Comparative law and justice/Zimbabwe

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Basic Information[edit]

Zimbabwe is a country located in the southern part of Africa. It is bordered by South Africa, Zambia, Mozambique and Botswana. It is also located between the Limpopo and Zambezi River. The capital of Zimbabwe is Harare which has a population of around 2 million people. Zimbabwe stretches about 150,871 square miles across southern Africa. A majority of the land is elevated 1200 to 1600 meters above the land. The main natural resources are coal, copper, gold, nickel, asbestos, chromium ore, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, and tin. The country has a tropical climate that has a rainy season from November to March. Zimbabwe sees recurring droughts due to this tropical climate.

There are three official languages in Zimbabwe: English, the Shona and Ndebele. The Shona is the Bantu language with the most native speakers. The total population of Zimbabwe is about 11,651,858. The population by percentages are Africans 98%, mixed and Asian 1%, and whites with less than 1%. Of the 98% Africans, the Shona people make up 82% while the Ndebele make up 14% and 2% is other. There are more women seeing older ages than men across the country. The population aged over 65 years is about 195,000 for men while there are about 250,000 women. The median age for the people of Zimbabwe is 17.8 years; the men median age is 16.7 years while the women’s is higher at 18.9 years of age.

Being born and living in Zimbabwe leave a child at risk once they come into the world. Infant mortality rate is about 31 deaths per 1,000 births and when they enter the world their average life expectancy is about 47 years old. There is a high risk of getting infectious diseases living in this country. A few risks that pose a serious threat are bacteria in the water, malaria, hepatitis A and even animal contact diseases such as rabies. Another major problem in Zimbabwe is the HIV/AIDS problems. The adult prevalence rate is about 15.3% and there are currently 1.3 million people living with HIV/AIDS. This is among the top ten worst in the world. [1]

Flag of Zimbabwe.svg The Zimbabwe Flag

The flag of Zimbabwe is equally symbolic of the country’s history. It has seven equal stripes running horizontally across it and a yellow bird which has always represented their history. There is a white triangle where the yellow Zimbabwe bird is imposed on a red five pointed star. This symbolizes peace and what they ultimately stride to achieve across the country. Each stripe stands for a certain characteristic Zimbabwe believes in; green represents agriculture, yellow represents mineral wealth, red is the bloodshed to achieve their independence and black stands for the native people. [2]

Coat of arms of Zimbabwe.svgThe Zimbabwe Coat of Arms

In their coat of arms, which was adopted in 1981 is a picture of two Kudus who have the banner and other attributes around them symbolizing Zimbabwe’s rich history. The Kudus stand for unity and they stand on what is known as an “earthly mound”. This mound includes wheat, cotton and a head of maize which resembles the need to provide for the fellow people. This need to maintain unity is shown with the bird of the country imposed on the red star atop the banner. Along the bottom runs the motto “Unity, Freedom and Work.” [3]

Brief History[edit]

As early as 200 B.C. people have been inhabitants in the country of Zimbabwe. The San people were believed to be the first inhibiters. The San people were part of the Khoisan tribe who were said to be hunter-gathers. After the San people came the Bantu and the Shona people who were followed quickly by the Nguni and Zulu tribes. In the mid 19th century the Nguni and Zulu tribes, known as the Ndebele, decided this country was their own kingdom. [4]

In the 1850’s the British came to southern Africa and took over. They took Zimbabwe and made it their colony naming it Rhodesia. In 1923, European settlers of Rhodesia voted to being a self governing colony of the British. This lasted until 1970 when the white minority of Rhodesia declared their independence from Britain and turned Rhodesia unto a republic. Ian Smith who led this w was in favor of the whites and resisted to all Black Africans’ demands. This led to a war in which the white minority agreed to transfer power to the Black majority while still being under Smith's rules.

