Globasa

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Bonata! ("Welcome!") This page presents a brief but comprehensive reference grammar for the international language Globasa.

Note: When a section of text is colored grey, that means that part is optional and is usually left out.

Pronunciation[edit | edit source]

Alphabet[edit | edit source]

Globasa shares the letters of the English alphabet, with the exception of q.

Letter IPA Pronunciation Name Letter IPA Pronunciation Name
a [ä] Similar to the a in Thai aya n [n] n in nose ine
b [b] b in bell ibe o [o̞] o in more or boy oya
c [tʃʻ] Similar to the ch in chip ice p [pʻ] Similar to the p in pet ipe
d [d] d in dog ide r [ɾ] Similar to the t in water ire
e [e̞] e in let eya s [s] s in sing ise
f [f] f in fast ife t [tʻ] Similar to the t in tap ite
g [g] g in get ige u [u] u in flu uya
h [x] Similar to the ch in Bach ihe v [v] v in vest ive
i [i] i in ski iya w [w] w in we iwe
j [dʒ] j in jump ije x [ʃ] sh in shell ixe
k [kʻ] Similar to the k in kit ike y [j] y in yes iye
l [l] l in laugh ile z [z] z in zebra ize
m [m] m in moon ime

Stress[edit | edit source]

  • Placed on the last vowel when a word ends in a consonant:
    jabal mountain
  • Placed on the second-to-last vowel when a word ends in a vowel:
    estudi study
    kroa frog
  • As consonants, w and y are never stressed:
    Dunya Earth
  • Non-grammatical words that consist of a single syllable are always stressed:
    gas gas
  • It is up to the speaker whether to stress grammatical words or not.

Pronouns[edit | edit source]

General Possessive
Determiner Pronoun
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st person mi imi misu imisu misu (e)te/(o)to imisu (e)te/(o)to
2nd person yu uyu yusu uyusu yusu (e)te/(o)to uyusu (e)te/(o)to
3nd person Animate te ete tesu etesu tesu (e)te/(o)to etesu (e)te/(o)to
Inanimate to oto tosu otosu tosu (e)te/(o)to otosu (e)te/(o)to
Impersonal ren rensu rensu (e)te/(o)to
Reflexive se sesu sesu (e)te/(o)to
Resumptive da dasu

To emphasize self, seli is placed before the subject pronoun.

  • seli mi I myself
  • seli ete they themselves

To emphasize gender, the prefixes fem- and man- may be attached to te or ete.

  • femte she/her
  • mante he/him
  • femete they/them (all female)
  • manete they/them (all male)

To express a noun indirectly, a pronoun must be in its place.

  • Dua to sen maxmo bon kom un to. Two are better than one.

Nouns and verbs[edit | edit source]

Nouns[edit | edit source]

There is no singular–plural distinction.

  • uma horse, horses

There are no articles.

  • mahi a fish, the fish

Most nouns do not inherently indicate gender.

  • gami wife, husband, spouse
  • kuku hen, rooster, chicken

Apposition is done when the second noun element identifies the first.

  • Bahari Pacifiko Pacific Ocean
  • Xaher Neoyork New York City
  • kitabu Kilo Nuecen Ocodes Care the book Nineteen Eighty-Four
  • misu sodar Alis my sister Alice

Abstract nouns can be formed from concrete nouns, adjectives and adverbs by using the suffix -ya.

  • atreya parenthood (atre parent)
  • hoxya happiness (hox happy)

Noun–verbs[edit | edit source]

Many words in Globasa can be both nouns and verbs.

  • Te lala bon lala. S/he sings a good song.
  • Mi yam tiga yam fe moy din. I eat three meals every day.

Verbs[edit | edit source]

