Psycholinguistics/Ebonics

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Introduction & History[edit]

Ebonics refers to a unique and interesting English dialect that has captured a lot of attention in film, media, and academics. In 1975, Professor Robert Williams at Washington State University first coined the term Ebonics from ‘ebony’ (meaning black) and ‘phonics’ (the sound system of linguistics). [1] [2]. The dialect known as Ebonics is known by other names: Black speech, Black English, Black English Vernacular, African American English (AAE), and/or African American Vernacular English (AAVE)[3]. In academia, the preferred terms are Black English, AAE, or AAVE. Ebonics is used to name the dialect for the context of this page.

Ebonics is spoken largely by African North Americans and often misunderstood to be broken or uneducated Standard English (SE). However, these types of misinterpretation only lead to stereotyping, bias debate, and lack of understanding of the serious system of rules in Ebonics. Unlike popular media and mock Ebonics has portrayed, Ebonics is not spoken by lower class, uneducated people that are too lazy or throw words around in a random fashion to communicate [4] [5] [6]. Rather, Ebonics is filled with the richness that every spoken language has such as phonology, semantics, syntax, and lexical structures [7][8]. In addition, this language has been through great debate since the 1970’s until present date. It is often debated whether its existence is real or current slang, whether teaching children to be bi-dialectal would be beneficial and sustain positive self-esteem, and should schools reinforce/ punish the use of Ebonics [9][10][11]. Although, many have argued against such language, it is very crucial and important to understand that Ebonics like all languages is not primitive or underdeveloped. It’s important to understand that this language spoken is not a disorder or deficiency, it is simply a difference. This difference has foundations of language to communicate the same content that is conveyed by SE speakers.

Components of Ebonics[edit]

Unlike common belief, Ebonics has been proven to be a systematic and rule regulated dialect. There is much regularity in Ebonics that confirms its existence as a dialect and not a ‘broken-language’ that just throws words together [12]. It is important to recognize that Ebonics like other languages have a system of phonology, lexical structures, semantic and syntax which is not random, or irrational, but Ebonics carries methods of speech that non-Ebonics speakers would miss or misinterpret.

Phonology[edit]

Although the sounds that are in SE are quite similar to Ebonics, there are often pronunciations, endings of words, and sound combinations that solely occur in Ebonics [13]. The most frequent occurrence of sound /consonant combinations at the end of words that are uniquely to Ebonics are st,sk,sp,pt,kt/ct,nd,and ld [14]. These consonant combinations are usually pronounced with the single consonant in words by dropping the second consonant. By dropping the last consonant, Ebonics speakers are not being lazy or improper, they are omitting a constant of a combined pair that have the same voicing value or simply put, using Voicing Generalization [15]. Voicing Generalization does not imply that all of these paired clusters drop their second consonant, only if these clusters are ending the word (the suffix). In Ebonics, when these clusters are in the middle of the word and preceding vowels, they are pronounced. For example, the word acceptable, the t is voiced and present in front of a vowel sound of a [16]. Moreover, the plural form of these words follows the same endings as those seen in SE. The voice generalization of these words show that words ending in st,sk,and sp, add an s to the ending to illustrate plurals. Also, the plural es is added to words such as ‘wrises and dises’, like census' plural is censuses. For examples refer to Table 1.1.

Table 1.1

Ebonics Pronounciation/Plurals Word
Wris/ Wrises Wrist
Dis/Dises Disk
Cris Crisp
Interrup Interrupt
Ac Act
Preten Pretend
Chil/Chilren Child/Children

The consonant combination of th is important in Ebonics, whereby this sound may produce the sounds t,d,f,and v [17]. In SE, the th has two sounds, where th sounds like they or thigh [18] and the difference is underlined in the dictionary. However, where the th would occur at the beginning of a word in SE, a d would occur in Ebonics. When th is in the middle of a word, a f sound is pronounced and in other instances where th is in the middle the a v sound is pronounced. In addition, words that end with the voiced suffix th, v is applied, where voiceless th suffix is a f or a single t in Ebonics. Also, mostly in children, a remarkable skr sound is produced that replaces the str in SE. This rule applies to the beginning of words as well as in the middle of words [19]. See table 1.2 for examples.