Two years went by and there were issues still concerning the white minority and black majority. In 1980 the White minority decided on holding multiracial election to settle all national issues and the Blacks majority won by a long shot. Robert Mugabe was voted on to lead their country in April 1980. The country celebrated independence and changed their name to Zimbabwe. Mugabe became the president of Zimbabwe and in 2008 violence against opposing parties stirred up when the elections came around. A new type of government was pushed for and set into place from these issues. In 2009 a power-sharing government was enacted with Robert Mugabe as the president and Morgan Tsvangirai being elected as prime minister of Zimbabwe. Currently there is a parliamentary democracy in the country. [5]

Government and Constitution[edit]

The type of government that Zimbabwe has is a Parliamentary Democracy [6]. A Parliamentary Democracy is a form of government where the legislature (Parliament) selects the government. The Parliament selects a Prime Minister, a Premier or Chancellor along with Cabinet Ministers. This type of government has shared responsibility between the people and the Parliament. In Zimbabwe the power is shared between the President and the Prime Minister. The President of Zimbabwe is Robert Mugabe and the Prime Minister is Morgan Tsvangirai. The Cabinet is nominated by the President and the Prime Minister in office.

According to the Constitution of Zimbabwe the president is considered the head of the government. The president is elected for a term of six years. This is decided by popular majority vote. The parliament holds about one hundred and twenty members and these members have up to five years they can serve. These members of the Parliament, known as the House of Assembly, are voted in by a common roll electorate. There are more than just these one hundred and twenty members to Parliament. There are also twelve spots for presidential and prime minister appointees. [7]

The Zimbabwe Constitution was created and put in place in 1979. [8]. The goal for putting this in place was to instutionalize the majority rule and still protects the rights of the minority class. In the constitution there are bills of rights which contains the protection of human rights. When first put in place the bill of rights were not to be amended for at least the first ten years of interdependence. The only way to rid them was by one exception, an unanimous vote from the House of Assembly.

In the 2013 Presidential election where Zanu-PF beat Morgan Tsvangirai's MDC, the unity government was dissolved and the new constitution that the people had voted for in 2013 came into effect after the elections, currently Comrade Robert Gabriel Mugabe holds the post of President and Prime Minister

Who can vote[edit]

Voting in Zimbabwe is a very sensitive aspect of politics in society. The legal age to vote in this country is eighteen. This is similar to many other countries however it has one main difference. This is voter registrations. Voter registration is a test given to all eligible voters and those who pass are allowed to partake in the political campaign. Instead of just having first time voters take a onetime registration test, the people must always take one or they will not have a say. The registration tests their political knowledge[9]

Courts system[edit]

The Court system was put together by customary laws and the Local Courts Act of 1990. This act was first enacted in 1981 and the purpose was to put an end to the previous court system which dealt with indirect rule. Now the aim was to transfer to direct rule and put authority in the hand of judicial officers who were appointed by popular election. Before this act the indirect rule was dealt with by traditional leaders and now the people were given a vote on who should be dealing with them. Through this new act came a hierarchy of courts. The hierarchy starts from the lowest which were village courts, to community courts, then magistrates’ district courts, the High Court, Supreme Court and at the top stands the Constitutional Court which was introduced by the Constitution of Zimbabwe (2013). [10]

Customary laws amongst the people of Zimbabwe influenced the Act. The Act now indicated the cases which customary law should apply to and how the procedures should be handled. In 1990 the Act was re-enacted. Most provisions were held from the Act in 1981 however two changes were made to it. These changes dealt with the family. The first dealt with the husband and wife and instead of the husband being responsible for maintaining the wife they are now both equally responsible for the marriage. The second changed the father as the primary care to both parents becoming responsible for the child or children. The Local Courts Act of 1990 along with the customary laws of the Zimbabwe people is still in effect today.

In the courtroom the constitution plays a major role in how cases are carried out. The constitution of Zimbabwe provides for the right to a fair trial for everyone involved. The judiciary enforces this right to the fullest. The legal system of Zimbabwe is based on Roman Dutch law and at the top of the courtrooms is the Constitutional Court. The Constitutional Court is headed by a chief justice of the court. The Constitutional Court has the jurisdiction over alleged violations of fundamental rights guaranteed in the Constitution.