Present Past Future
Infinitive na na oko
to see
Simple Mi nun oko piu.
I see the bird.
I am seeing the bird.
Mi le oko piu.
I saw the bird.
Mi xa oko piu.
I will see the bird.
u
(formal)
Mi u oko piu.
I see the bird.
I am seeing the bird.
Active … nun Mi nun nun oko piu.
I am seeing the bird.
Mi le nun oko piu.
I was seeing the bird.
Mi xa nun oko piu.
I will be seeing the bird.
Completed … le Mi nun le oko piu.
I have seen the bird.
Mi le le oko piu.
I had seen the bird.
Mi xa le oko piu.
I will have seen the bird.
Prospective … xa Mi nun xa oko piu.
I am going to see a bird.
Mi le xa oko piu.
I was going to see a bird.
Mi xa xa oko piu.
I will be going to see a bird.
Continuative … dupul Mi nun dupul oko piu.
I have been seeing
the bird.
Mi le dupul oko piu.
I had been seeing the bird.
Mi xa dupul oko piu.
I will have been seeing the bird.
Immediate ja … Mi jale oko piu.
I just saw the bird.
Mi jaxa oko piu.
I am about to see the bird.
Habitual/
continuous
… du- Mi nun duoko piu.
I see birds.
Mi le duoko piu.
I used to see birds.
Mi xa duoko piu.
I will see birds.
Conditional ger … Mi ger nun oko piu.
I would see the bird.
Mi ger le oko piu.
I would have seen the bird.
Passive … be- Piu nun beoko mi.
The bird is seen by me.
Piu le beoko mi.
The bird was seen by me.
Piu xa beoko mi.
The bird will be seen by me.
Combined
passive and
hab./cont.
… bedu- Piu nun beduoko mi.
Birds are seen by me.
Piu le beduoko mi.
Birds used to be seen
by me.
Piu xa beduoko mi.
Birds will be seen by me.
Negative … no Mi nun no oko piu.
I do not see the bird.
Mi le no oko piu.
I did not see the bird.
Mi xa no oko piu.
I will not see the bird.
Imperative am Yu/Uyu am oko piu.
See the bird.
Imi am oko piu.
Let's see the bird.
Jussive Mi am oko piu.
May I see the bird.
Te/Ete am oko piu.
May they see the bird.
Transitive
(erg. verbs)
-gi
cause
Mi nun bukagi dwer.
I open the door.
I am opening the door.
Mi le bukagi dwer.
I opened the door.
Mi xa bukagi dwer.
I will open the door.
Intransitive
(erg. verbs)
-cu
become
Dwer nun bukacu.
The door opens.
The door is opening.
Dwer le bukacu.
The door opened.
Dwer xa bukacu.
The door will open.
Gerund
(noun)
du- duoko
(act of) seeing
Active state
adj/advs
-ne lalane piu
singing bird
Inactive state
adj/advs
-do okodo piu
seen bird

The particle na marks the infinitive.

Complement Mi vole na xidu. I want to try.
Filme sen amusane na oko. The movie is fun to watch.
Hay haja na yam yamxey. There is a need to eat food.
Nominal
verb phrase
Debatemon sen na xidu. The point is to try.
Na oko filme sen amusane. It is fun to watch movies.
To sen amusane, na oko filme.
Na yam in ogar sen bon. It is good to eat at home.
To sen bon, na yam in ogar.

The main copula is sen (to be).

  • Sola sen brilapul. The Sun is bright.

Globasa's auxiliary verbs function also as adjectives or adverbs, rather than as nouns. There are only three auxiliary verbs: abil (can; which can, able/capable), ingay (should; which should) and musi (have to, must; which must).

  • Mi abil na doxo. I can read.
  • Mi ingay na doxo. I should read.
  • Mi musi na doxo. I have to read. / I must read.

Adjectives and adverbs[edit | edit source]

Adjectives go before nouns.

  • kijawi gras green grass

Adverbs have more flexibility in terms of position.

  • Hox, ete swikara teyan. Happily, they accept the offer.
  • Ete hox swikara teyan. They happily accept the offer.
  • Ete swikara teyan hox. They accept the offer happily.

To turn an adjective into an adverb that can modify verbs, no change in form is needed.

  • bon good, well
  • asan easy, easily

To turn a noun into an adjective or adverb, use the suffix -li.

  • syensili metode scientific method (syensi science)
  • digitali penci digitally edit (digita digit)

To turn an adjective into an adverb that can modify other adjectives and adverbs, attach the suffix -mo.

  • luminkalmo roso dark red

Globasa supports adjective phrases.

  • basa palado fal mega insan the language spoken by a million people
  • fleytora maxmo velosi kom soti the airplane faster than sound

Degree can be expressed with daydenmo.

  • Daydenmo yukwe! How pleasant!
  • Daydenmo gao drevo! What a tall tree!

