Visual C++ name mangling

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Visual C++ name mangling is a mangling (decoration) scheme used in Microsoft's Visual C++ series of compilers. It provides a way of encoding the name and additional information about a function, structure, class or another datatype in order to pass more semantic information from the Microsoft Visual C++ compiler to its linker. Visual Studio and the Windows SDK (which includes the command line compilers) come with the program undname, which may be invoked to obtain the C-style function prototype encoded in a mangled name. The information below has been mostly reverse-engineered; there is no official documentation for the actual algorithm used.


Any object code produced by the compiler is usually linked with other pieces of object code by the linker. The linker relies on unique object names for identification but C++ (and many modern programming languages) allows different entities to be named with the same identifier as long as they occupy a different namespace. Names need to be mangled by the compiler to make them distinct before reaching the linker. The linker also needs information on each program entity. For example, to correctly link a function it needs its name, the number of arguments and their types. C++ decoration can become complex (storing information about classes, templates, namespaces, operator overloading, etc.).

The C++ language does not define a standard decoration scheme, so each C++ compiler uses its own.

Basic Structure[edit]

All mangled C++ names start with ? (question mark). Because all mangled C names start with alphanumeric characters, @ (at-sign) and _ (underscore), C++ names can be distinguished from C names.

The structure of mangled names looks like this:

  • Prefix ?
  • Optional: Prefix @?
  • Qualified name
  • Type information (see below)


Type information in function names generally looks like this:

  • Access level and function type
  • Conditional: CV-class modifier of function, if non-static member function
  • Function property


Type information in data names looks like this:

  • Access level and storage class
  • Data type
  • CV-class modifier


Mangled name contains a lot of elements which will be discussed.


Qualified name consists of the following fragments:

Qualification is written in reversed order. For example myclass::nested::something becomes something@nested@myclass@@.

Name Fragment[edit]

A fragment of a name is simply represented as the name with trailing @.

Special Name[edit]

Special names are represented as a code with a preceding ?. Most of special names are constructor, destructor, operator and internal symbol. Below is a table for known codes.

Code Meaning with no underline Meaning with preceding underline Meaning with two preceding underlines
0 Constructor operator /=
1 Destructor operator %=
2 operator new operator >>=
3 operator delete operator <<=
4 operator = operator &=
5 operator >> operator |=
6 operator << operator ^=
7 operator ! 'vftable'
8 operator == 'vbtable'
9 operator != 'vcall'
A operator[] 'typeof' 'managed vector constructor iterator'
B operator returntype 'local static guard' 'managed vector destructor iterator'
C operator -> String constant (see below) 'eh vector copy constructor iterator'
D operator * 'vbase destructor' 'eh vector vbase copy constructor iterator'
E operator ++ 'vector deleting destructor' 'dynamic initializer' (Used by CRT entry point to construct non-trivial? global objects)
F operator -- 'default constructor closure' 'dynamic atexit destructor` (Used by CRT to destroy non-trivial? global objects on program exit)
G operator - 'scalar deleting destructor' 'vector copy constructor iterator'
H operator + 'vector constructor iterator' 'vector vbase copy constructor iterator'
I operator & 'vector destructor iterator' 'managed vector copy constructor iterator'
J operator ->* 'vector vbase constructor iterator' 'local static thread guard'
K operator / 'virtual displacement map' user-defined literal operator
L operator % 'eh vector constructor iterator'
M operator < 'eh vector destructor iterator'
N operator <= 'eh vector vbase constructor iterator'
O operator > 'copy constructor closure'
P operator >= 'udt returning' (prefix)
Q operator, Unknown
R operator () RTTI-related code (see below)
S operator ~ 'local vftable'
T operator ^ 'local vftable constructor closure'
U operator | operator new[]
V operator && operator delete[]
W operator ||
X operator *= 'placement delete closure'
Y operator += 'placement delete[] closure'
Z operator -=

Below are the RTTI-related codes (all starting with _R). Some codes have trailing parameters.

Code Meaning Trailing Parameters
_R0 type 'RTTI Type Descriptor' Data type type.
_R1 'RTTI Base Class Descriptor at (a,b,c,d)' Four encoded numbers: a, b, c and d.
_R2 'RTTI Base Class Array' None.
_R3 'RTTI Class Hierarchy Descriptor' None.
_R4 'RTTI Complete Object Locator' None.

