Sexual health/Herbal breast enlargement
This guide is for female natural breast enlargement using noninvasive vegan, including herbal, methods. This resource is for vegetarians and non-vegetarians alike. This resource covers herbal and similar uses, to show that animal or bovine extracts are unnecessary. Almost everything a person eats directly or indirectly comes from plants. This vegan method is to supplement an already existing diet for calorie intake. This promotes feminine qualities, so it is not suitable for males. Use caution, and observe the effects before continuing. Stop immediately if any concerns occur, and do not overdo. The doer is responsible for using judgement and for ensuring the use of only food-grade safe ingredients. Do not do if: pregnant, any health conditions exist or are a worry, or social conditions or environments are a concern. In extreme and uncontrolled conditions it can become an adverse or potentially bad concern. Accept your body, and go with natural results.
Safety of each food, herb or phytoestrogen has to be researched on a case by case basis. Some phytoestrogens are considered safe, while some may be safe while promoting unwanted effects like unwanted body hair growth. Others, in foods like soy, may increase the risk of estrogen positive cancers. Some estrogenic herbs could possibly interfere with oral contraceptives. Many estrogenic herbs are not safe to be taken during pregnancy, because some cause uterine contractions.
Zearalenone, known as ZEN, and its derivatives are a class of xenoestrogens associated with many herbal bust enhancement products. Zearalenone, produced by a toxic fungus, is a mycoestrogen that stimulates the growth of breast cancer cells, increases the chance of estrogen dependent breast cancer, and may reduce fertility.
Genistein, an isoflavonoid, may increase the chances of estrogen dependent cancer. Soy may alternatively decrease the chances of estrogen negative cancer. Kava is a liver toxin. Tea tree oil is dangerous for internal consumption.
Human hormones are not to be supplemented, as this is dangerous. There exist synthetic estrogens, metalloestrogens and other estrogenic substances that most are extremely carcinogenic and toxic, and these are to be completely avoided.
Also to note: concentrated foods, no matter how harmless, cause strenuous work for the liver.
The breast is largely composed of glandular tissue surrounded by adipose tissue. This glandular tissue is made up of numerous milk producing lobules. The endocrine system, including the pituitary gland, regulates mammary glands.
Body mass index
- See also: w:Estrogen receptor
Mammary gland cells contain estrogen receptor alpha, progesterone receptor, and prolactin receptor proteins. Estradiol, progesterone and prolactin normally activate the respective receptors that cause breast growth. Food-grade phytoestrogen analogs may replicate these actions to further stimulate breast growth.
Breast development occurs during the luteal phase, and of the luteal phase, there is interest in days 18 to 23. During the follicular phase, there are hormones correlated with breast size, perhaps these hormones are necessary for keeping gains made during the luteal phase. There may be a possibility for growth during follicular days 5 to 10, but perhaps by a different presence of hormone levels than the hormone levels present during the luteal phase.
The following human hormones are for reference and depth of understanding. Knowing the effects of human hormones can implement the analysis of herbal effects on the body. Human hormones are not to be supplemented.
Prolactin has influence on breast tissue. The luteal phase, and the hormone prolactin are of interest. Prolactin is indirectly responsible for progesterone, and is directly responsible for glandular tissue hypertrophy. Prolactin is also associated with temporary breast size during days 5 to 10 of the follicular phase.
When prolactin is coupled with a placental hormone, somatomammotropin, it causes milk production and secretion. The idea is for prolactin stimulation without milk secretion. Different phytoestrogens may possibly be the building blocks of varying estrogenic compounds, or they may have a weak estrogenic effect themselves, as this seems unproven. Galactagogue herbs may have this prolactin like effect. There are estrogenic or phytoestrogenic compounds with different effects. In theory, the body makes the hormones necessary from phytochemicals and nutrients for the body to balance. Prolactin levels are highest at night or during rest.
Progesterone has influence on breast tissue. Progesterone is present during the luteal phase that causes breast development. However, one research's results showed conflicting correlations during the luteal phase, so progesterone may not be the direct cause for the differences in results.
Estradiol may have an effect on breast tissue. The body regulates estrogen, which is not supposed to be supplemented for this purpose.
