Comparative law and justice/Uruguay

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Basic Information[edit]

Uruguay is located in southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Argentina and Brazil. Uruguay’s capital Montevideo was founded by the Spanish in 1726. Montevideo’s current population is estimated to be 1.34 million. Uruguay is comparable in size to Oklahoma. Uruguay's total population is roughly 3,334,052.[1]

Uruguay currently holds a higher percentage of females than males. According to 2008 statics, 51.8 percent of the Uruguay's population is made up females and the other 48.2 percent of the population is made up of males. Uruguayans age breakdown are as follows: "Ages 0-14 amount for 14% of the population, 15-64 amounts for 63.2%, and 65 and above amounts for 13.7% of Uruguayans population."

Coat of arms of Uruguay

[2] Uruguay ranks 90th globally in total land area coming in at 176,220 sq km.[3] According to 2006 statistics Roman Catholic's make up 47.1% of all Uruguayans, 11.1% non-Catholic Christians, 23.2%nondenominational, 0.3% Jewish, 17.2% atheist or agnostic, and 1.1% of other.[4] Although Christianity is practiced by nearly half of the Uruguayans population, Uruguay is a secular country so it doesn't have an official religion. Uruguay's current key ethnic groups are as follows: white 88%, Mestizo 8%, black 4%, Amerindian. (practically nonexistent)[5]

Spanish is Uruguay’s primary language and is spoken by almost all Uruguayans. Uruguay also has a hybrid language called Portunol or Brazilero which is Portuguese-Spanish mix. This first evolved on the Brazilian and Uruguay border. Uruguay’s GDP is ranked globally on three reputable organizations. The three most reputable groups who rank the GDP the most accurately according largest GDP to lowest GDP are International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and the CIA. By taking the ranks of all three reputable groups and averaging them, Uruguay ranks 83 on a list of about 185 countries. Uruguay’s GDP per capita according to 2009 estimates is $12,600.[6]


Uruguay primarily relies on foreign sales of wool, hides, and meat products to make up their exports. Uruguay’s major export commodity is surprisingly automobiles. These exports amount for a staggering 68% of their total exports. Uruguay also exports 19% in meat, 9.4% in leather, and 7.2% in rice. Other exports include dairy products coming in at 5.5% and textile yarn at 5.0%. “According to 2000's estimates, Uruguay's imports were distributed among the following categories: consumer goods, 17.4%; food, 9.0%; fuels, 15.4%; industrial supplies, 31.9%; machinery, 16.0%; and transport, 10.4%.”[7] Trade with Brazil and Argentina accounts for about half of Uruguay's trade.

"Infant mortality rate in Uruguay: total: 11.32 deaths/1,000 live births Based on these statistics, if a Uruguayan woman conceives a child, there is 1.132% chance out of every 1000 birth the child will not survive. Country comparison to the world: 150 Based on these statistics, if a Uruguayan woman conceives a child, there is 1.132% chance out of every 1000 birth the child will not survive. Males: 12.73 deaths/1,000 live births Female: 9.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)” [8]

"Life expectancy at birth: Total population: 76.35 years Country comparison to the world: 68 Male: 73.1 years Female: 79.72 years (2010 est.)" [9]

"Literacy: Definition: age 15 and over can read and write Total population: 98% Male: 97.6% Female: 98.4% (2003 est.)" [10]

"School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): Total: 15 years Male: 14 years Female: 16 years (2006)" [11]

Brief History[edit]

In the 1500s Spain and Portugal claim most of central and South America.[12] The territory that is now known as present day Uruguay was once part of The Spanish Empire during the 1500's. Within this time frameThe Portuguese Empire and Spanish Empire vastly covered modern day South America. Prior to European settlement, Uruguay was inhabited by indigenous people, the Charrúas people. The territory that is now Uruguay is on the eastern side of the Uruguay River. The major city of Montevideo was not founded until 1624. When development within the Spanish Empire did come, it was as much from a fear that the Portuguese might extend their empire to the banks of the Rio de la Plata and complicate Spanish trade with the interior, as from any attraction of the territory. During the colonial period the territory that is known as modern day Uruguay was known as the Eastern Bank. (Banda Oriental)[13]

Governance[edit]

President of UruguayJosé Alberto Mujica Cordano


Uruguay is a multiparty presidential representative democratic republic. President of Uruguay makes much of the nation’s decision making and is head of the state and government. Within the Constitution of 1967, which is Uruguay's current constitution, much of the power is designated to the president, but it’s subjected to legislative and judicial checkpoints to disallow absolute power. The President of Uruguay is elected by a majority vote from the people. [14]


Goverment and Elections[edit]

Uruguay's authentic name is the Oriental Republic of Uruguay. Uruguay’s authentic name is makes it apparent that Uruguay is a constitutional republic. Uruguay is a republic with two legislative houses. Its head of state and government are the president.