String constants (all starting with _C@_):

The name corresponds to the value stored in a read-only COMDAT section, in order to avoid duplicate storage of the same string. These sections are generated only if the /GF switch is given to the Microsoft compiler.

The entire name consists of:

  • _C@_0 or _C@_1. Indicates single- or double-byte characters, respectively.
  • Length of the string in bytes (encoded number). Includes null terminating character, if any.
  • A 32-bit value (encoded number). Meaning unknown, presumably a hash of the string.
  • The bytes of the string (up to the first 32 characters only). For double-byte strings, the bytes are in big-endian order. They can be interpreted as Unicode text using the UTF-16BE encoding. Each byte is encoded as:
Code meaning
?$xx 2 hex digits encoded as A (which means 0) to P (15).
?0-9 corresponding char in string ",/\:. {ctrl-K}{ctrl-J}'-".
?a-p or ?A-P corresponding ASCII char + hex 80.
(other) the actual character
  • Possibly another encoded number, meaning unknown.
  • Terminating @ character.

For example, the complete name _C@_1CK@EOPGIILJ@?$AAi?$AAn?$AAv?$AAa?$AAl?$AAi?$AAd?$AA?5?$AAn?$AAu?$AAl?$AAl?$AA?5?$AAp?$AAo?$AAi?$AAn?$AAt?$AAe?$AAr?$AA?$AA@ represents the 21-character double-byte string "invalid null pointer\0". All characters have 0 for their high order byte.

It is possible, but very unlikely, for two different strings to be given the same symbol name. The strings would have to have the same first 32 characters, the same length, and the same hash value. The MSVC compiler generates COMDAT sections which tell the linker to "pick any" section with the same symbol name, ignoring the contents. Therefore, the linker will not catch the discrepancy.

Name with Template Arguments[edit]

Name fragments starting with ?$ have template arguments. This kind of name looks like this:

  • Prefix ?$
  • Name terminated by @
  • Template argument list

For example, we assume the following prototype.

void __cdecl abc<def<int>,void*>::xyz(void);

The name of this function can be obtained by the following process:

xyz@ abc<def<int>,void*> @
xyz@ ?$abc@ def<int> void* @ @
xyz@ ?$abc@ V def<int> @ PAX @ @
xyz@ ?$abc@ V ?$def@H@ @ PAX @ @

So the mangled name for this function is ?xyz@?$abc@V?$def@H@@PAX@@YAXXZ.

Nested Name[edit]

A name fragment starting with ?? denotes a nested name. This is a name inside a local scope which must be exported. Its structure looks like the following:

  • Prefix ?
  • C++ Mangled name (so starting with ? again)

For example, ?nested@??func@@YAXXZ@4HA means variable ?nested@@4HA(int nested) inside ?func@@YAXXZ(void __cdecl func(void)). The UnDecorateSymbolName function returns int 'void __cdecl func(void)'::nested for this input.

Numbered Namespace[edit]

In qualification, a numbered namespace is represented as a preceding ? and an unsigned number. The UnDecorateSymbolName function returns something like '42' for this kind of input.

Exceptionally, if a numbered namespace starts with ?A, it becomes an anonymous namespace ('anonymous namespace').

Back Reference[edit]

Decimal digits 0 to 9 refer to the first through 10th shown name fragments. Referred name fragments can be normal name fragments or name fragments with template arguments. For example, in alpha@?1beta@@(beta::'2'::alpha), 0 refers to alpha@, and 1 (not 2) refers to beta@.

Generally, the back reference table is kept during the entire mangling process. This means you can use a back reference to the function name in the function arguments (which appear after the function name). However, in the template argument list, the back reference table is separately created.

For example, assume ?$basic_string@GU?$char_traits@G@std@@V?$allocator@G@2@@std@@ (std::basic_string<unsigned short, std::char_traits<unsigned short>, std::allocator<unsigned short> >). In std::basic_string<...>, 0 refers to basic_string@, 1 refers to ?$char_traits@G@, and 2 refers to std@. This relation doesn't change wherever it appears.

Encoded Number[edit]

In name mangling, sometimes numbers must be represented (e.g. array indices). There are simple rules for this:

  • 0 to 9 represents numbers 1 to 10.
  • num@ represents a hexadecimal number, where num consists of hexadecimal digits A (which means 0) to P (15). For example BCD@ means number 0x123, or 291 in decimal notation.
  • @ represents the number 0.
  • If allowed, the prefix ? represents a minus sign. Note that both ?@ and @ represent number 0.