Insulin interacts with mammary cells, and it promotes lactation.
Follicle stimulating hormone
Follicle-stimulating hormone's (FSH) purpose is related to ovulation. Low FSH amounts are correlated to larger breast volume during the follicular phase, so higher amounts of FSH may allow more breast volume reduction during follicular phase. FSH in general is associates with lower breast volume. Estradiol reduces the amount of FSH during the follicular phase, but it alternatively increases the amount of FSH during the ovulation phase which lasts from days 12 to 14.
Oxycotin and somatomammotropin
Certain phytohormones may work by binding to estrogen receptors in the mammary glands, or by possibly influencing human hormone regulation or synthesis. It is possible that phytoestrogens may help prevent the breakdown of human hormones, thus reducing hormonal imbalances. Phytohormones that are galactogogues may possibly be mammary tissue receptive. Phytoestrogen sources that prevent or fight cancer are preferable. Useful phytohormones increase the duration of the luteal phase, have other hormone balancing properties, or interact strongly with certain estrogen receptors namely ER-α, prolactin receptors or progesterone receptors.
|8-prenylnaringenin||Hops||Progesterone receptor and α receptor binding; causes mammary cell proliferation; Increases prolactin levels; Decreases LH and FSH.||Affects menstrual cycles. Most potent phytoestrogen known. An analog of 17β-estradiol that is about 1/10 as potent. Reduces hot flashes. Anticancer properties in human in vitro cells.||Skin irritation in humans. Toxic to dogs.|
|Diosgenin||Wild yam, Fenugreek||Estrogen like. Increases bud differentation.||Can be converted to progesterone in a lab. Fenugreek seed sprouts contain more diosgenin than non-sprout fenugreek seeds.||Unknown effects if there is preexisting cancer, Fenugreek is not to be used during pregnancy.|
|Silymarin||Thistles||Lactogogue. Estrogenic effect||Does not influence estrogenic hormones. Promotes milk flow.||Liver protectant Anticancer properties.|
|Chasteberry||Lactogogue, menstrual, increases duration of the luteal phase.||Decrease prolactin and FSH. Increases LH. Decrease sex drive||Known to be safe|
|Shatavarin I||Asparagus racemosus, Asparagus officinalis||Lactogogue||Blocks oxycotin activity||Known to be safe|
|Shatavarins II-IV||Asparagus||Anticancer||Known to be safe|
|Evening Primrose||used to relieve breast pain||Mild, safe|
|Saw Palmetto||Hormone balancing|||
|Miroestrol||Pueraria mirifica||Legume family|
|Torbangun||possibly more effective than fenugreek||increases milk volume 65% more than fenugreek|
|Fennel||possibly unsafe for breastfeeding|
|Mint||Useful against hirsutism.||Pennyroyal can cause liver damage. Extracts of other mints, while relatively safe, can be overdosed on. Not safe to be taken during pregnancy.|
|Gardenia||Increases estradiol levels. Reduces follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.||Increases bone density.||edible.|
|mycoestrogens||Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi)||Reduces conversion of testosterone into DHT.||Difficulty distinguishing safe mushrooms from dangerous ones.|
Most insignificant phytochemicals do not interact strongly with ER-α, prolactin receptor, or progesterone receptor. The phytohormones on this table are not useful for breast enlargement purposes or are unsafe. The herbs fenugreek, fennel, and pueraria mirifica may seem like exceptions, because they contain other phytochemicals not listed here. Avoid the use of dangerous ingredients.