The next Court in line is the Supreme Court of Zimbabwe. It is comprised of essentially the same Judges of the Constitutional Court. the major difference is that the Constitutional Court full bench has a sitting of nine Judges whilst the Supreme Court full bench has a sitting of five Judges. The Supreme Court is an Appellate body for the decisions from the Labour Court and the High Court of Zimbabwe.

The next court in line is the High Court. The High Court consists of general and appellate divisions across Zimbabwe. Below this High Court are regional magistrates who have civil jurisdictions and deal with both civil and criminal cases. Separate African courts before independence had jurisdictions over cases involving traditional law and customary law and in 1981 these courts were integrated into the Zimbabwe national court system. In the High Court the head of the courtroom is the chief justice. The chief justice is appointed by the president who is recommended of the Judicial Service Commission. This commission also tells the president who he should pick for all other judges throughout the courtrooms.

The Judicial Service Commission is comprised of the following members: the Chief Justice, the Chairman of the Public Service Commission, the Attorney-General, and two or three other members appointed by the President. One of these appointees must be a person who is or has been a Supreme Court or High Court judge. The President of Zimbabwe has the role of appointing the Chairman and Attorney General as well as the many other roles of the Commission and Court systems.

The Supreme Court and High Court judges are appointed by the President after consultation with the Judicial Service Commission. In the Constitution there are no limits imposed on the number of courtroom judges that are appointed at a time. The Constitution has no rules or regulations regarding this procedure of how the President and Judicial Service Commission should ultimately follow. Removing a judge from office can be done and is followed through by the Judicial Services Commission and the president. [11]

Law Schools[edit]

There are two Universities in Zimbabwe which have a Law School. There is the University of Zimbabwe and the Midlands State University.The University of Zimbabwe offers a Bachelor degree which is done after completing four successful years in the school. The study of law at this university is rigorous and comprehensive and the students are required to undergo periods of practical attachments with the courts and legal firms in Zimbabwe. Midlands State University offer a degree of the same value but after completing five years of successful study in the school.

In Zimbabwe there is another college to attend to study legal matters which is the Judicial College of Zimbabwe. This college was established by the Ministry of Justice Legal and Parliamentary affairs. Here the college is meant to train Magistrates, Prosecutors and Judicial officers of the courtroom.

The University of Zimbabwe also offers a Masters Degree in Women's Law and Masters of Philosophy in various aspects of the law. Further Africa University offers some various Masters Degree Programs for Law including a Masters Degree in Industrial and Intellectual Property Law.

Police system[edit]

Zimbabwe uses a single centralized police structure throughout the country. A single central police structure uses one national police force that is responsible for enforcing the laws throughout the entire country. This police force is the Zimbabwe Republic Police, ZPR. Its headquarters is in the Harare and consists of at least 21,800 officers. [12]

The ZRP was not the first known policing in Zimbabwe. The British South Africa Police was created 1889. The police was put into South Africa to protect the members and the interests of the Pioneer Column who came to the country. In the force blacks had a certain role. The primary role of the black contingents was to do the manual dirty work which the white superiors wouldn’t have to do. They were known as the Black watchers and were on foot patrol. They also had to escort the sick horses which the white superiors rode while on patrol to the capital city, which was Salisbury at the time, and this was brutal for them walking almost 300 Km’s. The white superiors also made the blacks perform barbaric acts such as burning houses down of black people and beating up black people who disobeyed the white man’s rule.

In this old system of policing the white men were superior to the black men. The black men had to do everything the white man didn’t want to do. These were all the tough aspects of the job. Also the training was very different for the two types of policemen. Black police men were trained at the Native Police Training Depot (NPTD) which in Tomlinson Salisbury while the whites were sent to train at a better equipped training center called the Moris Depot. Blacks had to wear different uniforms than the white officers. They were even expected to do their duties barefoot while the white officers were given shoes. This police system remained in effect until 1980.

