Adapted Physical Education

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Adapted Physical Education (APE) is the art and science of developing, implementing, and monitoring a carefully designed physical education instructional program for a learner with a disability, based on a comprehensive assessment, to give the learner the skills necessary for a lifetime of rich leisure, recreation, and sport experiences to enhance physical fitness and wellness.[1]

Adapted Physical Education National Standards (APENS)[edit]

The content an Adapted Physical Educator must know was identified and divided into 15 broad standards. The purpose of the Adapted Physical Education National Standards project was to ensure that physical education for children with disabilities be delivered by a qualified Adapted Physical Educator.[2]

See APENS Standards


Key Terms[edit]

Direct Services[edit]

-Adapted Physical Education is a direct service, meaning it must be provided to the student with a disability as part of the special education services received. APE is a federally mandated component of special education services.[3]


Related Services[edit]

-These are services that are necessary to assist the student in benefiting from special education. Examples of related services are Occupational Therapy (OT), Physical Therapy (PT), Speech and Language, and School Health Services.[4] Adapted Physical Education is not a related service.

Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)[edit]

-LRE is an IDEA principle that requires students with disabilities be educated to the maximum extent appropriate with students who do not have a disability and that they be removed from regular education settings only when the nature or severity of their disability cannot be addressed with the use of supplementary aids and services.[5]

Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)[edit]

-FAPE means special education and related services that are provided at public expense, under public supervision and direction, without charge. These special education and related services must be provided in conformity with an Individual Education Program (IEP).[6]

Individual Education Program (IEP)[edit]

-An IEP is a written plan for serving students with disabilities ages 3 through 21.[7] The IEP is the cornerstone of the educational process that ties together the parent and data from the comprehensive assessment and information from the child’s classroom and physical education teacher, with a specific program to intervene to meet goals and objectives specially designed for the student.[8]


Individual Transition Plan (ITP)[edit]

-An ITP must be developed for each student with a disability, no later than his or her 16th birthday. The ITP must address, specifically, the instructional strategies that will be used to prepare the student for the transition from school to community and work environments.[9]


Person-First Terminology[edit]

-Person-First Terminology is the language used to describe individuals with disabilities.[10]

  • Put the person first. Say “person with a disability” rather than “disabled person.”
  • Use disability over handicap.
  • Avoid outdated terms such as “crippled”, “mute”, or “retarded.”
  • Avoid the term “normal.”
  • Avoid terms that project an unnecessary negative connotation such as “victim” or “sufferer.”


Inappropriate Language Appropriate Language
"confined to a wheelchair" "wheelchair user"
"dumb", "mute" "person who is nonverbal"
"the disabled" "person with a disability"
"slow learner" "person with a learning disability"

Laws[edit]

The following U.S. Laws have been influential in the advancement of APE:


Education of all Handicapped Children Act of 1975[edit]

Education of all Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-142) The history of adapted physical education within public education began with the implementation of P.L. 94-142 in 1975.[11] This act recognized physical education as a direct, educational service. It also mandated the creation of Individual Education Program (IEP) for all students with disabilities; students be educated in their Least Restrictive Environment (LRE); and a Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) for students with disabilities.[12] This law requires that all students with disabilities be provided with physical education services.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)[edit]

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Enacted in 1990, this act is the reauthorization of P.L. 94-142. It was also reauthorized in 1997 and 2004. Person-first terminology was instituted into this act and is evident by the name change from “Education of all Handicapped Children Act” to “Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.” Each student, no later than 16, must have an Individual Transition Plan (ITP) as part of their IEP. Students must also have one of the 13 disability categories to qualify for this special programming. This act also allows for 3-year IEP’s.[13]

For more information on IDEA 2004 as it relates to Adapted Physical Education visit PE Central: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004).