The executive power in Uruguay would be held by The President of Uruguay him self. Uruguayans have made it a point to allow the president to hold a tremendous amount of responsibly and power. Cabinet of Uruguay makes up The Council of Ministers, and The Council of Ministers is said to be the primary source to relay information to the President of Uruguay. The General Assembly of Uruguay is held by The Vice President of Uruguay and The Senate of Uruguay. A simple majority vote is the way in which President of Uruguay and The Vice President of Uruguay are elected to five-year terms. In order to qualify to vote in Uruguay, one must be at least thirty-five years of age, native born, and in full possession of one's civil rights. After a period following their election, the President of Uruguay and The Vice President of Uruguay are then sworn in before the two chambers which are, The Chambers of Deputies and the The Chambers of Senators and then finally in front of General Assembly of Uruguay. The President of Uruguay and The Vice President of Uruguay would then take office in March."[15]

President of Uruguay responsibility consists of publishing laws and then keeping the laws enforced. He is also responsible for informing The General Assembly of Uruguay of proposed improvements and reforms. He would also making any personal objections or suggestions on any bills sent by The General Assembly of Uruguay that cover He also has the power to propose any bill or bills he foresees necessary which would be submitted to both chambers, and also amendments to laws previously enacted. He is also responsible to confer with both civilian and military offices, and ultimately has the power to remove any civil servant or servants he deems necessary only with consent from The Senate. [16]

"The Council of Ministers cabinet ministers are appointed by The President of Uruguay and the president of The Central Bank of Uruguay. A simple majority vote is done by each chamber of the General Assembly to select the cabinet members. In order to qualify as a member you must be native-born citizens in full possession of their civil rights, and at least thirty years of age. The Chamber of Representatives and are able to remove any member of the cabinet at anytime by impeachment but, this must be approved by the Senate."[17]


"The Legislature also known as the bicameral General Assembly enacted laws and regulates the administration of justice. General Assembly of Uruguay consists of the thirty-member Senate, thirty senators, the ninety-nine-member Chamber of Representatives and the vice president of the republic, who presided over it as well as the General Assembly and had both a voice and a vote in Senate deliberations. The only way a vice president can ever assume presidency, is if the senator heading the list of the party received the most votes in the last election. "[18]

Five year terms are given to members of both legislative bodies by a system of proportional representation. Nineteen administrative subdivisions of the country make up The Chamber of Representatives. Each of these nineteen departments has at least two representatives. The members of the Senate are also elected by the people but, only when the entire country represents a single electoral district. “To qualify to become a member of the General Assembly you must to be a natural born citizen or legal citizens with seven years exercise of their rights. To qualify as a senator you had to be at least thirty years of age, and representatives had to be at least twenty-five years of age."[19]


"The Chamber of Representatives can impeach any member of either chamber, the President of Uruguay, The Vice President of Uruguay, cabinet ministers, judges of the Supreme Court of Justice, or other judges. The Senate is responsible for trying these impeachment cases and can remove or deny a person of a position by a two-thirds vote.

The Senate is in session from mid-March to mid-December. When is session they spend much their time considering nominations for positions, and they also propose removals from office which must be submitted by the executive. This allows the Senate and the Chamber of Representatives to share equal power and duties. Either branch can propose a bill. The bill can only be sent to the executive power to be published, only if both chambers approve the proposed bill. If the president denies any portion of the bill, the General Assembly has to power to approve other portion of the bill."[20]

Legislative Palace, Montevideo

"The most important duties of the Chamber of Representatives and the Senate are electing the members of the Supreme Court of Justice and the three quasi-judicial autonomous entities which include the Accounts Tribunal, the Contentious-Administrative Tribunal, and the Electoral Court. The reason this is such an important duty is because of the tremendous power The Supreme Court ensues."[21]

"The Accounts Tribunal was to report to the appropriate authority all irregularities in the management of public funds or infractions of budgetary and accounting laws. The Accounts Tribunal covered all financial activities of the state organs, departmental governments, and autonomous agencies. The Accounts Tribunal consisted of seven members appointed by a two-thirds vote of the full membership of the General Assembly."[22]

