity, or rubber elasticity, is often observed in polymers. Cross-linked polymers will act in this way because initially the polymer chains can move relative to each other when a stress is applied. However, at a certain point the polymer chains will be stretched to the maximum point that the covalent cross links will allow, and this will cause a dramatic increase in the elastic modulus of the material. One can also use thermodynamics to explain the elasticity of polymers.

## Neo-Hookean Solid Model

The model of neo-Hookean solid assumes that the extra stresses due to deformation are proportional to Finger tensor:

${\displaystyle \mathbf {T} =-p\mathbf {I} +G\mathbf {B} }$,

where ${\displaystyle \mathbf {T} }$ - stress w:tensor, p - w:pressure, ${\displaystyle \mathbf {I} }$ - is the unity tensor, G is a constant equal to w:shear modulus, ${\displaystyle \mathbf {B} }$ is the w:Finger tensor.

The strain energy for this model is:

${\displaystyle W={\frac {1}{2}}GI_{B}}$,

where W is potential energy and ${\displaystyle I_{B}=\mathrm {tr} (\mathbf {B} )}$ is the trace (or first invariant) of w:Finger tensor ${\displaystyle \mathbf {B} }$.

Usually the model is used for incompressible media.

The model was proposed by w:Ronald Rivlin in 1948.

## Uni-axial extension

Under uni-axial extension from the definition of Finger tensor:

${\displaystyle T_{11}=-p+G\alpha _{1}^{2}}$
${\displaystyle T_{22}=T_{33}=-p+{\frac {G}{\alpha _{1}}}}$

where ${\displaystyle \alpha _{1}}$ is the elongation in the w:stretch ratio in the ${\displaystyle 1}$-direction.

Assuming no traction on the sides, ${\displaystyle T_{22}=T_{33}=0}$, so:

${\displaystyle T_{11}=G(\alpha _{1}^{2}-\alpha _{1}^{-1})=G{\frac {3\epsilon +3\epsilon ^{2}+\epsilon ^{3}}{1+\epsilon }}}$,

where ${\displaystyle \epsilon =\alpha _{1}-1}$ is the strain.

The equation above is for the true stress (ratio of the elongation force to deformed cross-section), for w:engineering stress the equation is:

${\displaystyle T_{11eng}=G(\alpha _{1}-\alpha _{1}^{-2})}$

For small deformations ${\displaystyle \epsilon <<1}$ we will have:

${\displaystyle T_{11}=3G\epsilon }$

Thus, the equivalent w:Young's modulus of a neo-Hookean solid in uniaxial extension is 3G.

## Simple shear

For the case of w:simple shear we will have:

${\displaystyle T_{12}=G\gamma }$
${\displaystyle T_{11}-T_{22}=G\gamma ^{2}}$
${\displaystyle T_{22}-T_{33}=0}$

where ${\displaystyle \gamma }$ is shear deformation. Thus neo-Hookean solid shows linear dependence of shear stresses upon shear deformation and quadratic w:first difference of normal stresses.

## Generalization

The most important generalisation of Neo-Hookean solid is w:Mooney-Rivlin solid.

## Source

• C. W. Macosko Rheology: principles, measurement and applications, VCH Publishers, 1994, ISBN 1-56081-579-5