The Rehabilitation Act (Section 504)[edit]

The Rehabilitation Act (P.L. 93-112, Section 504) Created in 1973, this act mandated that individuals with disabilities cannot be excluded from any program or activity receiving federal funds solely on the basis of their disability. Students with disabilities who do not qualify for services under IDEA, yet require reasonable accommodations to benefit from their education must have a written 504 plan. A 504 plan is a written document that states modifications and accommodations the student will need to be given the same program as those individuals who do not have a disability. The student's disability and corresponding need for reasonable accommodation are identified and documented in the plan. All school staff involved in the provision of accommodations should be contacted by the 504 coordinator and made aware of their duties and responsibilities.[14] This law also prevents exclusion from intramurals and interscholastic athletics on the basis of disability.

Americans with Disabilities Act[edit]

Americans with Disabilities Act (P.L. 101-336) Enacted in 1990, this act expanded civil rights protection for individuals with disabilities in both the public and private sectors.[15] Among the many facets of this law, include the requirement that physical education facilities be accessible for individuals with disabilities. For example, ample space for a wheelchair between weight machines, ramps leading into gyms, and accessible field space.

Individual Education Program (IEP)[edit]

Purpose[edit]

Federal law mandates that each student receiving special education and related services must have an Individualized Education Program (IEP) developed for them. An IEP must be designed and written specifically for one student, outlining individualized needs, and used to establish an appropriate educational placement. Some consider the IEP to be a "management" program to guide appropriate service delivery, which includes the area of physical education. The IEP creates an opportunity for teachers, parents, school administrators, related services personnel and students (when appropriate) to work together to improve educational results for learners with disabilities.

IEP.jpg It is important to encourage maximum student participation in the IEP process.

Information in the IEP[edit]

The IEP must include the following:[16]

  • A statement of the child's present level of performance
  • How the child's disability affects involvement and performance in the general physical education class
  • A statement of goals
  • A statement of how progress toward the annual goals will be measured
  • Indications of how the child can be involved and progress in the general curriculum
  • A statement describing how each of the child's other needs that result from the child's disability will be met
  • A statement describing special education and related services
  • A statement describing supplementary aids and services
  • A statement of program accommodations or modifications or supports for school personnel that will advance the child toward attaining educational goals
  • A statement of services needed for the child to participate in extracurricular and other nonacademic activities
  • A statement describing how the child is to be educated so he or she can participate with other children with and without disabilities
  • An explanation of the extent, if any, to which the child will participate with children without disabilities in the general class
  • A statement describing how the child's parents will be regularly informed, at least as often as parents of children without disabilities in the general class
  • A statement that provides information of the extent to which progress is sufficient to enable the child to achieve his or her goals by the end of the year
  • Beginning at age 14, a statement of transition service needs that focuses on the student's course of study
  • Beginning at age 16, a statement of needed transition services of interagency responsibilities or any needed linkages
  • A plan for positive behavioral management if the child is disruptive

Placement Options[edit]

What is the relationship between placement and the IEP?

Decisions based on IDEA qualifications are generally discussed and determined during an Individual Education Program (IEP) meeting. IEP recommendations for services and supports must consider a student's unique needs, as well as the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)."[17] The LRE will be based upon the assessment process and where the IEP goals can best be met. There are a variety of placement options which should be considered including:[18]
  • Full-time General PE (GPE)
  • General PE with a younger class
  • Part-time Adapted PE (GPE for some units or parts of a lesson)
  • Reverse Mainstreaming
  • Small Group or One on One PE
  • Separate School
  • Home/Hospital

Do all students with disabilities need an IEP for physical education?[edit]

No, IDEA 2004 mandates each individual with a disability have an IEP developed if necessary to benefit their education. If an appropriate assessment is completed and the IEP team decides the student is not safe and/or successful in general physical education without supplementary aids and services, then an IEP is developed and services provided. A student can have IEP goals related to physical education needs regardless of their educational placement.[19]


Use of Technology[edit]

