Internet protocol analysis/Subnetting

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Internet Protocol Analysis - Internet Layer.png

This lesson continues the Internet layer and looks at subnetworks, Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR), subnetting, and supernetworks. Activities include IPv4 subnetting, and using the Cisco Subnet Game.

Nuvola apps bookcase.svg Readings[edit]

  1. Read Wikipedia: Subnetwork.
  2. Read Wikipedia: IPv4 subnetting reference.
  3. Read Wikipedia: CIDR notation.
  4. Read Wikipedia: Classless Inter-Domain Routing.
  5. Read Wikipedia: Supernetwork.

Nuvola apps multimedia.png Multimedia[edit]

  1. Watch YouTube: Subnetting, Cisco CCNA, Binary Numbers - Part 1.
  2. Watch YouTube: Subnetting, Cisco CCNA, Binary Numbers - Part 2.
  3. Watch YouTube: Subnetting, Cisco CCNA, Binary Numbers - Part 3.
  4. Watch YouTube: Subnetting, Cisco CCNA, Binary Numbers - Part 4.
  5. Watch YouTube: Subnetting Cisco CCNA - Part 1 The Magic Number.
  6. Watch YouTube: Subnetting Cisco CCNA - Part 2 The Magic Number.
  7. Watch YouTube: Subnetting Cisco CCNA - Part 3 The Magic Number.
  8. Watch YouTube: Subnetting Cisco CCNA - Part 4 The Magic Number.
  9. Watch YouTube: Subnetting Cisco CCNA - Part 5 The Magic Number.
  10. Watch YouTube: Subnetting Cisco CCNA - Part 6 The Magic Number.

Nuvola apps korganizer.svg Activities[edit]

  1. Review Cisco: IP Addressing and Subnetting for New Users.
  2. Review Understanding IP Addressing: Everything You Ever Wanted To Know.
  3. Experiment with the Online IP Subnet Calculator.
  4. Review EasySubnetting.com subnetting resources.
  5. Play the Cisco Subnet Game.
  6. Consider situations in which a packet analyzer might be used to troubleshoot subnetting and routing traffic.
  7. Use the Discuss page to post comments and questions regarding this lesson.
  8. Review the lesson summary, key terms, review questions and flashcards below.

Stock post message.svg Lesson Summary[edit]

  • An IP address has two fields, a network prefix and a host identifier.[1]
  • The network prefix is identified using CIDR notation.[2]
  • In IPv4, the network prefix may also be identified using a 32-bit subnet mask in dotted-decimal notation.[3]
  • A network is divided into two or more subnetworks by dividing the host identifier field into separate subnet number and smaller host identifier fields.[4]
  • All hosts on a subnetwork have the same network prefix.[5]
  • Traffic between subnets is exchanged through a router.[6]
  • The first address on any given IPv4 network or subnet is reserved for the network itself.[7]
  • The last address on any given IPv4 network or subnet is reserved for broadcast.[8]
  • The separation of the network prefix/subnet number from the host identifier is performed by a bitwise AND operation between the IP address and the (sub)network mask.[9]
  • The number of subnetworks created by subnetting can be calculated as 2n, where n is the number of bits used for subnetting.[10]
  • The number of available hosts on each subnet can be calculated as 2n-2, where n is the number of bits available for the host identifier.[11]
  • The goal of Classless Inter-Domain Routing was to slow the growth of routing tables on routers across the Internet, and to help slow the rapid exhaustion of IPv4 addresses.[12]
  • Classless Inter-Domain Routing is based on variable-length subnet masking (VLSM), which allows a network to be divided into variously sized subnets, providing the opportunity to size a network more appropriately for local needs.[13]
  • The benefits of supernetting are conservation of address space and efficiencies gained in routers in terms of memory storage of route information and processing overhead when matching routes.[14]

Nuvola apps kdict.png Key Terms[edit]

bitwise AND
A binary operation that takes two representations of equal length and performs the logical AND operation on each pair of corresponding bits. The result in each position is 1 if the first bit is 1 and the second bit is 1; otherwise, the result is 0.[15]
CIDR notation
A compact specification of an Internet Protocol address and its associated routing prefix.[16]
provider-independent address space
A block of IP addresses assigned by a regional Internet registry (RIR) directly to an end-user organization.[17]
routing table
A data table stored in a router or a networked computer that lists the routes to particular network destinations, and in some cases, metrics (distances) associated with those routes.[18]
subnet
A logically visible subdivision of an IP network.[19]
subnet mask
A bitmask that encodes the (sub)network prefix length in dotted-decimal notation, starting with a number of 1 bits equal to the prefix length, ending with 0 bits, and encoded in four-part dotted-decimal format.[20]
subnetting
The practice of dividing a network into two or more networks.[21]
supernet
An Internet Protocol (IP) network that is formed from the combination of two or more networks (or subnets) with a common Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) prefix.[22]

Nuvola apps package editors.png Review Questions[edit]

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1. An IP address has two fields, _____.
An IP address has two fields, a network prefix and a host identifier.
2. The network prefix is identified using _____.
The network prefix is identified using CIDR notation.
3. In IPv4, in addition to using CIDR notation, the network prefix may be identified using _____.
In IPv4, in addition to using CIDR notation, the network prefix may be identified using a 32-bit subnet mask in dotted-decimal notation.
4. A network is divided into two or more subnetworks by dividing _____.
A network is divided into two or more subnetworks by dividing the host identifier field into separate subnet number and smaller host identifier fields.
5. All hosts on a subnetwork have the same _____.
All hosts on a subnetwork have the same network prefix.
6. Traffic between subnets is exchanged through a _____.
Traffic between subnets is exchanged through a router.
7. The first address on any given network or subnet is reserved for _____.
The first address on any given IPv4 network or subnet is reserved for the network itself.
8. The last address on any given IPv4 network or subnet is reserved for _____.
The last address on any given IPv4 network or subnet is reserved for broadcast.
9. The separation of the network prefix/subnet number from the host identifier is performed by _____.
The separation of the network prefix/subnet number from the host identifier is performed by a bitwise AND operation between the IP address and the (sub)network mask.
10. The number of subnetworks created by subnetting can be calculated as _____.
The number of subnetworks created by subnetting can be calculated as 2n, where n is the number of bits used for subnetting.
11. The number of available hosts on each subnet can be calculated as _____.
The number of available hosts on each subnet can be calculated as 2n-2, where n is the number of bits available for the host identifier.
12. The goal of Classless Inter-Domain Routing was to _____.
The goal of Classless Inter-Domain Routing was to slow the growth of routing tables on routers across the Internet, and to help slow the rapid exhaustion of IPv4 addresses.
13. Classless Inter-Domain Routing is based on _____.
Classless Inter-Domain Routing is based on variable-length subnet masking (VLSM).
14. The benefits of supernetting are _____.
The benefits of supernetting are conservation of address space and efficiencies gained in routers in terms of memory storage of route information and processing overhead when matching routes.

Nuvola apps cache.png Flashcards[edit]

Nuvola filesystems folder orange.png References[edit]

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