|Genistein||Legume family: Soy, Red clover, Fenugreek, Fennel, Pueraria mirifica||Most phytoestrogenic isoflavonoid. Less times estrogenic than 8-prenylnaringenin. Furthermore, interacts fractionally less with ER-α alpha than ER-β.||Slightly increases chances of estrogen positive cancer, but reduces the chances of estrogen negative cancer. Fenugreek is not to be used during pregnancy.|
|Daidzein||Legume family: Soy, Red clover, Fenugreek, Fennel, Pueraria mirifica||Daidzein is a phytoestrogen that also acts as a phytoandrogen since it activates androgen receptors. Causes body hair growth.||Slightly increases chances of estrogen positive cancer, but reduces the chances of estrogen negative cancer. Fenugreek is not to be used during pregnancy.|
|-||Kava||Used for anxiety and not for breast related purposes||Strong liver toxin, can cause liver damage.|
|-||Black cohosh||Menstrual. Completely different genus than Blue cohosh. Fights prostate cancer.||Possibly a strong liver toxin, causes uterine contractions, safety is uncertain.|
|-||Tea Tree oil||implicated for breast growth in males||Not for internal consumption, toxic if taken internally|
|-||Lavender||implicated for breast growth in males||Not for internal consumption, toxic if taken internally|
|Apigenin||Celery, Parsley, Capsicum pepper||Anticancer properties; Possibly useful for herbal breast reduction||Safe|
|Epigallocatechins||Green tea (camellia)||Reduce the conversion of free testosterone into DHT; Possibly useful for herbal breast reduction||Safe|
Activation of ER-α causes elongation or horizontal growth of mammary duct cells. Progesterone receptor activation causes side-branching of mammary gland cells. Density, areolar gland development, and gland lactation development are caused by prolactin receptor activation.
From the table the effects of 8-prenylnaringenin on estrogen receptors are shown. 8-prenylnaringenin directly stimulates ER-α and the progesterone receptor in the mammary glands. It also indirectly stimulates the prolactin receptor by causing an increase in prolactin. 8-prenylnaringenin stimulates the hormone receptors responsible for breast growth possibly in elongation, area, areola and density.
Asparagus and fruits among other foods have phytochemical properties that may be useful. Legumes (fabaceae) with high isoflavonoid content, such as soy, may provide unwanted estrogenic effects. Common foods may have limited effectiveness as they have significantly less phytoestrogens than herbs.
Chasteberry (vitex agnus-castus), thistles (cnicus benedictus), hops (Humulus lupulus), saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) and asparagus contain phytochemicals beneficial to breast health. Chasteberry, thistles and hops are phytoestrogenic, and have feminine effects. Saw palmetto and asparagus are useful for hormone balancing. Common asparagus (asparagus officinalis) is a suitable, but weaker substitue than Shatavari (asparagus racemous).
Thistles are a galactagogue. Hops has feminine properties and it has been known to cause breast growth. It may even be responsible for causing unwanted gynecomastia in males. Hops contains 8-prenylnaringenin which is a potent phytoestrogen. Chasteberry is known to have an effect on estrous cycles and prolactin.
Phytoestrogens are already available in foods, responsible for most hormonal properties. The body produces estrogens from phytoestrogens, either aquired from plant or animal sources. Small amounts of phytoestrogens help with hormonal deficits or imbalances. Use cautiously, and wait to observe any effects before continuing. Different herbs have different properties. Do not use any androgenic herbs or anything else remotely potentially dangerous.
Pour herbs and food-grade grain alcohol into a brown glass container using a funnel. Grain alcohol of varying proof levels is suitable, because it can extract both water and fat soluble phytochemicals. Brown glass containers keep light from breaking down phytochemicals within it. If the bottle doesn't have a screw on cap of its own, a cork can be used. This bottle can be placed into a sock, and put in a dark place for two weeks. The extract can be poured off the top, when needed, while the solid mixture sinks to the bottom. This can be added to drinks or drunk as is.
An infusion can also be made, by putting a herbal ingredient in olive oil, and letting it sit for a week.
Hops can be smoked or taken through a vaporizer. A vaporizer allows efficient and unrestricted uptake of phytochemicals. Inhaling vapor does not have the problems of breathing in smoke that irritates the lungs, or the build up of tars caused by burning. Tea tree and lavender should not be taken through vaporization. Other herbs are not documented for long-term use through inhalation, so they should be avoided, until more is known.
Massage with herbal phytoestrogens and olive oil may influence growth increase, but the amount of this to enter the body is unmatched compared to digestion. Hopefully it would be a treatment for amazia and unilateral breasts in combination with herbal breast reduction.Massage with herbal phytoestrogens and olive oil may influence growth increase, but the amount of this to enter the body is unmatched compared to digestion. Hopefully it would be a treatment for amazia and unilateral breasts in combination with herbal breast reduction.
