Sedimentology

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This is an unsorted deposit with an extreme size range. Credit: Daniel Chapman.

Sedimentology is the science and study of sediments.

San Andreas.jpg Subject classification: this is a Geology resource.

Theoretical sedimentology[edit]

Def. a "study of natural sediments and of the processes by which they are formed"[1] is called sedimentology.

Glacial deposits[edit]

Glacial till[edit]

Fluvial and outwash[edit]

Glacial erratics[edit]

Entrainment[edit]

Def. any "of several processes in which a solid or liquid is put into motion by a fluid"[2] is called entrainment.

Def. "of, relating to, or situated or occurring at the surface of a glacier"[3] is called supraglacial.

Def. occurring "or located within a glacier"[4] is called englacial.

Def. formed, "or occurring beneath a glacier or other body of ice"[5] is called subglacial.

Diamictons[edit]

Def. "nonsorted, noncalcareous terrigenous deposits composed of sand and/or larger particles dispersed through a muddy matrix"[6] are called diamictons.

Boulders[edit]

This image shows a rock apparently where it fell. Credit: Sten Porse.

Def. "[a] particle [or large piece of stone] greater than 256 mm in diameter [that can theoretically be moved if enough force is applied]"[7] is called a boulder.

Cobbles[edit]

Def. "[a] particle from 64 to 256 mm in diameter"[8] is called a cobble.

Pebbles[edit]

These are pebbles on a beach. Credit: Slomox.

Def.' "[a] particle from 4 to 64 mm in diameter"[9] is called a pebble.

Granules[edit]

Def. "[a] particle from 2 to 4 mm in diameter"[10] is called a granule.

Gravels[edit]

Gravel, largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm, is from Thirasia, Santorini, Greece. Credit: .

Def. "[a] particle from 2 to 64 mm in diameter"[11] is called a gravel.

Alluvium[edit]

Def. "soil, clay, silt or gravel deposited by flowing water, as it slows, in a river bed, delta, estuary or flood plain"[12] is called alluvium.

Sands[edit]

Close-up of sand from a beach in Vancouver, shows a surface area of approximately between 1-2 square centimetres. Credit: .

Def. "[a] particle from 62.5 microns to 2 mm in diameter"[13] is called a sand.

Muds[edit]

Def. "[a] particle less than 62.5 microns in diameter"[14] is called a mud.

Silts[edit]

Def. a "particle from 3.9 to 62.5 microns in diameter"[15] is called silt.

Loess[edit]

Def. any "sediment, dominated by silt"[15] is called loess.

Def. fine-grained, "silt-size sediment formed by the mechanical erosion of bedrock at the base and sides of a glacier by moving ice"[16] is called rock flour.

"When [rock flour] enters a stream, it turns the stream's color brown, gray, iridescent blue-green, or milky white. [It is also] called Glacier Flour or Glacier Milk."[16]

Clay[edit]

Quaternary clay in Estonia is 400,000 years old. Credit: Siim Sepp.

Def. a "particle less than 3.9 microns in diameter"[17] is called clay.

Colloids[edit]

Def. "[a] particle less than 1 micron in diameter"[18] is called a colloid.

Physics[edit]

Def. "[a] particle classification system ... based on diameter"[19] is called the Wentworth scale.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. SemperBlotto (18 August 2006). "sedimentology, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2014-11-09. 
  2. "entrainment, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 7 November 2013. Retrieved 2014-11-22. 
  3. "supraglacial, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 26 May 2014. Retrieved 2014-11-22. 
  4. "englacial, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 20 April 2011. Retrieved 2014-11-22. 
  5. "subglacial, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 1 February 2011. Retrieved 2014-11-22. 
  6. L. J. G. Schermerhorn (September 1966). "Terminology of Mixed Coarse-Fine Sediments: NOTES". Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 36 (3): 831-5. Retrieved on 2014-11-08. 
  7. (September 21, 2012) "boulder". Wiktionary. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved on 2012-10-23. 
  8. (September 1, 2012) "cobble". Wiktionary. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved on 2012-10-23. 
  9. (October 16, 2012) "pebble". Wiktionary. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved on 2012-10-23. 
  10. (October 16, 2012) "granule". Wiktionary. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved on 2012-10-23. 
  11. (October 16, 2012) "gravel". Wiktionary. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved on 2012-10-23. 
  12. SemperBlotto (12 August 2005). "alluvium, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2014-11-10. 
  13. (October 23, 2012) "sand". Wiktionary. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved on 2012-10-23. 
  14. (October 23, 2012) "mud". Wiktionary. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved on 2012-10-23. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 Metaknowledge (31 March 2006). "loess, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2014-11-10. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 Eleyne Phillips (16 December 2004). "Glossary of Glacier Terminology". Reston, Virginia USA: United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2014-11-09. 
  17. Metaknowledge (17 March 2012). "clay, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2014-11-10. 
  18. (September 8, 2012) "colloid". Wiktionary. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved on 2012-10-23. 
  19. (September 13, 2012) "Wentworth scale". Wiktionary. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved on 2012-10-23. 

External links[edit]