In 1980 Zimbabwe got their independence as their own country and this quickly changed their police force. Now the police were known as the Zimbabwe Republic Police. Section 93 of the Constitution was put into effect immediately which made sure the police force was restructured. The police were required to train and provide the best services to the people and ultimately get the support from the public. Since 1980 Zimbabwe has kept this police system in effect and they follow their vision statement of creating a sound policy and legal environment in order to guarantee security, order and peace of mind for all Zimbabweans.[13]

Some locals refer to the ZRP as the Zimbabwean Rotten Police (ZRP) due how corrupt they are, they are well known to harass innocent people for bribes in false charges

Zimbabwe's Police Force Badge


To undertake the country's internal security – related responsibilities involving maintenance of law and order, control of entry and exit of people, issuance of personal documents and to preserve national and historic documents and heritage

Zimbabwe Republic Police Service Charter[edit]

We are committed to providing:

-The most effective and efficient service

-Professionalism in our dealings with the public

-Accountability and transparency in our operations

-Diligency and courtesy in the discharge of our duties

  • Honesty and Integrity is Our Motto*
  • Together We Can Fight Crime*

How can you help:

-Supply any information you think can solve a crime

-Report to the nearest Police station anything suspicious

-Join/support the local neighbourhood watch committee

-Use suggestion boxes or hotlines

-Assist the police when they are making an arrest (Do not hinder them)



Zimbabwe Defense Forces (ZDF) is compiled of three branches of service. They are the Zimbabwe National Army (ZNA), the Air Force of Zimbabwe (AFZ) and the Zimbabwe Republic Police (ZRP) and all three were created in 1980. The military service age requirement is from age 18 and up. Women are also given the eligibility to serve their country. For compulsory military service the age requirement is 18 to 24. The expenditures for the military in Zimbabwe are 3.8% of GDP which in comparison to the world is 29th highest. [15]

The roles and functions of the Zimbabwe Defense Forces are as follows; •To ensure the protection and security of Zimbabwe's territorial integrity and independence. •To provide military aid to civil power and civil authorities in Zimbabwe. •To provide military support to promote Zimbabwe's economic, political and social interests. •To fulfill international obligations and responsibilities with regard to international treaties and other states in the field of support operations, collective security, confidence and security building measures and humanitarian relief activities. [16]

The Zimbabwe National Army was created to change the type of style of the army which used to be the Rhodesian Army. It went from the guerilla warfare types to a unified army which was more about aiding in protection. The Air Force of Zimbabwe, once called the Rhodesian Air Force, and now air defense was a worry for Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe created a long range air surveillance system that covers from the ground and this is able to protect and prevent any enemies or problems from arising. These long range surveillance can cover targets up to 600km away. Since these two branches of service were reformed and put into effect in 1980 the view for the Zimbabwe military went from a guerilla warfare type to a protective military.

Crime Rates and Law Enforcement[edit]

Since a 2002 survey on crime done throughout the world Zimbabwe has a total of 351,153 crimes occurring. Zimbabwe crime rate is 26th highest in the world for countries. The total crimes per capita are 28 per 1,000 people. [17]. This is is not high compared to many other countries who have crime rates in the millions. Zimbabwe sees its share of both non violent and violent crimes. Zimbabwe is a deprived economic country and this leads to burglary being one of the highest crime rates in the country. In the survey it has been shown that 55,280 of crime is burglary. This puts Zimbabwe at risk for tourism because people who have wealth are suitable targets for Zimbabwe people.

Zimbabwe is known for their “smash and grab” tactics. Because they are deprived economically many go seeking to find wealthy tourist and rob them. This “smash and grab tactic” occurs when the people of Zimbabwe run up to cars currently stopped and break the windows and take whatever they can. [18]. These people will work in groups and attack the car slashing the tires and grabbing everything in sight. The people of Zimbabwe walk around society with firearms and weapons. They do this so when walking around and they encounter someone they will be able to torment them into giving up everything. This results in the high amount of assaults that occur in the country because the people of Zimbabwe will ultimately go beyond their limits when robbing the tourist or richer people. Assaults account for 93,062 of the total crime rates in the country which is relatively high across the world. [19].