Word formation[edit | edit source]

Suffix Noun/verb Adj/adv
Prefix awidi
aw- + idi
leave
nenresmi
nen- + resmi
unofficial
Noun/verb yuxitul
yuxi + -tul
toy
fatmindoku
fatmin + doku
patent
dureabil
dure + abil
durable
Adj/adv amikuje
amiku + -je
depth
suhegeo
suhe + geo
desert
godojaldi
godo + jaldi
premature
Numeral unyum
un + -yum
first
duacalun
dua + calun
bicycle

Correlatives[edit | edit source]

Interrogative Proximal Distal Indefinite Universal Negative Alternative Identical
ke
which
hin
this
den
that
ban
some
moy
every
nil
none
alo
another
sama
same
Individual te
s/he
kete
who
hinte
this one
dente
that one
bante
someone
moyte
everyone
nilte
no one
alote
someone else
samate
same one
ete
they
keete
which ones
hinete
these ones
denete
those ones
banete
some of
them
moyete
all of them
nilete
none of
them
aloete
some others
samaete
same ones
Quality to
it
keto
what
hinto
this one
dento
that one
banto
something
moyto
everything
nilto
nothing
aloto
something
else
samato
same thing
oto
they
keoto
which ones
hinoto
these ones
denoto
those ones
banoto
some of
them
moyoto
all of them
niloto
none of
them
alooto
some other
things
samaoto
same things
Time watu
time
kewatu
when
hinwatu
now
denwatu
then
banwatu
sometime
moywatu
always
nilwatu
never
alowatu
another time
samawatu
at the
same time
Location loka
place
keloka
where
hinloka
here
denloka
there
banloka
somewhere
moyloka
everywhere
nilloka
nowhere
aloloka
elsewhere
samaloka
same place
Reason seba
reason
keseba
why
how come
hinseba
for this
reason
denseba
for that
reason
banseba
for some
reason
moyseba
for every
reason
nilseba
for no
reason
aloseba
for a different
reason
samaseba
for the same
reason
Manner maner
way
kemaner
how
hinmaner
like this
denmaner
like that
banmaner
somehow
moymaner
every way
nilmaner
no way
alomaner
another way
samamaner
same way
Number numer
number
kenumer
how many
hinnumer
this many
dennumer
that many
bannumer
some of
moynumer
all of
nilnumer
none of
alonumer
different
number of
samanumer
same
number of
Quantity kwanti
amount
kekwanti
how much
hinkwanti
this much
denkwanti
that much
bankwanti
some of
moykwanti
all of
nilkwanti
none of
alokwanti
different
amount of
samakwanti
same
amount of
Method/
Category
-pul
-ful
kepul
how/
like what
hinpul
this way/
like this
denpul
that way/
like that
banpul
some way/
some kind
moypul
every way/
every kind
nilpul
no way/
no kind
alopul
different way/
different kind
samapul
same way/
same kind
Degree -mo
-ly
kemo
how
hinmo
yea
denmo
as such
banmo
somewhat
moymo
every
degree
nilmo
no degree
alomo
different
degree
samamo
same degree
Genitive -su
's
kesu
whose
hinsu
this one's
densu
that one's
bansu
someone's
moysu
everyone's
nilsu
no one's
alosu
someone
else's
samasu
same
person's
Emphatic he
any
…to
he keto
whatever
he hinto
any of
these
he dento
any of
those
he banto
anything
he moyto
anything and
everything
he nilto
not any
he aloto
any other
he samato
same exact
thing

Questions[edit | edit source]

Word order does not change for questions.

Yes–no kam Risi sen bon. Rice is good.
Kam risi sen bon? Is rice good?
Risi sen bon, kam no? Rice is good, isn't it?
Open "ke" word Mi suki jubin. I like cheese.
Kete suki jubin? Who likes cheese?
Yu suki keto? What do you like?
Yu suki ke jubin? Which cheese do you like?
Yu suki keto:
myaw or bwaw?
Do you like cats or dogs?