Table 1.2 Ebonics Pronounciation/Spelling

Ebonics Pronounciation/Spelling Word
Dere/ Dose There/Those
Aufor Author
Brover Brother
Bave Bathe
Baf/Mont or Monf Bath/Month
Skreet/Skrawberry/Deskroy Street/Strawberry/Destroy

Source: Green(2002)

Lexical Items[edit]

Ebonics is not a language that is full with slang or mispronounced words. Although most words are similar to SE vocabulary, how a word is pronounced may have a different meaning in Ebonics. Like all languages of the world, Ebonics has a variety of slang words, general phrases, and grammatical/ verbal markers [20].

Slang[edit]

Slang words are subject to constant and continuing changes with time. Most slang words are produced through the teenage generation and are constantly reinventing itself. Slang words are commonly used by cohorts that range from pre-teen to adolescents. Example 1, Sayin Somthin is used usually for describing an enjoyable event, place, person, or thing. Example 2,B, is used usually in greeting and replacing a person’s name with the consonant. Examples of Current Slang in Nova Scotia, Canada, 2010-2011:

Examples:

1. Sayin’ Somthin’. (Adjective). Beautiful, very good, great. Ex: That dress you’re wearin’ is sayin somthin’.

2. B. (Noun). Term for a friend, acquaintance. Ex: What up, B?

General Words and Phrases[edit]

General words and phrases may seem to be similar to slang, however these words and phrases occur in all age groups and throughout time. For example, the words ashy, and some + adjective are common sayings that have been around across North America and Nova Scotia, respectively, for decades [21]. The adjective ashy has been used exclusively to describe the nature of whitish dry skin [22][23]. In Nova Scotia, Canada, Ebonics speakers commonly use the phrase some + adjective to describe a noun. The phrase works by placing some in front of the adjective of choice to note intensity. The word some in this sense are similar to adverbs, too or very. In Nova Scotia it is common to hear this use of some + adjective used across all types of English and ethnicities, not only Ebonics speakers.

Examples:

1. “Did you cream your feet today? Your feet look really ashy!

2. “Wow, Ma’! Your cookin’ is some good

Verbal Markers[edit]

In popular media and for listeners that are not familiar with Ebonics, the verbal markers are the key makers that stand out compared to SE. First, the marker be is the most noticed and common marker misunderstood and stereotyped. However, the use of be is used systematically to describe a habitual or reoccurring state/event [24][25]. This is sometimes confusing to SE speakers because they do not comprehend that be is not the present tense rather a reoccurring event.) Researchers present a useful and witty dialogue demonstrating this confusion [26](See Appendix A). Similarly, done is a verbal marker that refers to the past tense of an event that has already passed or is in the past [27]. In Ebonics, done means that the action or event is completely over. Also, done seems to work as a primer for past tense verbs or referring to the past tense. Closely linked to the term done is the marker been (pronounced BIN) which refers to the recent past. This marker is usually accompanied by an -ing or past tense verbs depending on the context [28]. It is important to note that this marker is stressed, so in the example it is capitalized [29]. It’s important to remember that these examples are not deficiencies or inadequacies; rather they are differences [30].


Table 1.3 Verbal Markers

Verbal Markers Definition Example
Be Habitual “I be studyin’ all day.”
Done Past Tense “My Daddy done found my favourite toy.”
BEEN/BIN Past Tense “We BEEN working on the science project.”


Appendix A: Seymour, H.N., Abdulkarim,L. & Johnson,V. (1999). The Ebonics Controversy: An Educational and Clinical Dilemma. Topics in Language Disorders, Vol 19(4), pp. 66-77.

Scene: White teacher enters the room with an African American child. It appears the teacher wanted to telephone the child’s parents.

“Bobby, what does your mother do?” the teacher asked.

“she be at home,” Bobby replied.

“You mean she is at home,” the teacher said.

“ No she ain’t,” Bobby offered, ‘Cause she took my grandmother to the hospital this morning.”

The teacher snapped.

