Globasa

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[UNDER CONSTRUCTION]

Globe of letters.svg Subject classification: this is a language-learning resource.

Bonata, and welcome! This page presents a brief but comprehensive reference grammar for Globasa, a language designed for international communication.

Pronunciation[edit | edit source]

Alphabet[edit | edit source]

Globasa shares the letters of the English alphabet, with the exception of q.

Letter IPA Pronunciation Name Letter IPA Pronunciation Name
a [ä] Similar to the a in cat aya n [n] n in nose ine
b [b] b in bell ibe o [o̞] Similar to the ow in grow oya
c [tʃʻ] Similar to the ch in chip ice p [pʻ] Similar to the p in pet ipe
d [d] d in dog ide r [ɾ] Similar to the t in water ire
e [e̞] Similar to the ay in may eya s [s] s in sing ise
f [f] f in fast ife t [tʻ] Similar to the t in tap ite
g [g] g in get ige u [u] Similar to the oo in root uya
h [x] Similar to the gh in ugh ihe v [v] v in vest ive
i [i] i in mosquito iya w [w] w in we iwe
j [dʒ] j in jump ije x [ʃ] sh in shell ixe
k [kʻ] Similar to the c in cat ike y [j] y in yes iye
l [l] l in laugh ile z [z] z in zebra ize
m [m] m in moon ime

Stress[edit | edit source]

  • Placed on the last vowel when a word ends in a consonant:
    jabal mountain
  • Placed on the second-to-last vowel when a word ends in a vowel:
    estudi study
    kroa frog
  • As consonants, w and y never stressed:
    Dunya Earth
  • Non-grammatical words that consist of a single syllable are always stressed:
    gas gas
  • It is up to the speaker whether to stress grammatical words or not.

Pronouns[edit | edit source]

General Possessive
Determiner Pronoun
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st person mi imi misu imisu misu (e)te/(o)to imisu (e)te/(o)to
2nd person yu uyu yusu uyusu yusu (e)te/(o)to uyusu (e)te/(o)to
3nd person Animate te ete tesu etesu tesu (e)te/(o)to etesu (e)te/(o)to
Inanimate to oto tosu otosu tosu (e)te/(o)to otosu (e)te/(o)to
Impersonal ren rensu rensu (e)te/(o)to
Reflexive se sesu sesu (e)te/(o)to
Relative da dasu

To emphasize self, seli is placed before the subject pronoun.

  • seli mi I myself
  • seli ete they themselves

To emphasize gender, the prefixes fem- and man- may be attached to te or ete.

  • femte she/her
  • mante he/him
  • femete they/them (all females)
  • manete they/them (all males)

Nouns and verbs[edit | edit source]

Nouns[edit | edit source]

There is no singular–plural distinction.

  • uma horse, horses

There are no articles.

  • maci a fish, the fish

Most nouns do not inherently indicate gender.

  • gami wife, husband, spouse
  • kuku hen, rooster, chicken

Apposition is done when the second noun element modifies the first.

  • Bahari Pacifiko Pacific Ocean
  • Xaher Newyork New York City
  • kitabu Kilo Nuecen Ocodes Care the book Nineteen Eighty-Four
  • misu sodar Alis my sister Alice

Noun–verbs[edit | edit source]

Many words in Globasa can be both nouns and verbs.

  • Te lala bono lala. S/he sings a good song.
  • Mi abil na yongo misu abil. I can use my abilities.

Verb tenses[edit | edit source]