Dosage is important for this.
Water hydration is important for health, and body efficiency. A multivitamin can help with improving overall body health. Vitamins do not need to be overdone. A womans' multivitamin, and food sources is more than adequate for mineral needs. Using individual mineral supplements can cause imbalances, and this is not suitable. Properly balanced calcium complexes with D vitamins can be an exception. Vitamins A, D, E, and B with C complex can be individually supplemented. Unlike minerals, vitamins have less risk of imbalancing, but deficiencies and overdoses can still occur. For vitamins: the Reference Daily Intake (RDI) on nutritional labels is the minimal for human survival, and the Optimum Daily Intake (ODI) is designated for optimal health. A B with C vitamin complex supplement and an antioxidant complex supplement are ideal. Melatonin is useful as a synergistic terminal antioxidant, and it is useful for improved rest during which growth occurs. Vitamin supplements with artificial colors or flavors are counterproductive to health. Protein powders should be heavily diluted in water.
Multivitamins have protective properties for women with breast cancer, and it might also help with preventative measures. Fruit and vegetable intake is correlated to lower incidence of ER negative breast cancer.
Natural peanut butter, olive oil, soup, fruit juice and chocolate can be used for supplementary calorie intake. Calorie intake, most necessary for mass, is necessary for any type of growth, and there are 7,700 kilocalories in a kilogram. The body's insulin is beneficial to this purpose. Macromastia occurs higher than 1.5 kg. Excessive aerobic physical activity has an effect on the amount of calories needed. Olive oil is the only or few vegetable oils safe to be drank by itself. Whole foods are healthy unlike refined foods: especially avoid or limit chemically extracted vegetable oils, refined sugars, or foods. Peanut butter can be eaten out of a jar. Herbs in powder, tea or extract form can be mixed in with these foods or drinks. Eating sufficiently to have enough body fat is necessary for breast tissue gains.
Dubious method claims
Hypnosis tapes are marketed for breast enlargement, but there is little scientific study on this in the public domain. It claims to work on the mind, to allow it to create the hormones necessary for mammary enlargement.
For investigation, the hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland's secretion of hormones. Hypnosis has been proven to control subjects' thinking, but there is no publicly known mechanism for hypnotism to affect the hypothalamus beyond emotion, arousal and relaxation. Stress is counterproductive to the body's hormone levels and hypnosis has been known to reduce stress. Another known of success of hypnosis is causing desired weight change. Hypnosis can work verbally to adjust the cerebral's thinking to induce emotion, arousal or relaxation in the hypothalamus. Music can also influence moods. Hypnosis could cause sexual arousal through verbal or musical cues, influencing the production of some, but not all hormones, by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. If this were possibly the case, prolactin could be the suspected hormone that would be produced through hypnosis stimulation.
It is doubtful that there is a mechanism for hypnosis to influence necessary hormone production by the pituitary gland via the hypothalamus, however, it is an interesting notion. Studies have shown hypnosis' ability to reduce hot flashes. It is not known how this is done, except that hypnosis achieves this through the parasympathetic system.
Stationary magnet therapy
Stationary magnet therapy claims to affect the energy level of the breasts to cause growth. There is negligible research on this.
There is some evidence to suggest that stationary magnet therapy has general health benefits.
Breast pumps for breast enlargement may not be effective, and they only alter breast shape.
There are negligible studies on whether massage alone works for natural breast growth. Massage should not be done roughly. To support this theory, nipple stimulation does cause the pituitary gland to release prolactin.
Massage with topical application, could possibly be beneficial.
Concerns and non-nutritional
Core exercises can influence chest definition and appearance. This has no known direct effect on breast fatty tissue, except when there is lack of pectoral muscle that results in an abnormality in reduced breast tissue. Pectoral resistance training might help with this. Weight change may have an effect on breast tissue reduction or gain.
If back strain is an issue, resistance exercise and rest can strengthen back muscles so this won't be a concern.
Back strain or other problems may be reduced by proper sized garments. About 7 out of 10 women don't wear the correct bra size, and 8 out of 10 women wear the incorrect sports bra size. Breast pain during exercise may be reduced by wearing the proper size sports bra.