“You know what I meant. You aren’t supposed to say, ‘She be at home.’ You say, ‘She is at home.’”

But Bobby, incredulous, could only reply,

“Why you trying to make me lie? She ain’t at home.”

Syntax and Semantics[edit]

Marking the Past[edit]

Ebonics has at least six distinctive past tense markers. These consist of simple past, preterite had, remote past, past perfect, remote past perfect, and resultant state which all describe the past tense [31]. Ebonics and SE share in common the simple past and past perfect, whereby “He slipped on a rock” and “ He had slipped on a rock” resemble SE. Even though, past perfect resembles the preterite had, the preterite had in the past tense has a distinct meaning in narrative contexts; “he had slipped on a rock” means the point of climax before the present [32]. The remote past and remote past perfect is a way of talking about the long ago past events and actions [33]. The remote past perfect refers to an event that has happened in the past that occurred before another past event. The remote past refers to the action/event that has happened a while ago. For example, “Suzy had BEEN fell on the hill” and “Suzy BEEN fell on the hill”, illustrates the remote past perfect and remote past, respectively. In both examples, the event of Suzy falling is happening in the past but the first has happened earlier. Also, it is important to note the stress on BEEN, this is a verbal marker and that is why it is capitalized [34]. Finally, the resultant state in Ebonics refers to an event or action that is over and usually marked by the word done. For example, “Helen done read ‘The Psychology of Language’” which means in SE that “Helen has already read ‘The Psychology of Language’”. Done is unstressed and it is important to recognize the difference of done unstressed and the verb “done” is stressed.

Negation[edit]

Negation marking in Ebonics can have two negatives in one sentence that indicate a single negative event/action. It has been found that just like math the fact that two negatives become positive, this is just not the case in Ebonics [35].This is formed through a negative indefinite noun (NIN) and a negated auxiliary (NA), in most cases it is don’t / can’t and nobody [36]. The placement of the NIN and NA can appear in different order, whereby the meaning of the sentences will refer to the same thing but said in different ways. Ebonics speakers understand word order and these sentences are not put together randomly, but systematic rules like SE are imbedded. See Table 1.4 for examples [37].

Table 1.4 Negations

Examples Meanings
“Nobody don’t be at the school” “Nobody is usually at the school”
“Don’t nobody be at the school” “Not a single person is usually at the school”
“It don’t be nobody at the school” “Usually, there isn’t anybody at the school”

Source: Green (2002)

Language, Power, & Racism[edit]

Stereotypes[edit]

The use of Ebonics or Black English in American history and culture has been used to stereotype and falsify the lifestyle of many Afro-North Americans. Firstly, mock Ebonics are a commonly used stereotype to discriminate and continue to portray Ebonics as an inferior, less intelligent means of communication [38]. Mock Ebonics by definition are fictional and mimic ways of communicating in Ebonics that have no phonological, semantic, and pragmatic sense or regularity. Researchers list the strategies that mock Ebonics consist of; which are the frequent use of be, semantic and pragmatic irregularities, using vulgar phrases, and non-systematic representations of the phonetic segments [39]. The frequent use of be is inappropriate in most mock Ebonics because of the placement and emphasis it holds in a sentence or discourse. The placement of be is overly used to mock the dialect and as noted in the phonology section, Ebonics has a system of rules that regulates itself.

Also, the use of vulgar language throughout the parodies and comic episodes are very negative towards Ebonics speakers [40]. The vulgar terms are associated with SE words to portray that Ebonics speakers use derogatory language in every sentence spoken. For example, “B, eh yo, done kill a ho’ tomorrow, ya dig?”, demonstrates that these mockeries of Ebonics, not only make no semantic or syntax sense, imply that African North Americans use vulgar language to express simple sentences in everyday language. This example also illustrates the pragmatic problems where a non-Ebonics speaker randomly places greetings and terms in a sentence. Stereotyping occurs from the ignorance and the ethnocentric view that there is a better dialect upon the nation, but this is completely linguistic racism that needs to be critically understood.