Present Past Future
Infinitive na oko
to see
Simple Mi nun oko piu.
I see the bird.
I am seeing the bird.
Mi le oko piu.
I saw the bird.
Mi xa oko piu.
I will see the bird.
Active Mi nun nun oko piu.
I am seeing the bird.
Mi le nun oko piu.
I was seeing the bird.
Mi xa nun oko piu.
I will be seeing the bird.
Completed Mi nun le oko piu.
I have seen the bird.
Mi le le oko piu.
I had seen the bird.
Mi xa le oko piu.
I will have seen the bird.
Prospective Mi nun xa oko piu.
I am going to see a bird.
Mi le xa oko piu.
I was going to see a bird.
Mi xa xa oko piu.
I will be going to see a bird.
Continuative Mi nun dupul oko piu.
I have been seeing the bird.
I still see the bird.
Mi le dupul oko piu.
I had been seeing the bird.
I still saw the bird.
Mi xa dupul oko piu.
I will have been seeing the bird.
I will still see the bird.
Immediate Mi ja le oko piu.
I just saw the bird.
Mi ja xa oko piu.
I am about to see the bird.
Habitual/
Continuous
Mi nun duoko piu.
I see birds.
Mi le duoko piu.
I used to see birds.
Mi xa duoko piu.
I will see birds.
Conditional Mi ger nun oko piu.
I would see the bird.
Mi ger le oko piu.
I would have seen the bird.
Passive Piu nun beoko mi.
The bird is seen by me.
Piu le beoko mi.
The bird was seen by me.
Piu xa beoko mi.
The bird will be seen by me.
Negative Mi nun no oko piu.
I do not see the bird.
Mi le no oko piu.
I did not see the bird.
Mi xa no oko piu.
I will not see the bird.
Imperative Yu/Uyu am oko piu.
See the bird.
Imi am oko piu.
Let's see the bird.
Jussive Mi am oko piu.
May I see the bird.
Te/Ete am oko piu.
May they see the bird.

Adjectives and adverbs[edit | edit source]

Adjectives can be used as verb-modifying adverbs without changing form.

  • bono good, well
  • asan easy, easily

The suffix -mo turns a word into an adjective/adverb-modifying adverb.

  • luminkalmo roso dark red

Correlatives[edit | edit source]

Interrogative Proximal Medial Indefinite Universal Negative Alternative Identical
ke
which?
ku
which
hin
this
den
that
ban
some
moy
every
nil
none
alo
another
sama
same
Individual te
s/he
kete
who?
kute
who
hinte
this one
dente
that one
bante
someone
moyte
everyone
nilte
no one
alote
someone
else
samate
same
person
Quality to
it
keto
what?
kuto
what
hinto
this one
dento
that one
banto
something
moyto
everything
nilto
nothing
aloto
something
else
samato
same thing
Time watu
time
kewatu
when?
kuwatu
when
hinwatu
now
denwatu
then
banwatu
sometime
moywatu
always
nilwatu
never
alowatu
another time
samawatu
at the
same time
Location loka
place
keloka
where?
kuloka
where
hinloka
here
denloka
there
banloka
somewhere
moyloka
everywhere
nilloka
nowhere
aloloka
elsewhere
samaloka
same place
Reason seba
reason
keseba
why?
how come?
kuseba
why
how come
hinseba
for this
reason
denseba
for that
reason
banseba
for some
reason
moyseba
for every
reason
nilseba
for no
reason
aloseba
for a different
reason
samaseba
for the same
reason
Manner maner
way
kemaner
how?
kumaner
how
hinmaner
like this
denmaner
like that
banmaner
somehow
moymaner
every way
nilmaner
no way
alomaner
another way
samamaner
same way
Number numer
number
kenumer
how many?
kunumer
how many
hinnumer
this many
dennumer
that many
bannumer
some of
moynumer
all of
nilnumer
none of
alonumer
different
number of
samanumer
same
number of
Quantity kwanti
amount
kekwanti
how much?
kukwanti
how much
hinkwanti
this much
denkwanti
that much
bankwanti
some of
moykwanti
all of
nilkwanti
none of
alokwanti
different
amount of
samakwanti
same
amount of
Method/
Category
-pul
-ful
kepul
how?/
like what?
kupul
how/
like what
hinpul
this way/
like this
denpul
that way/
like that
banpul
some way/
some kind
moypul
every way/
every kind
nilpul
no way/
no kind
alopul
different way/
different kind
samapul
same way/
same kind
Degree -mo
-ly
kemo
how?
kumo
how
hinmo
yea
denmo
as such
banmo
somewhat
moymo
every
degree
nilmo
no degree
alomo
different
degree
samamo
same degree
Genitive -su
's
kesu
whose?
kusu
whose
hinsu
this one's
densu
that one's
bansu
someone's
moysu
everyone's
nilsu
no one's
alosu
someone
else's
samasu
same
person's
Emphatic he
any
…to
he keto
whatever?
he kuto
whatever
he hinto
any of
these
he dento
any of
those
he banto
anything
he moyto
anything and
everything
he nilto
not any
he aloto
any other
he samato
same exact
thing

Questions[edit | edit source]

Word order does not change for questions.