"The Contentious-Administrative Tribunal heards pleas for the nullification of final administrative acts that were considered contrary to law or an abuse of authority made by the administration, state organs, and departmental governments. The tribunal was composed of five judges appointed by the General Assembly for ten-year terms."[23]

The Electoral Court, is a court that oversees all elections and results from election that are related to any party of Uruguayan government. Within the Uruguay Constitution, Section XVIII is what The Electoral Court base law.[24]


The judiciary is headed by The Supreme Court of Justice which is located in Montevideo. They consist of ‘six appellate courts’ which deal with civil matters, criminal matters, and labor matters. The Supreme Court is responsible for preparing budgets for the judiciary, and would then need to submit them to the General Assembly for approval. They are also responsible for proposing all legislation that has any role in the function of courts, they also appoint all judges to the appellate courts, and nominates all judges and all judicial officials. They are the only court that can declare any law passed unconstitutional passé by General Assembly or any court. They also oversee any conflicts that are in connection with diplomats and international treaties. Any issues regarding foreign courts would also be considered the responsibility of The Supreme Court.

A conference that takes place in which consists of the two chambers which are, The Chambers of Deputies and the The Chambers of Senators and also The General Assembly of Uruguay is where the five members of the Supreme Court of Justice are decided and appointed. In order to qualify as a nominee, the individual must be between the age of forty and seventy years old, native-born citizens in full possession of civil rights, “or legal citizens with ten years' exercise of their rights and twenty-five years of residence within the country. They also had to have been a lawyer for ten years or to have been a judge or member of the Public Ministry for eight years.”

All appellate courts are also located in Montevideo, which have “three judges whom are appointed by the Supreme Court of Justice with the consent of the Senate. To be a member, one had to be at least thirty-five years of age, a native-born citizen or legal citizen for seven years, and a lawyer with at least eight years of experience or otherwise engaged in a law-related profession for at least six years. An appellate court judge was obliged to retire by age seventy. These courts did not have original jurisdiction but heard appeals from lower courts. The appellate courts divided responsibilities for civil matters (including matters concerning commerce, customs, and minors), as well as for criminal and labor affairs."[25]

The country holds 224 judicial divisions, each having a justice of the peace court, which is known to be the lowest level of courts. All 224 justices of the peace are elevated by The Supreme Court of Justice for four-year terms. The requirement in order to be elected is, the member must be at least twenty-five years of age, a native-born citizens or legal citizens for two years who is in full possession of all civil rights. “Those who served in Montevideo Department and the capitals and major cities of other departments had to be lawyers; those in rural areas had to be either lawyers or notaries. Their jurisdiction was limited to cases involving eviction, breach of contract, collection of rent, and all small claims commercial and business cases." [26]

Past and present Constitutions[edit]

The First Constitution for Uruguay was established 1942 and lasted until 1951. Uruguay became independent on August 27, 1828. The majority of this constitution was formed by the brightest and most powerful intellectuals from the period of the American and French revolution. Within this constitution, its purpose was to divide the government among the executive, legislative, and judicial powers. The sole purpose of dispersing the power between executive, legislative, and judicial powers was to prevent a handful of individuals from holding too much power, much like their current constitution. In this The First Constitution, ThePresident of Uruguay could only hold a term for 4 years, but in Uruguay's current constitution its five years. [27]


The Second Constitution was created in 1918, and was abided until 1933. The largest change within this constitution was the separation or church and state. The second most important change was the new power that was designated to President of Uruguay. He was now responsible for foreign relations, national security, and agriculture, and the National Council of Administration. The formation of the colegiado which took place during this constitution, consisted of nine members. Of those nine members, six were elected from the majority party, and three were elected from the minority party, which again was supposed to help disperse power."[28] Soon after the colegiado was created, it was said that a large amount of corruption and inefficiencies’ became apparent. Since the president and the colegiado members help equal power, many decisions were disagreed upon which made it near impossible to enact laws, which ultimately lead to economic and social crises that swept the country. Marking the end of the second constitution (1933), it led to a presidential coup of 1933. To simply put it, the president used military force and all of his power to assume full control.