Power & Elitism[edit]

Power in the media worked against many languages and dialects to prove or provide false evidence that all non-standardized English are not intelligent/proper. Kochman (1981) argued that dialects and ethnicities are differences in style and not intellect [41]. Put simply, what the speaker is saying is not less intelligent if s/he is talking in SE or Ebonics, this is the style of the speaker. However, when students are rating speakers that speak in SE versus Ebonics, who are telling the same exact message, it has been found that students will rate the SE speaker to be “well-spoken” or “proper” [42]. The notion of talking “proper” is socially constructed and a direct result of elitism in the working. Elitism refers to the idea of a language to be proper and more intellectual than another. It is emphasized at a young age that how you say things is just as important as what is being said. However, the how is simply style of the speaker not the inadequacies of speaker. The use of elitism continues to reinforce prejudice and discrimination across non-standardized English, such as Ebonics. Those in power continue to try and maintain these anti-Ebonics ideologies through the discrimination in discourse by describing Ebonics and other sub-English dialects a disorder. Although, when critical thinking and further knowledge is applied, society will be able to see passed the surface of what they are hearing as different and hear the content of the message. Above all, researchers argue that racism and elitism constantly work side by side, thus psycholinguistics’ students should not ignore this dilemma [43]

Ebonics and The Classroom[edit]

Code switching/bi-dialectal[edit]

An interesting part of being an Ebonics speaker is the idea of code switching. Code switching refers to speakers switching from one dialect to another [44]. Whites are not enforced or pressured to switch from the natural speech they speak at home to the SE in schools. However, when African North Americans Ebonics speakers are in certain situations or conversations, they are encouraged and often forced to switch from their natural dialect into the SE of the situation. Ebonics speakers usually talk about personal events and emotions, while talking to friends in the classroom but, switch to SE while talking to teachers. Code switching is heavily situated and facilitated by the pragmatics of speech and communication. Put simply, it is socially constructed when a child/person should switch to which dialect s/he should use in which context.

In educational debates, it was suggested that being bi-dialectal should be encouraged by giving options for students to communicate in SE, but to use their dialect that they bring from school [45]. This would encourage teachers to understand the components and pragmatics of Ebonics and then, help students to use correct code switching. This teaching strategy is to help lessen the pressure and racist ideology that Ebonics is incorrect or broken SE [46]. This technique is put in place to celebrate diversity and encourage people to respect the use of this dialect for conveying messages in their native tongue.

Teaching Ebonics[edit]

Teaching Ebonics in educational institutes has been in constant debate existing since the 1970’s [47][48]. In the late 1990’s, the Oakland California School Board passed a movement that would integrate Ebonics into the school system to assist with SE [49]. Ebonics integration was met with tons of critical debate. Mostly, people who seen Ebonics as being “laziness”, “broken”, or “slang” that should not be taught in the classroom [50]. However, by teaching Ebonics or letting students use their dialect from home, educators are trying to help students use SE and are trying to eliminate the linguist racism that one dialect or language is less sufficient or accurate than another. There is no primitive language, all languages are equal whereby they convey a message and communicate [51].

This movement was placed into school systems to celebrate the diversity of dialects that are commonly used outside the classroom. The teaching methods in schools would have the same focus on teaching SE, but SE would be treated as a second dialect used [52]. Most African North American, Spanish decent, Latinos, Whites and other ethnicities often learn SE as a second dialect while in school. This method to maintain the native dialect in the classroom is seen as how bilingualism is taught. Although, the efforts of linguists and the Oakland California School Board have made very positive steps towards attitudes and power structures of Ebonics, it has yet to be formally immerged in schools as learning and teaching tools.

Continuing and the Future of Ebonics in Education[edit]

It has been found that Ebonics is spoken over 80 % of the time by black students while in school and outside of school [53], so one may ask: why is it still inferior to society’s expectation? The answers are still unclear, even with all the research advocating language and cultural diversity. However, an important question to ask is to WHO’s society? Blacks, like other races, have a society to which they have their own cultural norms, expectations, laws and traditions that one must follow.