It is possible that tight fitting clothing may restrict breast shape and size. A bra that is too tight, may promote sagging, because it restricts the growth of elastic tissue. There might also be a relationship between wearing bras and sagging breasts.
Breast development can still occur into adulthood.
Macromastia and gigantomastia
- see also: Sexual health/Herbal breast reduction
Macromastasia is a condition that does not require invasive medical intervention. Macromastia is a harmless condition. Gigantomastia is usually benign, except in extreme cases where growth is uncontrolled and lacerations may occur. Macromastia amount varies in proportion to body weight. It is excess of 600 grams of each breast where where macromastia occurs, and it is in excess of 1,000 grams of each breast where gigantomastia occurs.
Tissue damage may be a cause for an undeveloped breast, and may be an increased risk in breast cancer. Radiation therapy or physical trauma may cause one breast to remain undeveloped in comparison to the other. Herbal massage with olive oil with proper nutrition is a hopeful method for the underdeveloped breast, as the remaining tissue may regenerate.
Some abnormalities of reduced breast tissue are the result of a lack of pectoral muscle tissue, and one set of chest resistance training once a week can help with this.
Pro-tease inhibitors, penicillamine (which can have serious side effects), neuroleptics, and certain antidepressants have been implicated in breast growth.
Breast size naturally changes over time, influenced by hormonal and fat composition levels.
Oral contraceptive use causes a temporary increase in breast size.
There have been limited modern scientific studies to test the efficacy of herbal breast enlargement, but that does not mean that is it not possible.
There has been folklore and interest in using herbs for breast enlargement and lactation throughout history.
Pharmacological approaches may one day completely replace unnatural surgical methods. Nutritional and pharmacological approaches together may even become a treatment for micromastia, or tuberous breasts.
- Mammary Gland Development, Wiley Interdiscip Rev Dev Biol, 2012, doi:10.1002/wdev.35, PMC PMC3404495, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3404495/
- Sternlicht (December 5, 2005), Key Stages in Mammary Gland Development, Breast Cancer Research, doi:10.1186/bcr1368, PMC PMC1413974, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1413974/
- Pazaiti, A.; Kontos, M.; Fentiman, I. S. (1 January 2012). "ZEN and the art of breast health maintenance". International Journal of Clinical Practice 66 (1): 28–36. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2011.02805.x.
- "Mammary gland". Encyclopedia Britannica. (2012).
- Jemström; Olsson (1997), "Breast Size in Relation to Endogenous Hormone Levels, Body Constitution, and Oral Contraceptive Use in Healthy Nulligravid Women Aged 19-25 Years", American Journal of Epidemiology (The John Hopkins University), http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/145/7/571.long
- Brisken; Malley (December 2, 2010), Hormone Action in the Mammary Gland, Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol, doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a003178, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2982168/
- "Prolactin". Encyclopedia Britannica. (2012).
- Stringer; Rowson; Williams (1989), Effect of raised serum prolactin on breast development, Journal of Anatomy, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1256452/pdf/janat00048-0245.pdf
- "New study reveals important role of insulin in making breast milk". Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. July 5, 2013.
- In vivo estrogenic comparisons of Trifolium pratense (red clover) Humulus lupulus (hops), and the pure compounds isoxanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin., Chem Biol Interact, 2008, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2574795/#R26
- S. R. Milligan, J. C. Kalita, V. Pocock, V. Van De Kauter, J. F. Stevens, M. L. Deinzer, H. Rong and D. De Keukeleire (2000), "The Endocrine Activities of 8-Prenylnaringenin and Related Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) Flavonoids", Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 85 (12), doi:10.1210/jc.85.12.4912, http://jcem.endojournals.org/content/85/12/4912.full.pdf+html
- "Hops (Humulus lupulus) inhibits Oxidative Estrogen Metabolism and Estrogen-Induced Malignant Transformation in Human Mammary Epithelial cells (MCF-10A)", Cancer Prev Res, 2013, doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-11-0348, PMC PMC3252489, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3252489/
- Fugh-Berman MD, Adriane (2003), “Bust Enhancing” Herbal Products, 101, Elsevier, doi:10.1016/S0029-7844(03)00362-4, http://www.fugh-berman.com/files/Bust.pdf
- Breast-Enlarging Herbs: A Bust?, Psychology Today, 2010, http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/all-about-sex/201010/breast-enlarging-herbs-bust
- Wild yam, U.S. National Library of Medicine, http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/970.html
- “Silymarin”, a Promising Pharmacological Agent for Treatment of Diseases, Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2011, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3586829/
- Medicinal herbs: NTP extracts the facts., 107, Environmental Health Perspectives, 1999, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1566815/?page=2
- Carmichael A.R. (November 2007). "Can Vitex Agnus Castus be Used for the Treatment of Mastalgia? What is the Current Evidence?". Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ecam/nem074.