The Third Constitution dated from 1933 until 1942. Following the forceful demise of the colegiado, the president found himself limited to absolute due to the shared decision making with the minister. At this time the senate was divided between a group called the Blanco’s and a group called the Colorado’s, which were in fact two long standing prominent political families. The group that received the most and second most votes automatically received 50% of the senate seats, allowing these two families to hold power for a long period of time. [29]


The Fourth Constitution dated from 1942 until 1951. In 1939, an electoral law was passed which made to help disallow the formation of coalitions from forming a party that would ultimately endanger the existing two party system, which didn't function well either. During this constitution Independent Nationalists were now allowed to participate as a new political party too. [30] The Fourth Constitution was submitted and "approved by 77 percent of the electorate. As amended on November 19, 1942, the constitution retained the presidency, restored the General Assembly, implemented strict proportional representation in the Senate, and abolished the mandatory co-participation imposed by the 1934 constitution for ministries and boards of autonomous entities."[31]

The Fifth Constitution existed from 1951 until 1967. In 1952 the colegiado was put back into effect and yet again abolished due to the lack of control the president wanted.


The Sixth Constitution dated from 1967 to present. This article consists of sixty-five articles that were primarily enacted to protect the rights of citizens. “The document provided for freedom of religion, thought, speech and press, peaceful assembly and association, collective bargaining, movement within the country, foreign travel, emigration and repatriation, respect for political rights, and the inviolability of property and privacy. The constitution did not provide for a state religion, although Roman Catholicism predominated, or for capital punishment.” Under this constitution existed two forms of citizenships, One being natural born, and the other being legal, which was defined as individuals with at least three years' residence Uruguay who have had family in Uruguay, or five years' residence for those without family within Uruguay's. The constitution also gave the right to free primary and secondary education.

A copy of the Uruguay’s constitution can be found at this source. [32]

Courts and Criminal Law[edit]

University of the Republic

In order to become a lawyer and practice law within Uruguay, the individual must first obtain a degree of law and social sciences from the the University of the Republic. Within Uruguay it takes approximately six years to obtain a degree of law. It’s required that you must at least be “twenty-one years of age, listed in the Register of Lawyers maintained by the Supreme Court of Justice, not be under indictment for a crime penalized by corporal punishment, and not have been convicted of a crime.” In 1980 a public defender system was created to assist citizens who could not afford representation in the court of law. These public defenders are appointed by the president and the minister of justice. [33]

Under the The constitution individuals have the right to a fair trial. Defendants have a presumption of innocence. Juries are not used in Uruguay. The majority of trials are made up of written arguments to the judge, which rarely makes it public. Those who do not have a lawyer are rewarded one at the states expense. Defendants also have the right to consult with an attorney. There are three parties that have access to all documents to the partial written recorded, and those individuals consist of the judge, prosecutor, and defense attorney. All defendants have a right of appeal. The law extends these rights to all citizens.[34]


Punishment[edit]

If an individual person violates Uruguay's laws, they are subject to arrest or imprisoned. Penalties for trafficking of humans or trafficking illegal drugs have severe penalties in Uruguay. These offenders typically face long jail sentences and heavy fines.

Corporal punishment is banned in Uruguay as of November 2007. The name of this law in Uruguay is “Proyecto de Ley Sustitutivo – Prohibición del castigo físico.” The death penalty was abolished in 1907 under the constitution.

Law decree N° 14.294, Art. 31: “Whoever is in possession of a minimal quantity, destined for personal consumption, will be exempted from punishment.” Uruguay has never criminalized the possession of drugs for personal use. There is no quantity limits on the amount of drugs one can conceal. The judge is the sole determinant of what the intent of the drugs were for. If in fact the judge rules that the drugs found where for personal consumption, there would be no sanctions put in place. [35]

Prisons

Uruguay holds 6,947 in total prisoners. This is based on a population of 3.6 million. The prison population rate (per 100,000 of national population) is 193. [36] Prisoners in Uruguay remain in crowded cells up to twenty-three hours or more each day. [37] Pre-trial detainees are held together with convicted prisoners.

Uruguay is known for having extremely poor prison conditions. Uruguay prisons lack maintenance and therefore age and deteriorate much faster than most prisons. Uruguay officials do allow human rights groups to monitor prison conditions. Many human rights groups complain that food is scare and most of the time unsanitary. Bedding and clothing are scarce and of poor quality. Due to fund restrictions and space restrictions, medical care, recreation, and training areas are also poor.[38].

