Beginner Japanese/Ichidan Verbs

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Ichidan Verbs[edit]

一段 (ichidan) verbs are most verbs that end with -いる (-iru) or -える (-eru). Ichidan is so named due to the fact that it has only one phase. Not many letters are changed, the ending is simply dropped and a suffix is tacked on. We will use the verb Taberu 食べる (to eat) to illustrate the different forms of conjugation for an 一段 verb.

Negative[edit]

To make an 一段 verb negative, change the last -る (-ru) to -ない (-nai). The negative form of 食べる (taberu) is 食べない (tabenai, to not eat).

Infinitive[edit]

To make an 一段 verb infinitive, change the last -る (-ru) to -ます (-masu). The infinitive form of 食べる (taberu) is 食べます (tabemasu, eat). This verb form may be modified just like in Godan form to 食べません (tabemasen) and 食べましょう (tabemashou).

Dictionary[edit]

Keep the verb the same.

Imperative/Conditional[edit]

To make an 一段 verb imperative, change the last -る (-ru) to -ろ (-ro). The imperative form of 食べる (taberu) is 食べろ (tabero, eat!).

To make an 一段 verb conditional, change the last -る (-ru) to -れば (-reba). The conditional form of 食べる (taberu) is 食べれば (tabereba, what if (you) ate?).

Volitional[edit]

To make an 一段 verb volitional, change the last -る (-ru) to -よう (-you). The volitional form of 食べる (taberu) is 食べよう (tabeyou, let's eat).