With the development of new and improved technology with physical education, and especially adapted physical education, it is important for APE teachers to know and understand different ways to implement technology for increased success for their students. APE teachers can develop an updated website regarding a fitness workout plan, in which students can download and follow at home with a sibling or parent. Students can be taught how to keep track of their physical fitness goals and record the data on a spreadsheet. Video files can also be used to demonstrate proper technique. Teachers can easily create videos of students doing an activity and download them onto an iPod or computer so that the students have an easily accessible reference to use during transition periods or after they graduate[20]. In APE, pedometers can easily be introduced into any lesson and taught how to use and how to keep track of steps. Teachers can also play appropriate and motivating music for aerobic activities. Video games are also starting to become more and more predominant in physical education classes, such games can be used outside of school as well. New applications (Apps) are constantly being created to assist people with disabilities in numerous ways. With technology growing, APE teachers need to continue to develop as professionals in providing new ways to enhance their students physical development.


References[edit]

Auxter, D, Pyfer, J, Zittel, L, & Roth, K. (Ed.). (2010). Principles and Methods of Adapted Physical Education and Recreation. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

http://www.apens.org/whatisape.html

http://www.apens.org/15standards.html

http://college.cengage.com/education/resources/res_prof/students/spec_ed/legislation/pl_94-142.html

http://idea.ed.gov/

Turnbull, A, Turnbull R, & Wehmeyer, M.L. (2010). Exceptional Lives Special Education in Today's Schools. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

http://www.asha.org/publications/journals/submissions/person_first.htm

http://www.pecentral.org/adapted/idea04.html

  1. Auxter, D, Pyfer, J, Zittel, L, & Roth, K. (Ed.). (2010). Principles and Methods of Adapted Physical Education and Recreation. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  2. http://www.apens.org/15standards.html
  3. http://www.apens.org/whatisape.html
  4. Turnbull, A, Turnbull R, & Wehmeyer, M.L. (2010). Exceptional Lives Special Education in Today's Schools. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  5. Turnbull, A, Turnbull R, & Wehmeyer, M.L. (2010). Exceptional Lives Special Education in Today's Schools. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  6. http://idea.ed.gov/
  7. Turnbull, A, Turnbull R, & Wehmeyer, M.L. (2010). Exceptional Lives Special Education in Today's Schools. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  8. Auxter, D, Pyfer, J, Zittel, L, & Roth, K. (Ed.). (2010). Principles and Methods of Adapted Physical Education and Recreation. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  9. Auxter, D, Pyfer, J, Zittel, L, & Roth, K. (Ed.). (2010). Principles and Methods of Adapted Physical Education and Recreation. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  10. http://www.asha.org/publications/journals/submissions/person_first.htm
  11. Auxter, D, Pyfer, J, Zittel, L, & Roth, K. (Ed.). (2010). Principles and Methods of Adapted Physical Education and Recreation. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  12. http://college.cengage.com/education/resources/res_prof/students/spec_ed/legislation/pl_94-142.html
  13. http://idea.ed.gov/
  14. Auxter, D, Pyfer, J, Zittel, L, & Roth, K. (Ed.). (2010). Principles and Methods of Adapted Physical Education and Recreation. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  15. Auxter, D, Pyfer, J, Zittel, L, & Roth, K. (Ed.). (2010). Principles and Methods of Adapted Physical Education and Recreation. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  16. Auxter, D, Pyfer, J, Zittel, L, & Roth, K. (Ed.). (2010). Principles and Methods of Adapted Physical Education and Recreation. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  17. Conatser, P., & Summar, C. (2004, September/October). Individual Education Programs for Adapted Physical Education. Strategies, 18(1), 35-28.
  18. [Auxter, D, Pyfer, J, Zittel, L, & Roth, K. (Ed.). (2010). Principles and Methods of Adapted Physical Education and Recreation. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. ]
  19. PE Central: Adapted Physical Education Web Sites
  20. NCPAD:Videos