These prisons are overcrowded due to continued stiff minimum sentencing matrix. “A high rate of recidivism and the arrest of a large number of first time offenders countered the early release program begun in 2005. The overcrowding caused sanitation, social, and health problems in the major facilities. Renovations began on the maximum security prison, Libertad, and according to the government's prison monitoring agency, the government repaired 800 prison cells. The government also began construction on cells for approximately 200 additional prisoners throughout the prison system. The government continued to hold some prisoners in modified shipping containers; these cells lacked running water and posed sanitation problems.”[39] These facilities also suffer from major corruption and understaffing.

Uruguay prisons hold female and male prisoners in separate facilities. There are very few prisons in Uruguay that do imprison males and females in the same facility but imprison the two in different areas. In general, overall prison conditions tend to be significantly better for female prisoners than for male prisoners."[40].

In Uruguay, most juvenile offenders are placed in halfway houses that focus on rehabilitation. These facilities allow for residents to leave without restrictions, and also provided for educational opportunities vocational opportunities.[41]

Law Enforcement[edit]

Uruguayan law enforcement has increased the numbers of patrol cars in residential areas. Uruguay has also increased uniformed police officers on foot in areas where criminal activity is centralized such as in the capital Montevideo. “Uruguayan patrol cars are clearly marked and equipped with cellular phones, with the phone numbers conspicuously painted on the vehicles.” [42]

In 1829, The National Uruguay Police was formed and created as a subsidiary to The Ministry of Interior . Much like the United States, each Department is headed by a Police Chief. These police officers are appointed by President of Uruguay. Under Article 173 of the Constitution of Uruguay, President of Uruguay also has the power to remove any police chief he chooses at any time. The National Police of Uruguay are categorized as Montevideo Police, Interior Police, National Traffic Police, and National Corps of Firemen. Each of those four have their own separate administrations and operating agencies. For example, the Montevideo Police are separated into five operational and administrative divisions such as Investigation, Security, Support services, Intelligence, and Legal affairs.

“The Interior police are given the responsibility of coordinating activities of the police forces of each department. The national Traffic police are given the responsibility of controlling traffic on the road ways of Uruguay while the National Corps of Firemen were assigned the responsibility of fire prevention.”[43] Under the taxonomy of types of police structures,Uruguay would fit under the Decentralized Multiple Coordinated System.

Crime Rates and Public Opinion[edit]

"The International Forensic Technologies (FTI) group has conducted a study that shows Chile, Costa Rica, and Uruguay as being the 3 safest countries in Latin America. FTI grades countries based on the level of insecurity according to a matrix. This information is sourced from police records and NGO's. The matrix grades safety according to a numerical order with 1 being the safest and 5 being the un-safe. All three countries Chile, Costa Rica, and Uruguay all receive level 2 of insecurity."[44]

Crime in Uruguay tends to surround tourists locations. With that being said, petty crimes occur on a regular basis in Montevideo. Crimes are centralized in the more developed and popular areas. The most popular petty crimes are pick pocketing, grand theft auto, armed robberies, and street robberies. Home robberies are said to be on the rise in higher income neighborhoods."[45]


Uruguay crime statics and ranks

“Assaults 10,544 [24th of 49]

Burglaries 11,184 [26th of 38]

Car thefts 4,517 [24th of 46]

Death penalty > Abolition date 1,907 [62nd of 64]

Drug offences 857 per 100,000 people [37th of 46]

Gun violence > Homicides > % homicides with firearms 35.2941 [10th of 32]

Gun violence > Homicides > Firearm homicide rate > per 100,000 pop. 2.5172 [11th of 32]

Gun violence > Homicides > Overall homicide rate > per 100,000 pop. 7.1321 [16th of 32]

Kidnappings 8 kidnappings [35th of 39]

Murders 217 [23rd of 49]

Murders committed by youths 36 [49th of 73]

Murders with firearms 109 [14th of 36]

Police 18,173 [28th of 47]

Prisoners 7,100 prisoners [81st of 168]

Prisoners > Per capita 209 per 100,000 people [36th of 164]

Rapes 303 [31st of 50]

Robberies 10,282 [14th of 47]

Software piracy rate 69% [42nd of 107]

Total crimes 134,010 [25th of 50]"[46]


"Between 1998 and 2000, according to INTERPOL data, the rate of murder decreased from 8.47 to 6.67 per 100,000 population, a decrease of 21.3%. The rate for rape increased from 9.7 to 10.78, an increase of 11.1%. The rate of robbery increased from 138.06 to 195.15, an increase of 41.4%. The rate for aggravated assault increased from 119.51 to 128.83, an increase of 7.8%. The rate for burglary increased from 62.46 to 323.92, an increase of 418.6%. The rate of larceny decreased from 1164.09 to 554.28, a decrease of 52.4%. The rate of motor vehicle theft decreased from 137.43 to 126.12, a decrease of 8.2%. The rate of total index offenses decreased from 1639.72 to 1345.75, an increase of 17.9%."[47]

