Spanish 1/The Classroom
Chapter 5 (The Classroom)
- bandera - flag
- cartel - poster
- computadora - computer
- disco - disk
- mochila - backpack
- morral - backpack
- pantalla - screen (computer)
- papelera - wastepaper basket
- ratón - mouse (computer)
- reloj - clock
- sacapuntas - pencil sharpener
- teclado - keyboard (computer)
- escritorio - desk
- pupitre - desk
- mesa - table
- silla - chair
- puerta - door
- ventana - window
- pizarra - white board
- al lado de la/del ... - next to the/of the ..., besides the ....
- allí - there
- aquí - here
- debajo de la/del ... - under the/of the ...
- delante de la/del ... - in front of the ....
- detrás de la/del ... - behind the ....
- ¿Dónde? - Where?
- en ... - in ...
- encima de la/del ... - on top the/of the ...
Note: Use de la when referring to a feminine noun and del when referring to a masculine noun.
Words describing ownership
- de - of
- mi - my
- tu - your
Note: In Spanish there are no apostrophes, instead use de to indicate ownership, for example, "Marisol's pen" in English would be "bolígrafo de Marisol" in Spanish.
- Es un(a) ... - It's a/an ...
- Hay ... - There is, There are ...
- ¿Qué es esto? - What is this?
- ¿De quién es esto? - Whose is this?
Estar (to be)
In Spanish, there are two ways to say to be, estar and ser. Estar is used to refer to temporary events, such as emotions, location, and time.
- estoy - I am
- estás - you are (singular)
- está - he/she is
- estamos - we are
- estáis - you are (plural)
- están - they are
Note: Usted and ustedes are always conjugated in the él/ella and ellos/ellas forms respectively.
Definite and indefinite articles (plural)
As you may remember, el and la are the two singular direct articles in Spanish, both meaning the. The singular indirect articles are un and una, both meaning a, an. Use plural articles when referring to more than one thing.
- los, las - the
- unos, unas - some
Note: To make words ending in a constant, add -es except for the letter z, whose plural form ends in -ces.
- engrapadora - stapler
- grapas - staples
- lápiz / lápices - pencil / pencils
- tijeras - scissors
- detrás de mi - behind me
- detrás de ti - behind you
- Hasta pronto. - See you soon.
Cultural Insight (Spare Time)
In many Spanish-speaking countries, people tend to spend their free time with friends and family. A stroll in the park or retreat is usually done with family and chatting at local cafés and plazas are more associated with friends.
Country focus (Puerto Rico)
Puerto Rico (Spanish: Puerto Rico) is a self-governing unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeastern Caribbean, east of the Dominican Republic and west of the Virgin Islands. The territory is composed of an archipelago that includes the main island of Puerto Rico and a number of smaller islands and keys, the largest of which are Vieques, Culebra, and Mona. The main island of Puerto Rico is the smallest by land area but third largest by population among the four Greater Antilles (Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico).
Puerto Ricans often call the island Borinquen, from Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name. The terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen respectively, and are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is also popularly known as "La Isla del Encanto", which translated means "The Island of Enchantment."
Puerto Rican culture is a mix of four cultures, African (from the slaves), Taíno (Amerindians), Spanish, and more recently, North American. From Africans, the Puerto Ricans have obtained the "bomba and plena", a type of music and dance including percussions and maracas. From the Amerindians (Taínos), they kept many names for their municipalities, foods, musical instruments like the güiro and maracas. Many words and other objects have originated from their localized language. From the Spanish they received the Spanish language, the Catholic religion and the vast majority of their cultural and moral values and traditions. From the United States they received the English language, the university system and a variety of hybrid cultural forms that developed between the U.S. mainland and the island of Puerto Rico.
-Official Languages: English, Spanish
-Other Languages: French, other European languages, Native American languages
-Capital: San Juan
-Government: Commonwealth of the United States
-Area: 9,170 sq km (3,515 sq mi) (170th)
-Population: 3,967,179 (2009) (127th)
-Religion: Christianity (Catholic 85%, Protestant 8%) 93%, Islam 0.13%, other (Non-religious, Buddhism, Judaism, Animism) 6.87%
-Human Development: 0.942 (1998 data, VERY HIGH)
-Independence: Territory of the United States
-Currency: U.S. Dollar