Yes–no kam Risi is bono. Rice is good.
Kam risi is bono? Is rice good?
Open "ke" word Mi suki jubin. I like cheese.
Kete suki jubin? Who likes cheese?

Conjunctions[edit | edit source]

eger if ji and kwas as if
hu that kam (marks 
yes/no
 question)
mas but
which nor nor
who ki that or or

Prepositions[edit | edit source]

anti against fe at minus except
bax under of minus
cel for fol according to of from
to along (out) of
(move) towards alongside per on
cis on this side of har by por (in exchange) for
daw through with (having/using) pro in favor of
de (possession) hoy (face) towards supra above
belonging to in in tas for
dur during inside (of) to
for infra below tem about
el object marker
(SOV & OSV only)
intre between ton (along) with
jul without tras across
ex out kos because of ultra beyond
outside (of) maxus including wal (done) without
fal (done) by plus wey around

Comparisons[edit | edit source]

"More" corresponds to "-er" and "most" corresponds to "-est". The suffix -mo is only used with max, min and den in the case of adjectives and adverbs.

Comparative max(mo) … kom more … than
max te/to kom more than
fol maxmo …, maxmo the more …, the more
fol max ki …, max (ki)
min(mo) … kom less/fewer … than
min te/to kom less/fewer than
fol minmo …, minmo the less …, the less
fol min ki …, min (ki)
Superlative maxim … te/to (of) the most … (of)
minim … te/to (of) the least … (of)
Equative denmo … kom as … as
dennumer … kom as many … as
dennumer te/to kom as many as
denkwanti … kom as much … as
denkwanti to kom as much as

Numbers[edit | edit source]

0–100[edit | edit source]

0 nil 11 des un 21 duades un 40 caredes
1 un 12 des dua 22 duades dua 50 limades
2 dua 13 des tiga 23 duades tiga 60 sisades
3 tiga 14 des care 24 duades care 70 sabedes
4 care 15 des lima 25 duades lima 80 ocodes
5 lima 16 des sisa 26 duades sisa 90 nuedes
6 sisa 17 des sabe 27 duades sabe 100 cen
7 sabe 18 des oco 28 duades oco
8 oco 19 des nue 29 duades nue
9 nue 20 duades 30 tigades
10 des

100+[edit | edit source]

100 cen 2000 dua kilo 100,000 cen kilo
200 duacen 3000 tiga kilo 1 million (106) mega
300 tigacen 4000 care kilo 1 billion (109) giga
400 carecen 5000 lima kilo 1 trillion (1012) tera
500 limacen 6000 sisa kilo 1 quadrillion (1015) kilo tera
600 sisacen 7000 sabe kilo 1 quintillion (1018) mega tera
700 sabecen 8000 oco kilo 1 sextillion (1021) giga tera
800 ococen 9000 nue kilo 1 septillion (1024) tera tera
900 nuecen 10,000 des kilo
1000 kilo

Fractions[edit | edit source]

Fractions are formed as follows: numerator + of- + denominator.

  • un ofdua 1/2
  • tiga oflima 3/5
  • sabe ofduadesdua 7/22

Ordinal numbers[edit | edit source]

Ordinal numbers are formed as follows: number + -yum.

  • unyum (1yum) first (1st)
  • duayum (2yum) second (2nd)
  • tigayum (3yum) third (3rd)
  • tigadesunyum (31yum) thirty-first (31st)

Multipliers[edit | edit source]

Multipliers, a type of adjective or adverb, are formed as follows: number + -ple.

  • unple single
  • duaple double
  • tigaple triple

Groups[edit | edit source]

A group of a specific number of things is expressed as follows: number + -yen (if animate) or number + -xey (if inanimate).

Animate Inanimate Translations
1 unyen unxey unit, solo, single
2 duayen duaxey pair, couple, duo
3 tigayen tigaxey trio, trinity, triad