Moreover, language is a part of one’s identity, and especially Ebonics to black identity [54] [55]. The racism and discrimination against Ebonics and the style of which blacks speak is equivalent to attacking one’s identity. Many black students try and resist the dominant norms (SE), however some efforts are at times harming to them. It was found that many black underachievers resist the dominant cultural norms by avoidance and in turn by not going to class or doing homework; these students fail or drop out [56]. Thus, suggesting that language and communication at school versus at home needs to be culturally sorted, so that students are receiving the proper and relevant education, so that they can academically prosper and succeed. Also, the proper evaluation for students needs to be in place since this would eliminate the bias and wrongly accused deficiency that a standardized test would detail an Ebonics speaker to have [57]. Although, there has not been any major changes to the curriculum of many schools where Ebonics is spoken by the majority, the efforts to place Ebonics in classrooms is still a fiery debate and hope for many black communities.

In conclusion, as optimistic as can be, through linguistic consciousness and education on diversity, Ebonics will be a subject that will continue to be judged and talked about. The combination of linguistics, cultural studies, history, politics, sociology, and psychology will help the research on Ebonics in the classroom and code-switching. This research and studies are continually growing to promote black identity and well-being. The efforts and research of the past, the present and the future on linguistic diversity will help the acceptance and linguistic richness of Ebonics for ‘black folk’ and all sub-dialects.

Learning Exercises[edit]

You read all the information...

and understood the linguistics of Ebonics...

Now it's time for you to show what you learned!!

Here's a few exercises to strengthen your Ebonics' muscles for battle against linguistic discrimination!


Exercise # 1[edit]

Think About It...

Standard English was made so it could be used for a common communication among all English speakers. However, we all do not speak in this standardized form, rather use it as a guideline for our own speech. Put simply, if language was put on a spectrum of Standard English to non- Standard English, where do you stand?

To celebrate diversity of language, in this exercise you are free to give and EXPLAIN your own examples of non- Standard English phrases or words that you use or hear in your daily life. Don't forget to state your city or town and country. ALSO, pull evidence from the Ebonics text that support/link to how your example proves the argument that there is no Stone Age language.

Answers can be submitted to the discuss pageTalk:Psycholinguistics/Ebonics with your signature


Exercise # 2[edit]

Refresh Your Ebonics!

Answer the following questions on Ebonics as best as you can. Try to fill it out without looking first, and then go back for help later!

Answers can be submitted to the discuss pageTalk:Psycholinguistics/Ebonics with your signature


  1. In the academic world, Ebonics is also called?
  2. Robert Williams thought of the term Ebonics, he composed this word with the colour related to blackness and what component of linguistics?
  3. Often, people will use this to oppress and discriminate against other dialects and languages.
  4. Regardless of what popular media has portrayed negatively about Ebonics, linguistics have proven that it is__________?
  5. By dropping the last consonant, Ebonics speakers are not being lazy or improper, they are using ____________?
  6. “well, well, well…Your prom dress is sayin somethin’ bestie!”
  7. I’m not to be confused with general words or phrases; I’m only here to be distinctive.
  8. Often, I mark the past.
  9. The overly stereotyped and misinterpreted marker of Ebonics. But when do you use this marker, what does it signify? Example: “I be writing papers all year for school.”
  10. The idea of a language to be proper and more intellectual than another.
  11. “Nobody don't be workin' on Monday's” and “don't nobody be workin’ on Monday's” are examples that are unique to Ebonics negation.
  12. I am often used in media incorrectly and slandered in a lazy and stereotypical manner to degrade a dialect.
  13. At times this could be a benefit in a capitalist world of communication but the opposition argues the negative effects on cultural identity and confusion.
  14. How humans communicate is the ____ of the speaker and this does not change the content.

Exercise # 3[edit]

Show Your Understanding!

Rephrase these nursery rhymes in Ebonics. After you finish, try and use another tense! Feel free to use current slang and general phrases of Ebonics, but you must justify why you used a certain term and how it fits (use the information given above).