The reported homicide rate in Zimbabwe is not their top concern for crime. 912 murders occur in Zimbabwe and with those 598 have firearms in the case. Even though Zimbabwe sees a good amount of homicide for the size of the country the main crime has to do with burglary. Other types of crimes seen throughout the world such as illegal border crossing, smuggling, stock theft, and illegal mining are seen throughout Zimbabwe however the police force has seem to put a decline in these activities. In 2007 reports illegal border crossing went down by 64%, smuggling into and out of the country has dropped 54%, thieving of live stock has dropped 32% and illegal mining has gone down 5%. [20]

In Zimbabwe the law enforcement is known as ZRP. The Zimbabwe Republic Police have seen their abilities to control the country lessen due to the economic struggle the country is in. Due to the lack of money the police force is not able to equip and train themselves thoroughly enough to run a controlled country. It is known throughout Zimbabwe that their police force is not a strong force so the people, who also see the harsh economic times, do not hesitative to commit crimes such as burglary. Everyone needs to provide for themselves and knowing it’s tough to be stopped plays a huge role in the reoccurring crimes. The ZRP has improved some crimes such as the illegal border crossing and mining however the overall crime is not where they would like it to be at this time.[21]


Zimbabwe’s punishment before colonization was a little different than it is nowadays. The traditional ways to carry out punishments are a little different but have similar ties to them. Back then in settling a murder case it was accepted that the murderer would be haunted by the dead and his family would have to make reparations to the wounded parties. These payments would usually include cattle or other valuables and may even be a human replacement for the person who was murdered. The community was involved a lot with this and would make the murderer pay heavy fines. They held ritual cleansing ceremonies after the murders which would act as their deterrence. The community labeled the criminals as failures to act as proper human beings and this would carry with them into society.

Zimbabwe society has inherited some of this before colonization thinking on how to treat criminals and prisoners. Instead of just labeling these murderers as failures to society Zimbabwe now enforces the death sentence when it is needed. There is a professional hangman who carries out the executions. The hangings or the murderers are photographed and put into the press so that society sees justice and that the victims of the crime are assured it as well. In Zimbabwe a murderer loses all their rights the moment they terminate another life and nothing is throughout about how harsh they are with their death sentence. They feel if someone murders they deserve to be executed. [22]

Instead of tax payers money going to prisons and keeping these violent murderers in jail the people would rather execute them and put the money towards other necessities in life. These necessities the money could go to are hospitals, city clean up, schools, and school textbooks. In Zimbabwe everyone does have the right to only a fair trial. This fair trial also means they have a fair sentence handed to them and a fair execution if they commit the worst of crimes, such as murder. Zimbabweans all feel the “eye for an eye” discipline when dealing with murderers. Prisons Zimbabwe prisons are a very harsh atmosphere. Criminals who are sent there know that even if they are only there for a short time, they will never want to go back. In some instances criminals who go to prison get out and will go back in because they have nothing on the outside or they aren’t afraid to commit another crime because punishment in prison wasn’t that bad. In Zimbabwe these criminals do not want to make their way back in. [23] Prisoners are not given any bit of a homely environment to help rehabilitate them and make them better people when they get out. Prisoners get one meal a day and they are starved inside the prison walls. The prisoners are dying of diseases due to the conditions of prison and lack of food they get. Many people a jail in Beitbridge, which is close to the South African border, are ravaged by diseases such as tuberculosis and even lost their control of bodily functions. Across the country Zimbabwe’s prisoner rehabilitation charity says that in the country’s 55 jails, 20 inmates are dying a day.

In Zimbabwe when a crime is committed by a person the saying is that “your crime never rots" [24]. The crime lingers around the person who has committed it and society knows what they did. Even after their sentences are carried out people who had the crimes done against them will hold grudges against the criminal and when they are out they try to punish the criminal further. In Zimbabwe performing a crime, just like many other places in the world, is the worst possible thing done in society however they will never let the criminals get away from what they did even after their time has been done in prison.