Conjunctions[edit | edit source]

Coordinating Subordinating
  • ji and
  • mas but
  • nor nor
  • or or
  • eger if
  • hu that, which, who
  • kam (marks yes/no question)
  • ki that
  • ku (marks indirect question)
  • kwas as if
Correlative
  • iji...ji both...and
  • kama...kam whether...or
  • noro...nor neither..or
  • oro...or either...or

A range of conjunctions that are derived from the conjunction ki (that):

  • celki so that
  • durki while
  • fe folo ki such that
  • fe hataya ki although
  • fe kompara ki whereas
  • fe kosa ki because
  • fe tayti ki instead of (+sentence)
  • feki that
  • finki until (+sentence)
  • folki the more/less
  • koski because
  • leki before (+sentence)
  • temki about which
  • xaki after/once (+sentence)
  • xorki since (+sentence)

Subordinating conjunctions[edit | edit source]

Complementizer ki Yu jixi ki mi jixi. You know that I know.
Debatemon sen ki mi abil. The point is that I can.
Ki yu sen hox sen bon. It is good that you are happy.
To sen bon, ki yu sen hox.
Relative clause hu Kam yu le ore haberi hu te le triunfa? Did you hear the news that he won?
hu da Mi yam yamxey hu da sen bon. I eat food that is good.
Mi yam yamxey hu mi suki da. I eat food that I like.
Maux hu da sen lil, yam jubin. The mouse that is small eats cheese.
Te yam jubin, maux hu da sen lil. It eats cheese, the mouse that is small.
dasu Yu sen person hu mi hare dasu yawxe. You are the person whose keys I have.
den… Mi yam denwatu hu mi sen yamkal. I eat when I'm hungry.
Denwatu hu mi sen yamkal, mi yam. When I'm hungry, I eat.
Ren sen dento hu ren yam da. You are what you eat.
Mi jixi to hu denwatu navi awidi. I know when the ship departs.
Xaher hu denloka mi le yam sen Tokyo. The city where I ate is Tokyo.
Indirect question ku Mi no jixi ku keseba. I do not know why.
Mi jixi ku yu vole keto. I know what you want.
Mi no jixi ku yu sen of keloka. I do not know where you are from.
Mi jixipel ku to sen ke satu. I wonder what time it is.

Prepositions[edit | edit source]

  • anti against
  • bax under
  • cel to(wards), for (goal, purpose)
  • cis on this side of
  • de of (possession), belonging to
  • dur during, for (duration)
  • el direct object marker
    (SOV & OSV only)
  • ex out(side of)
  • fal (done) by
  • fe of, at (place/time)
  • fol according to, alongside
  • har with (having)
  • hoy towards (orientation)
  • in in(side of)
  • infra below
  • intre between
  • kos because of, due to
  • maxus including, plus
  • minus except for, minus
  • of from, (out) of
  • pas through
  • per on
  • por (in exchange) for
  • pro in favor of
  • supra above, over
  • tas for (recipient),
    to (indirect object)
  • tem about, regarding
  • ton (along/together) with
  • tras across
  • ultra beyond, over
  • wey around
  • yon with (using)

The prefixes nen- (non-) and pos- (opposite) are found appended to certain prepositions:

  • nenhar without (not having)
  • nentem irregardless of
  • nenton without (apart from)
  • nenyon without (not using)
  • posfol against (opp. direction)

The preposition cel (to) can be combined with certain other prepositions:

  • cel bax under
  • cel ex out
  • cel in into
  • cel na in order to
  • cel per onto

Some derived prepositions incorporate the preposition fe (of/at):

  • finfe until
  • lefe before, ago
  • ner fe close to
  • teli fe far from
  • xafe after, from now
  • xorfe since, as of
  • xorlefe for (time)

Phrasal prepositions with fe and de can be used for location:

  • fe byen de at the edge of
  • fe centro de in the middle of
  • fe comen de next to
  • fe exya de outside of
  • fe fronta de in front of
  • fe inya de inside of
  • fe kapi de on top of
  • fe midiya de in the middle of
  • fe muka de across from
  • fe oko de in the eyes of, before
  • fe oposya de against (position), opposite
  • fe peda de at the bottom of
  • fe ruke de behind

Prepositional phrases[edit | edit source]

Prepositional phrases can appear anywhere in a sentence. Before the verb, they require commas.

Mi oko teve in ogar.
Mi oko in ogar teve.
Mi, in ogar, oko teve.
In ogar, mi oko teve.
I watch TV at home.

Indirect object[edit | edit source]

The preposition tas (to/for) marks the indirect object.

  • Yu le gibe yawxe tas mi. You gave the keys to me.
  • Yu le gibe tas mi yawxe. You gave me the keys.
  • Tas mi yu le gibe yawxe. To me, you gave the keys.