IMPORTANT: Unlike the pop-media, YOU ARE A PSYCHOLINGUIST and you are aware of linguistic racism, discrimination, and elitism in Mock Ebonics. Therefore, creatively use the components of Ebonics and cultural aspects of true Ebonics to transform these childhood favourites! Have fun

Answers can be submitted to the discuss pageTalk:Psycholinguistics/Ebonics with your signature

1

Hickory dickory dock

The mouse ran up the clock

The clock struck one

The mouse ran down

Hickory dickory dock

2

An apple a day keeps the doctor away

Apple in the morning - Doctor's warning

Roast apple at night - starves the doctor outright

Eat an apple going to bed - knock the doctor on the head

Three each day, seven days a week - ruddy apple, ruddy cheek


3

Little Miss Muffet sat on a tuffet

Eating her curds and whey,

Along came a spider,

Who sat down beside her

And frightened Miss Muffet away

4

Pat a cake, Pat a cake, baker's man

Bake me a cake as fast as you can;

Pat it and prick it and mark is with a 'B',

And put it in the oven for baby and me.

5

Wee Willie Winkie runs through the town,

Upstairs and downstairs in his nightgown,

Tapping at the window and crying through the lock,

Are all the children in their beds, it's past eight o'clock?

6

Twinkle twinkle little star, how I wonder what you are?

Up above the world so high, like a diamond in the sky

When the blazing sun is gone, when he nothing shines upon,

Then you show your little light, twinkle, twinkle all the night.

Then the traveller in the dark, thanks you for your tiny spark,

He could not see which way to go, if you did not twinkle so.

In the dark blue sky you keep, and often through my curtains peep,

For you never shut your eye, 'till the sun is in the sky.

As your bright and tiny spark lights the traveller in the dark,

Though I know not what you are - twinkle, twinkle little star.

Exercise # 4[edit]

Questions, Questions, Questions...

Answer the following questions in a paragraph or more on Ebonics by integrating numerous aspects of this chapter. Remember, being a critical thinker is a positive skill as a psycholinguist!

Answers can be submitted to the discuss pageTalk:Psycholinguistics/Ebonics with your signature

  1. When talking about the past, Ebonics speakers use a variety of ways to describe the past. Most SE speakers would not understand the subtle differences in the past. How could you describe the importance and helpful strengths to the numerous ways to describe the past in Ebonics? Show examples to support your answer.

  2. Education and Ebonics has a continuing debate, whereby the discussion to implement Ebonics in the classroom for students and teachers to learn from the native language would be the strategy to increase academic achievement for students. What would be the benefits of this strategy in the classroom? Offer some productive suggestions on how this process could be properly done in the school system. Is there a critical age where Ebonics should be placed in schools?

  3. With regard to teaching Ebonics in the classroom, many opposition states that the school is not responsible for teaching children culture, rather the family is. Explain the social and psychological effects of separating the home and school in teaching culture; is culture not supposed to be encouraged in school or is it only certain cultures?

  4. Code-switching has its benefits and disadvantages for Ebonics speakers. However, most of the time it goes unnoticed. How does power and elitism in languages devalue or suppress code-switching? Or is there any effect on code-switching? Explain in detail.

  5. We all stereotype and mock things, people, and places; however, by learning we escape ignorance. Talk about your past bias, thoughts, and judgements on Ebonics before reading the chapter and explain in which ways the chapter helped or did not help enlighten your knowledge on the subject matter. What do you think about the study of Ebonics now?

  6. The history of SE purpose was to overcome barriers of communication among many different speakers, however in time it became a language that became apart of elitism and power structures. Discuss how the change of SE’s purpose has an everlasting effect on other languages, especially Ebonics.