One of the main issues surrounding police reporting in Uruguay is the lack of reporting. It is said that battered women report abuse ¼ of the time, and of this ¼, 20% are reported by the courts. Another major issue is ¾ of the victims do not report the abuse because they felt it could not solve their problem. [48] Uruguay's Civil Law system is based on Spanish Civil Law.

"Oriental Republic of Uruguay (1967) at Art. 26 states: ‘the death penalty shall not be applied to anyone.’ Article 26 is included under Section II, ‘Rights, Duties and Guarantees’."[49]

Family Law[edit]

Civil marriage was first recognized In 1837.[50] The divorce rate in Uruguay has steadily increased 1 per 10,000 population in 1915 to 14 per 1,000 in 1985."[51]

Uruguay is the first Latin American country to allow same-sex couples to adopt children.[52] It has been said that adoption in Uruguay is very strict and also very slow, making it one of the harder Latin American countires to adopt from.

The divorce rate in Uruguay is 2.01%. [53] In comparison to the United States which is 4.1%, Uruguay is roughly half the rate of the US. 2004 Uruguay 14300.00


Uruguay divorce rates

"2003 Uruguay 14003.00 1995 Uruguay 5710.00 1985 Uruguay 4144.00 1970 Uruguay 2927.00"[54]

According to these statics, the number of divorces in Uruguay has grown 5 times its amount from 1970 to 2003.

Uruguay marriage rates

"2006 Uruguay 12415.00 2005 Uruguay 13075.00 1995 Uruguay 17504.00 1985 Uruguay 22276.00 1970 Uruguay 23668.00"[55]

According to these statistics, Uruguay marriages have nearly decreased by 50% between 1970 to 2005.

The majority of Uruguayans are baptized and get married in churches, considering 60% of them are Roman Catholic. The legal age of marriage for both male and female is 18. The legal age to have sex for both female and male is 15.

Article 264.

(Illegal Marriages)

"The former case of bigamy, using violence or deceit, contract a marriage void, settling or mediating other impediments shall be punished with imprisonment from three to twenty four months in prison." This means that in the case that a person or couple is found to have performed an illegal marriage, the marriage will immediately be voided, and will be punished by 3 to 24 months in prison. This marriage could also be deemed illegal if the person is already lawfully married, yet goes through with another marriage.[56]


In Uruguay when a parent passes away, the child will inherit 50% of that parent’s property by law. If it's jointly owned by husband and wife, the child or children will inherit 25% of the total property value in the case of a death of a parent. In the case the opposing parent refuses to give up a share of the estate, the court will over rule, and grant the child or children their share. [57]

Human Rights and Social Inequalities[edit]

The Uruguay Constitution gives all individuals the right to a fair trial. Defendants have the benefit of a presumption of innocence as well.[58]

Some Afro-Uruguayan minorities are currently facing an increased amount of societal discrimination. It also has been documented that continuous violence against women occurs on a normal basis. "[59]

Since prostitution is legal for persons over the age of 18, (generally speaking about woman) it's no wonder woman are continuously discriminated against and become sex victims on a regular basis. There has been a number of documented cases where minors have been found engaging in prostitution and forced labor."[60]

Individuals with HIV/AIDS have been known to be discriminated against based on documented cases.[61]

“Although same-sex couples are now allowed to enter civil unions as of January 1st 2010, there are still occasional reports of nonviolent societal discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity. Uruguay has also been the first Latin American country to allow same-sex adoption."[62]

"Within Uruguay, laws do prohibit all forms of trafficking in persons, but the country has been known for frequent sources of persons, transit point, and infrequently a destination for trafficked persons."[63]


In Uruguay, your civil liberties are protected which include freedom of speech, internet freedom, Academic Freedom and Cultural Events, Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Association, freedom of religion and freedom of movement within the country, foreign travel, emigration, repatriation and also included is protection of refugees.[64]

The right to vote in Uruguay is given to every individual person over the age of 18 years. You must be a legal citizen, and must be registered at the Electoral Court and get a Civic Credential which enables this individual to cast a vote.[65]

References[edit]

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