Data Type[edit]

The table below shows the various data type and modifiers.

Code Meaning with no underline Meaning with preceding underline Meaning with preceding $$
 ? Type modifier, Template parameter
$ Type modifier, Template parameter __w64 (prefix)
0-9 Back reference
A Type modifier (reference) Type modifier (function)[1]
B Type modifier (volatile reference) Array type in template
C signed char Type modifier
D char __int8
E unsigned char unsigned __int8
F short __int16 Function modifier (managed function [Managed C++ or C++/CLI])[2]
G unsigned short unsigned __int16
H int __int32
I unsigned int unsigned __int32
J long __int64
K unsigned long unsigned __int64
L __int128
M float unsigned __int128
N double bool
O long double Array
P Type modifier (pointer)
Q Type modifier (const pointer) Type modifier (rvalue reference)
R Type modifier (volatile pointer) Type modifier (volatile rvalue reference)
S Type modifier (const volatile pointer) char16_t
T Complex Type (union) std::nullptr_t
U Complex Type (struct) char32_t
V Complex Type (class) Empty type parameter pack
W Enumerate Type (enum) wchar_t
X void, Complex Type (coclass) Complex Type (coclass)
Y Complex Type (cointerface) Complex Type (cointerface)
Z ... (ellipsis) End type parameter pack

^ Visible when function is passed to typeid operator. Uses pointer type syntax.

^ See Function section.

The code X represents void when it appears in as a return type or pointer type, otherwise it indicates a cointerface. The code Z (meaning ellipsis) appears only at the end of an argument list.

Primitive & Extended Type[edit]

Primitive types are represented as one character, and extended types are represented as one character with a preceding _.

Back Reference[edit]

Decimal digits 0 to 9 refer to the first through 10th shown type in the argument list. (This means return type cannot be a referent.) Back references can refer to any non-primitive type, including an extended type. Of course back references can refer to prefixed types such as PAVblah@@(class blah *), but cannot refer to prefixless types — say, Vblah@@ in PAVblah@@.

With back references for names, in a template argument list the back reference table is separately created. The function argument list has no such scoping rule, though it can be confuseing sometimes. For example, assume P6AXValpha@@Vbeta@@@Z(void (__cdecl*)(class alpha, class beta)) is the first shown non-primitive type. Then 0 refers to Valpha@@, 1 refers to Vbeta@@, and finally 2 refers to 'function pointer'.

Type Modifier[edit]

A type modifier is used to make a pointer or reference. Type modifiers look like this:

  • Modifier type
  • Optional: Managed C++ property ($A for __gc, $B for __pin)
  • CV-class modifier
  • Optional: Array property (not for functions)
    • Prefix Y
    • Encoded unsigned number of dimensions
    • Array indices as encoded unsigned numbers, one for each dimension
  • Referred type info (see below)

There are ten types of type modifier:

none const volatile const volatile
Pointer P Q R S
Reference A B
Rvalue Reference $$Q $$R
none ?, $$C

For normal types, referred type info is data type. For functions, it looks like the following. (It depends on the CV-class modifier)

  • Conditional: CV-class modifier, if member function
  • Function property

Complex Type (union, struct, class, coclass, cointerface)[edit]

Complex types look like this:

  • Kind of complex type (T, U, V, ...)
  • Qualification without a basic name

Enumerated Type (enum)[edit]

An enumerated type starts with the prefix W. It looks like this:

  • Prefix W
  • Real type for enum
  • Qualification without basic name

The real type for an enum is represented as follows:

Code Corresponding Real Type
0 char
1 unsigned char
2 short
3 unsigned short
4 int (generally normal "enum")
5 unsigned int
6 long
7 unsigned long

Note that in modern versions of Visual Studio, it will usually (if not always) generate enum symbols with a type symbol of W4, regardless of the real underlying type. Note that this doesn't affect the underlying type in any way, but appears to be for the sake of compiler simplicity.


An array (not pointer to array) starts with the prefix _O. It looks like this:

  • Prefix _O
  • CV-class modifier
  • Data type within array

You can use multi-dimensional array like _OC_OBH, but only the outermost CV-class modifier is affected. (In this case _OC_OBH means int volatile [][], not int const [][])

Template Parameter[edit]

Template parameters are used to represent type and non-type template arguments. They can be used only in a template argument list.

