The activities involved in Construction Projects where the magnitude of the work is on a large scale, Speedy Work and Timely Completion of Work with Quality Control are very vital. In order to achieve this, Mechanization of Work has to be done, where Construction Machinery & Equipment play a pivotal role. The need for Mechanization arises due to the following reasons:
- Magnitude & Complexity of the Project
- Projects involving large quantities of material handling.
- Complexity of Projects using high grade materials
- High quality standards
- Importance of keeping the Time Schedules.
- Optimum use of Material, Manpower and Finance.
- Shortage of skilled and efficient Manpower.
Proper use of appropriate equipment contributes to Economy, Quality, Safety, Speed and Timely completion of the Project. Construction equipment is an important part of any construction process. It is not always desirable or possible for the Contractor to own each and every type of Construction Equipment required for the Project. Considering the various aspects of the utility of particular Equipment, the Contractor has to economically justify whether to purchase the Equipment or to hire it. The amount invested in the purchase of Equipment should be recovered during the useful period of such Equipment.
One of the most important tasks in the pre-construction planing process is equipment selection. There are many variables to consider when selecting equipment. Following factors should be considered at the time of Selecting Construction Equipment:
- The Equipment should be Standard Equipment if possible.
- It should give the best service at low cost.
- Its unit cost of production should be moderate.
- It should be easily repairable with low shutdown period
- It should be easily disposed off.
- It should suit the majority of the requirements of the job.
- It should be capable of doing more than one function.
- It should be of moderate size, as they have fewer moving parts and have low working cost.
Considering the above, one can either Purchase or Hire the Equipment. If the Equipment is to be used frequently and for a long duration of time on the Project, it proves to be economical to Purchase the Equipment. On the contrary, if the Equipment is to be used occasionally and for a short duration of time on the Project, it proves to be economical to get it Hired.
Classification of Construction Equipment
The basic operations involved in the construction of any Project are Excavation, Digging of large quantities of earth, Moving them to fairly long distances, Placement, Compacting, Leveling, Dozing, Grading, Hauling, etc. Construction Equipment can be classified as under:
- Excavating Equipment
- Power Shovel
- Earthmoving Equipment
- Hauling Equipment
- Hoisting Equipment
- Tower Cranes
- Mobile Cranes
- Crawler Mounted Cranes
- Builders Hoist
- Passenger Hoist
- Conveying Equipment
- Dredging Equipment
- Pumping Equipment
- Compacting Equipment
- Pile Driving Equipment
- Drilling Equipment
- Equipment used for the Production of Aggregate
- Equipments used in Hot Mix Batch Plant
- Equipments used for Concrete Works
- Material Testing Equipments