- Ancient-modern concordance in Ayurvedic plants: some examples., 107, Environmental Health Perspectives, 1999, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1566595/
- Goyal RK, Singh J, Lal H (2003). "Asparagus racemosus--an update". Indian J Med Sci 57 (9): 408-414.
- Evening Primrose, NCCAM, http://nccam.nih.gov/health/eveningprimrose
- Saw Palmetto, NCCAM, http://nccam.nih.gov/health/palmetto/ataglance.htm
- "Lactagogue effects of Torbangun, a Bataknese traditional cuisine.", Asia Pac J Clin Nutr., 2006, PMID 16672214, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16672214
- An Update on Plant Derived Anti-Androgens, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3693613/
- [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/480.html Pennyroyal Email this page to a friend Share on facebook Share on twitter Bookmark & Share Printer-friendly version], http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/480.html
- Gardenia oil increases estradiol levels and bone material density by a mechanism associated with upregulation of COX-2 expression in an ovariectomized rat model, Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 2013, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3786832/?report=reader
- Homemade Herbal Teas, WebMd, http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/features/homemade-herbal-tea?page=2
- Overk et al. (August 10, 2005), "Comparison of the In Vitro Estrogenic Activities of Compounds from Hops (Humulus lupulus) and Red Clover (Trifolium pratense)", J Agric Food Chem, doi:10.1021/jf050448p, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1815392/
- By modulating androgen receptor coactivators, daidzein may act as a phytoandrogen
- Kava, NCCAM, http://nccam.nih.gov/health/kava
- Identification of a potent phytoestrogen in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and beer, J Clin Endocrinol Metab., 1999 June, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10372741
- Multivitamins With Minerals May Protect Older Women With Invasive Breast Cancer, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, October 9, 2013, doi:10.1007/s10549-013-2712-x, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131009105751.htm
- Fruit and Vegetable Intake Is Associated With Lower Risk of ER Breast Cancer, Journal of the National Cancer Institute; AAAS, January 24, 2013, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/01/130124163336.htm
- "Hypnosis Can Help Get Rid Of Hot Flashes", Menopause, October 24, 2012, doi:10.1097/gme.0b013e31826ce3ed, http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/251956.php
- Information and Resources: Prolactin, Healthwise, http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/prolactin-15129
- Scientists help develop new sports bra fitting service, University of Portsmouth, 2011, http://www.port.ac.uk/uopnews/2011/09/27/scientists-help-develop-new-sports-bra-fitting-service/
- Sports bras: Get fit for action, Los Angeles Times, 2013, http://articles.latimes.com/2013/jan/05/health/la-he-sports-bras-20130105
- Breast pain issue for 1 in 3 female marathon runners, BMJ, 2013, http://medicalxpress.com/news/2013-04-breast-pain-issue-female-marathon.html
- Professor warns against tight bras, United Press International, April 9, 2008, http://phys.org/news126959097.html
- Awareness of Breast Developmental Anomalies: A Study in Jamasi, Ghana, 2011, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3192272/
- Oils 'make male breasts develop', BBC News, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/6318043.stm
- Prepubertal Gynecomastia Linked to Lavender and Tea Tree Oils, The New England Journal of Medicine, February 1, 2007, http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa064725#t=article
- Wood, Cameron, Fitzgerald (March 13, 2008), "Breast size, bra fit and thoracic pain in young women: a correlational study", Chiropractic & Osteopathy, doi:10.1186/1746-1340-16-1, PMC PMC2275741, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2275741/