The table below is a list of known template parameters. a, b, c represent encoded signed numbers, and x, y, z represent encoded unsigned numbers.

Code Meaning
?x anonymous type template parameter x ('template-parameter-x')
$0a integer value a [3]
$1s constant pointer to mangled symbol s [4]
$2a'b real value a × 10b-k+1, where k is number of decimal digits of a
$Da anonymous type template parameter a ('template-parametera')
$Fa'b 2-tuple {a,b} (unknown)
$Ga'b'c 3-tuple {a,b,c} (unknown)
$Hx'y constant pointer to method x (base offset? y)
$Ix'y (unknown)
$Jx'y'z (unknown)
$Qa anonymous non-type template parameter a ('non-type-template-parametera')
$S empty non-type parameter pack

^ Pointer to member variable v in X is represented as the integer offsetof(X, v)

^ The pointer syntax is also used for lvalue references and pointers to member functions.

Argument List[edit]

An argument list is a sequence of data types. The list can be one of the following:

  • X (means void, also terminating list)
  • arg1 arg2 ... argN @ (meaning a normal list of data types. Note that N can be zero)
  • arg1 arg2 ... argN Z (meaning a list with trailing ellipsis)

Template Argument List[edit]

A template argument list is the same as an argument list, except that template parameters can be used.

CV-class Modifier[edit]

The following table shows CV-class modifiers.

Variable Function
none const volatile const volatile
none A B, J C, G, K D, H, L 6, 7
__based() M N O P _A, _B
Member Q, U, Y R, V, Z S, W, 0 T, X, 1 8, 9
__based() Member 2 3 4 5 _C, _D

CV-class modifier can have zero or more prefixes:

Prefix Meaning
E type __ptr64
F __unaligned type
G type &
H type &&
I type __restrict

Modifiers have trailing parameters as follows:

  • Conditional: Qualification without basic name, if member
  • Conditional: CV-class modifier of function, if member function
  • Conditional: __based() property, if used

A CV-class modifier is usually used in reference/pointer types, but it is also used in other places with some restrictions:

  • Modifier of function: can only have const, volatile attribute, optionally with prefixes.
  • Modifier of data: cannot have function property.

__based() Property[edit]

__based() property represents Microsoft's __based() attribute extension to C++. This property can be one of the following:

  • 0 (means __based(void))
  • 2name (means __based(name), where name is a qualification without a basic name)
  • 5 (means no __based())

Function Property[edit]

A function property represents the prototype of a function. It looks like this:

  • Calling convention of function
  • Data type of returned value, or @ for void
  • Argument list
  • throw() attribute

The following table shows calling conventions of functions:

Code Exported? Calling Convention
A No __cdecl
B Yes __cdecl
C No __pascal
D Yes __pascal
E No __thiscall
F Yes __thiscall
G No __stdcall
H Yes __stdcall
I No __fastcall
J Yes __fastcall
K No none
L Yes none
M No __clrcall

The argument list for the throw() attribute is the same as any other argument list, but if this list is Z, it means there is no throw() attribute. If you want to represent throw() you have to use @ to terminate the list.


Typical type information in a function name looks like this:

  • Optional: Prefix $$F (means function is managed, either as Managed C++ or C++/CLI)
  • Optional: Prefix _ (means __based() property is used)
  • Access level and function type
  • Conditional: __based() property, if used
  • Conditional: adjustor property (as encoded unsigned number), if thunk function
  • Conditional: CV-class modifier of function, if non-static member function
  • Function property

The table below shows codes for access level and function type:

none static virtual thunk
private: A, B C, D E, F G, H
protected: I, J K, L M, N O, P
public: Q, R S, T U, V W, X
none Y, Z

This kind of thunk function is always virtual, and used to represent the logical this adjustor property, which means an offset to the true this value in some multiple inheritance situations.


Type information in a data name looks like this:

  • Access level
  • Data type
  • CV-class modifier

The table below shows codes for access level:

Code Meaning
0 Private static member
1 Protected static member
2 Public static member
3 Normal variable
4 Normal variable

The CV-class modifier should be appropriate for data (not a 'function' modifier).

Thunk Function[edit]

There are several kinds of thunk function.

See also[edit]


External links[edit]