Word order[edit | edit source]

SVO Henri yuxi tenis. Henry plays tennis.
SOV el
(poetic)
Henri el tenis yuxi. Henry tennis plays.
OSV El tenis Henri yuxi. Tennis Henry plays.

Noun phrase: determiner→possessive determiner→quantifier (quantity)→adverb→adjective→noun
Verb phrase: tense→affirmation/negation→adverb (adj/adv)→adverb (verb)→verb

  • Den etesu un daymo velosi mobil xa no kufimo hanman xofer.
    that their one very fast car will not enough slowly drive
    That one very fast car of theirs will not drive slowly enough.

Comparison[edit | edit source]

Comparative max(mo) kom Hay max kom 7 giga insan. There are more than 7 billion people.
Yu hare max pesa kom mi. You have more money than me.
Yu hare max to kom mi. You have more than me.
Kuku sen maxmo day kom ovo. A chicken is bigger than an egg.
folki max(mo),
max(mo)
Folki ren max yam, ren max xunjan. The more you eat, the more you grow.
Folki ren sen maxmo day,
ren maxmo sakate sokutu.
The bigger you are, the harder you fall.
min(mo) kom Mi hare min kom 3 restado minuto. I have less than 3 minutes left.
Mi hare min pingo kom Henri. I have fewer apples than Henry.
Mi hare min to kom Henri. I have fewer than Henry.
Kuku sen minmo dayrupul kom ovo. A chicken is less round than an egg.
folki min(mo),
min(mo)
Folki ren min yam, ren min xunjan. The less you eat, the less you grow.
Folki minmo zarif, minmo kimapul. The less fancy, the less expensive.
Superlative maxim maxim gao te (of drevo) the tallest (of the trees)
minim minim fobine te (of kayvu) the least scary (of the monsters)
Equative -mo/-numer/
-kwanti/-pul
... kom
Mi pawbu velosi kom yu. I run fast like you.
Mi pawbu daymo velosi kom yu. I run very fast like you.
Mi pawbu denmo velosi kom yu. I run as fast as you.
Mi yam dennumer pingo kom yu. I eat as many apples as you.
Mi hare dennumer to kom yu. I have as many as you.
Mi hare denkwanti watu kom yu I have as much time as you
Mi hare denkwanti to kom yu. I have as much as you.
Mi sampo denkwanti kom yu I walk as much as you.
Mi sampo denpul kom yu. I walk like you.

Numbers[edit | edit source]

0 nil 11 des un 1M (106) mega
1 un 12 des dua 1B (109) giga
2 dua 20 duades 1T (1012) tera
3 tiga 21 duades un 1Qa (1015) kilo tera
4 care 30 tigades 1Qi (1018) mega tera
5 lima 100 cen 1Sx (1021) giga tera
6 sisa 200 duacen 1Sp (1024) tera tera
7 sabe 1K kilo 10-1 deci
8 oco 2K dua kilo 10-2 centi
9 nue 10K des kilo 10-3 mili
10 des 100K cen kilo 10-6 mikro
10-9 nano
10-12 piko

Applications[edit | edit source]

Fractions numerator + of-
+ denominator
tiga oflima 3/5
sabe ofduadesdua 7/22
Ordinal
numbers
number + -yum duayum (2yum) second (2nd)
duadesunyum (21yum) twenty-first (21st)
tigayum (3yum) maxim day third (3rd) biggest
Multipliers number + -ple unple (1ple) single (1x)
duaple (2ple) double (2x)
tigaple (3ple) triple (3x)
limaple (5ple) maxmo day five times (5x) bigger
Groups (if animate)
number + -yen
(if inanimate)
number + -xey
Animate Inanimate Translations
1 unyen unxey unit, solo, single
2 duayen duaxey pair, couple, duo
3 tigayen tigaxey trio, trinity, triad

Date and time[edit | edit source]

Date format [day] de mesi [month], [year]
26 de mesi 7, 2019
Months of
the year
mesi un,
mesi dua,
[...]
mesi des dua
January,
February,
[...]
December
Days of
the week
Lunadin
Marihidin
Bududin
Muxtaridin
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Zuhuradin
Xanidin
Soladin
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
Time satu [hour] ji [minute]
satu sabe ji duades sisa (7:26)
[hour] [minute] sabe duades sisa