Judicial Systems for Violent Crime[edit]

In court criminals do sometimes escape harsh sentences. This usually happens by bribing a few magistrates who take the bribe. When it comes to violent crime cases there are two systems which the courts follow. The first of the two is more of a formal one. The courts use formal laws to convict or pardon a criminal. Here the judge uses the evidence and weighs in the evidence to determine what to do with the criminal. After the judge lays down his sentence the second system for dealing with violent crime cases occurs. This is the people’s court. Here the people use culture and tradition and weigh the sentence the magistrate or judge put forth in the formal court. They may determine the sentence was too harsh, too soft or just right. Usually with the corrupt court cases and letting off criminals easy the people’s court will make the criminal carry out orders to make peace with the offended persons and society.[25]

An example of how the people’s court would step in and provide justice would be if someone was driving their car and hit someone who ended up dying. The person who was driving could hire a smart and clever lawyer that worked the magistrate or judges to only give them a fine and not a suspended license and this would enrage the people’s court. The people’s court would then call on the criminal and make them pay somewhat for their crime. They would send the criminal to visit the family to apologize for what they did and pay for the funeral costs. If this is not enough the people’s court may make you pay in valuable to the family such as cattle and you must pay and not use the excuse that you already paid your fine to the formal court.

In Zimbabwe the people never let go of the criminal actions people perform. From before colonization until the present day the people put labels and let the criminal pay for the crimes they commit. With the harsh prison conditions that are in all of Zimbabwe’s 55 prisons the intentions are to make the criminal pay and never come back. These prisons do take the make the criminal pay form of punishment to the extreme by only feeding the inmates once a day and let them die of starvation.


Family Law[edit]

In Zimbabwe there are three types of marriages; Civil, Registered Customary and Unregistered Customary marriage. Men and women are given the right to these however it is the women who see less of this right. In a civil marriage the legal age to marry is different in men and women. Men have to be 18 years or older while women must be 16 years or older. Also polygamy is a widely accepted practice in Zimbabwe which is practiced by three quarters of the population. This results in 1 in every 10 Zimbabwe women being involved in polygamous unions. [26] Polygamy is widely accepted in Zimbabwe; however it is prohibited in civil marriages. It is very popular among unregistered customary marriages.

Civil marriages are the best option for women to enjoy most of the rights men do. When it comes to unregistered marriages, the family can arrange marriages without their daughters consent. This is a terrible and gives the women no say in her life path. Sometimes the daughters are offered to others to marry because of a dispute between two families. Women whose husbands pass away can be taken by the brother of the deceased if he wants. Women are subjected to the male’s option to marry them or to give them away as a bribe for resolving family disputes and by these actions women are subordinate to men in the family aspect.

Civil marriages give the women the most equality to their husbands however they are still considered second to their husband’s in house authority. In the event of a divorce, the custody of their young child is actually given to the mother. The father is obligated to pay child support if the court rules it. When the child is older the courts do not just give the child to the mother in the event of a divorce. They weigh in the best interests of the child and then make their decisions.

In Customary marriages husbands are given the chance to take all of their children away from the mother if they so please. The women have no legal response to this and must stand by while their husbands do this. They are not given the chance to fight it in court and get custody. In these types of marriages it is very common for men to take away the children and leave the women with nothing.

When it comes to inheritance women who become widows cannot inherit their husband’s property. The father is the sole owners of the property and the only way a female of the family can inherit the land is if there is a daughter and no sons are present. This does not typically happen. When a husband passes away the son is usually the inherit and they take the land and sell it for profit, giving nothing to their widowed mothers. Only in civil marriages are the women given the chance for equal inheritance rights. [27] Women are discriminated against with ownership and inheritance of land. Women are rarely the land owners; the land is usually reserved for the head of the household which is always the male. In a divorce the women doesn’t get the chance of ownership or to fight in court for ownership. Civil cases, which give the most equality, does give the women the opportunity to own land with their husbands however the male is the main owner, with the women secondary. In order to get a loan for property husbands must be present especially if the woman goes to apply for it.