Notes[edit]

  1. Williams, 1975
  2. Seymour, Abdulkarim, & Johnson,1999
  3. Seymour, Abdulkarim, & Johnson,1999
  4. Green, 2002
  5. Ronkin & Karn, 1999
  6. Seymour, Abdulkarim, & Johnson,1999
  7. Green, 2002
  8. Seymour, Abdulkarim, & Johnson,1999
  9. Bohn, 2003
  10. Green,2002
  11. Seymour, Abdulkarim, & Johnson,1999
  12. Green, 2002
  13. Green,2002
  14. Green,2002
  15. Green,2002, pp.680
  16. Green, 2002, pp. 680
  17. Green,2002
  18. Green, 2002, pp.680
  19. Green, 2002
  20. Green, 2002
  21. Green, 2002
  22. Major, 1994
  23. Smitherman, 1994
  24. Green, 2002
  25. Seymour, Abdulkarim, & Johnson,1999
  26. Seymour, Abdulkarim, & Johnson,1999
  27. Green, 2002
  28. Green, 2002
  29. Green, 2002
  30. Jay, 2003
  31. Green, 2002, pp.685
  32. Green, 2002
  33. Green, 2002
  34. Green, 2002
  35. Green,2002
  36. Green, 2002
  37. Green, 2002, pp. 686
  38. Ronkin & Karn, 1999
  39. Ronkin &Karn, 1999,pp. 363
  40. Ronkin&karn,1999
  41. Jay, 2002
  42. Giles, Baker, & Fielding, 1975, as cited Jay, 2003
  43. Jay,2003
  44. Myers-Scotton & Ury, 1977
  45. Seymour, Abdulkarim, & Johnson,1999
  46. Seymour, Abdulkarim, & Johnson,1999
  47. Ronkin & Karn, 1999
  48. Seymour, Abdulkarim, & Johnson,1999
  49. Seymour, Abdulkarim, & Johnson,1999
  50. Ronkin & Karn,1999
  51. Jay, 2003
  52. Jay, 2003
  53. Fordham, 1999
  54. Fordham, 1999
  55. Ogbu, 1999
  56. Fordham, 1999
  57. Gopaul-McNicol, Reid &Wisdom, 1998

References[edit]

1.Allan, K. (2007). The Pragmatics of Connotation. Journal of Pragmatics, Vol 39(6). pp. 1047-1057. DOI: 10.1016/j.pragma.2006.08.004

2.Bohn, A.P. (2003). Familiar Voices: Using Ebonics Communication Techniques in the Primary Classroom. Urban Education, Vol 38(6), pp. 688-707. DOI: 10.1177/0042085903257315

3.Fordham, S.(1999). Dissin' 'the standard': Ebonics as Guerrilla warfare at Capital High.Anthropology & Education Quarterly, Vol 30(3), Sep, 1999. pp. 272-293.DOI: 10.1525/aeq.1999.30.3.272

4.Gopaul-McNicol, S., Reid, G., &Wisdom, C. (1998). The psychoeducational assessment of Ebonics speakers: Issues and challenges. Journal of Negro Education, Vol 67(1), Win, 1998. pp. 16-24. DOI: 10.2307/2668236

5.Green, L. (2002). A Descriptive study of African American English: Research in Linguistics and education. Qualitative Studies in Education, Vol.15, NO. 6, pp. 673-690. DOI: 10.1080/0951839022000014376

6.Jay, T.B (2003). The Psychology of Language. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

7.Major,C. (1994). Juba to jive: A dictionary of African-American slang. New York: Peguin Books.

8.Myers-Scotoon,C. & Ury,W.(1977). Bilingual Strategies: The Social Functions of Code-Switching. Linguistics. Volume 15, Issue 193, Pages 5–20. DOI: 10.1515/ling.1977.15.193.5, //1977

9.Ogbu, J. U. (1999). Beyond language: Ebonics, proper English, and identity in a Black-American speech community. American Educational Research Journal, Vol 36(2), Sum, 1999. pp. 147-184. DOI: 10.2307/1163537

10.Ronkin, M. & Karn, H.E. (1999). Mock Ebonics: Linguistic racism in parodies of Ebonics on the internet. Journal of Sociolinguistics 3/3,pp. 360-380.

11.Seymour, H.N., Abdulkarim,L. & Johnson,V. (1999). The Ebonics Controversy: An Educational and Clinical Dilemma. Topics in Language Disorders, Vol 19(4), pp. 66-77.

12.Smitherman,G. (1994). Black talk:Words and phrases from the hood to the amen corner. Boston, MA:Houghton

13.Williams,R. (1975).Ebonics: The true language of Black folks. St.Louis,MO: Institute of Black Studies