Domestic violence is very common for women to face in their marriages. Approximately two thirds of the cases brought in family court are involving women as the victim and the husbands both physically and sexually violate them. They cannot easily file a claim of rape because they are in fear of their social stigma being jeopardized and they be the outcast of society. Zimbabwe courts do not order violent husbands to leave the marriages and this contributes to the continuing abuse women see in their marriages. It is says that in the “law” of Zimbabwe women are given freedom and equality which the men have however when it comes to practicing this freedom and equality the men are the ones with constant control over their wives.

Human Rights[edit]

The Human rights of all Zimbabweans have been at jeopardy on a yearly basis. They are mainly being jeopardized by the taking of their homes by governmental force. Across Africa hundreds of thousands of people each year are left homeless when they are forcibly evicted from their homes by the authorities. In most cases evictions are conducted without any due process, consultation, adequate notice or compensation [28]. Mass Forced Evictions have been popular cases for most people living in Zimbabwe. Other countries to face these Mass Forced Evictions are Angola, Chad, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Sudan and Swaziland. Across these countries, especially Zimbabwe, the governments are acting violent and have been violating the people’s human rights.

Zimbabweans have not only lost their houses but also have been forced to live different lifestyles because of these Forced Evictions. President Robert Mugabe started what is known as Operation Murambatsviha and through this the people have all seen their rights taken away from them. This operation has displaced over 700,000 men, women and children as well as leaving about 100,000 families homeless [29]. The operation was put into play in 1990 when President Mugabe wanted to implement land reform programs. These land reform programs were aggressive, taking peoples land without giving them their legal rights to defend it and allowed the government to seize white-owned farms without compensation. The whole purpose of the operation was to redistribute white-owned commercial farms to native Zimbabweans who were dispossessed and forbidden from owning property under the colonial regime. This land redistribution was an attempt to overcome the inequality between white and blacks who owned land.

In November 2013 the Government embarked on another mass demolition of homes that were not built with approved plans by city council leaving a lot of people homeless during the rainy season it could be referred to as operation Murambatsvina 2.0

This land redistribution seems to be positive and negative for the people. It is an attempt to give equality a chance among the whites and blacks however it is negative in the sense of taking land and houses away from thousands of people. Yearly the hundreds of thousands of people are losing their homes, personal possessions and even social networks. By forced eviction the people are put in poverty and have no access to the essential needs to survive, such as clean water, food, sanitation, work, health and education.The officials who carry out the evictions have been using force against the people of Zimbabwe. Sometimes the force becomes excessive and leads to firearms and other weapons being used. Through these forced evictions the people become homeless and never get the opportunity or chance to be compensated for what they lose. The government takes the land with forced, not giving the family their rights to defend themselves or protecting their rights, and they turn their backs on the people leaving them with nothing [30].

Human Right Activists[edit]

Human rights activist have attempted to stand up for themselves however through violent government repression they have been denied of receiving help from the government. They are often preaching to no one because the government doesn’t take interest in what these activists have to say. The fundament human rights which are given to the people of Zimbabwe have been taken from them due to the Mass Forced Evictions. The government, under President Mugabe, is using excessive force to take land away from hundreds of thousands of people across the country. The reason for taking away the land was to redistribute the land and make equality amongst the people however these forced evictions have taken away from the people and their rights to live in their country.

Inequality in the country of Zimbabwe is shown through these forced evictions. White land owners have had more land than black land owners and through President Mugabe’s ways, the strive for equality seems to mean that something must be taken away from one to be given to the other. Not only is inequality amongst the men, but it is between men and women of Zimbabwe. These inequalities give certain genders more than other genders. For instance in marriage, the man is given more rights to land and other family rights than the women are. This is tough to strive for equality amongst the people when sex determines how much a person gets in life. In the United States of America equality is a moving progress in which women have become more and more equal to the men. They are given the same human rights and can access them equally. In Zimbabwe this is not the case. Men are the main people who see the most human rights as opposed to women who see much less.

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