Reproductive health/Vegetarian breast enlargement

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This guide is for female dietary vegetarian breast enlargement. This resource is for non-vegetarians and vegetarians alike. There have been limited modern scientific studies to test the efficacy of herbal breast enlargement.

The doer is responsible for using judgement and for ensuring the use of only food-grade safe ingredients. Do not do if: pregnant, potentially conceiving, any health conditions exist or are a worry, or social conditions or environments are a concern. In extreme and uncontrolled conditions it can become an adverse or potentially bad concern.

“Bust enhancing” herbal products are widely advertised, but no appropriate clinical trials have been published.[1] No randomized, blinded and fully controlled tests has been performed to test any breast enhancement product.[2]

Precautions[edit]

Stop immediately if any concerns occur, and do not overdo.

Safety of each food, herb or phytoestrogen has to be researched on a case by case basis, and while one part of a plant may be edible another part may not be. Many phytoestrogens are considered safe. Other phytohormones may be considered safe while promoting unwanted effects: daidzein which is contained in phytoestrogenic legumes has the phytoandrogenic property of promoting unwanted body hair growth. Phytochemicals in foods like soy may increase the risk of estrogen positive cancers, but have a mixed result in other types of cancers and in cancer prevention. Some estrogenic or androgenic herbs could possibly interfere with oral contraceptives. Many estrogenic herbs are not safe to be taken during pregnancy, because some cause uterine contractions, and because phytochemicals may potentially be passed on to the child.

Zearalenone, known as ZEN or ZEA, and its derivatives are mycoestrogens. It is produced by toxic fungi within the genuses of Fusarium and Gibberella. Zearalenone is a mycotoxin that can stimulate the growth of breast cancer cells, increases the chance of estrogen dependent breast cancer, and reduces fertility.[3]

There is evidence that excessive red clover intake may cause permanent infertility,[4][5] either way, it is not useful here.

Genistein, an isoflavonoid, may increase the chances of estrogen dependent cancer. Soy may alternatively decrease the chances of estrogen negative cancer. Kava, which is not useful here, can easily cause severe liver damage. Tea tree oil is dangerous for internal consumption.

High levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) may cause premature menopause or poor ovarian reserve.* Be mindful of herbs like mints that raise FSH levels.

Human hormones are not to be supplemented, as this is dangerous. There exist synthetic estrogens, metalloestrogens and other estrogenic substances that most are extremely carcinogenic and toxic, and these are to be completely avoided.

Vegetarian breast enlargement is not suitable for males. Testicular atrophy, which may increase the chances for aliments related to the male gonads would be a serious concern.

Also to note: concentrated foods or supplements, no matter how harmless, cause strenuous work for the liver.

Check the safety and safe doses of each herb. Safety information of many herbs can be found at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/herb_All.html

Biology of the breast[edit]

The breast is largely composed of glandular tissue surrounded by adipose tissue.[6] This glandular tissue is made up of numerous milk producing lobules.[6] The endocrine system, including the pituitary gland, regulates mammary glands.[6]

areolar and mammary glands are of the exocrine system.

Mammary gland cells contain estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α), progesterone receptor (PR), and prolactin receptor (PrLR) proteins. Estradiol, progesterone and prolactin normally activate the respective receptors that cause breast growth.[7] Estrogens, and progestogens are different categories of sex hormones. Prolactin is another type of hormone that reduces estrogen.

Activation of ER-α causes elongation or horizontal growth of mammary duct cells.[7] PR, believed to be specific to Progesterone Receptor B (PRB),[8] activation causes side-branching of mammary gland cells.[7] Density, Areolar gland development, and gland lactation development are caused by prolactin receptor activation.[7]

Progesterone is associated with the luteal phase.

Most breast development occurs during the luteal phase, usually days 14 to 28, which is associated with high levels of progesterone and a lesser but significant amount of estrogen.[9] The luteal phase is signaled to start by luteinizing hormone (LH).

During the follicular phase, days 1 through 14, IGF-1 and prolactin are positively correlated with breast size.[9] Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) causes breast epithelial cell proliferation, and it may allow for breast size maintenance,[9] and growth. Some hormones may be necessary for keeping gains made during the luteal phase.

Estrogen is normally high during ovulation (between menstruation and the luteal phase) and causes breast growth.[10] Breast swelling during luteal phase is also growth,[10][9] and perhaps antagonists undo this action that is associated with water weight. Progestins may possibly be ER-α antagonists, and estrogens might be PRB antagonists. Certain receptor antagonisms might be necessary to lessen desensitization, due to up or down regulation. However, an overload of antagonisms may damage receptors, desensitizing them.

Androgens[edit]

Lower androgen levels are correlated with larger breast sizes, especially during the luteal phase,[9] as androgens block estrogen receptors.

LH raises testosterone levels, and LH is also correlated with high estrogen levels. Small amounts of androgens are necessary for normal function. Testosterone can be converted into estrogen via aromatase or DHT via 5-alpha-reducatase enzymes. Excessive DHT causes unwanted effects, while testosterone has minimal unwanted effects.

Possibly unsafe herbs[edit]

The following have safety considerations, and should be cautioned or avoided: lavender, tea tree oil, kava, red clover, pennyroyal, black cohosh.

Preparations[edit]

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Topical[edit]

Digestion blocks the absorption of some herbal substances. Then after that, they may get one pass through the body, before being converted or broken down into another form. The liver alters or breaks down 80 - 90% of substances that encounter it.[11] Alternatively, the amount by topical application to enter the body is unmatched compared to digestion.

Nutrition[edit]

See also: Nutrition

Water hydration is important for health, and body efficiency. A multivitamin can help with improving overall body health. Vitamins do not need to be overdone. A womans' multivitamin, and food sources is more than adequate for mineral needs. Using individual mineral supplements can cause imbalances, and this is not suitable. Properly balanced calcium complexes with D vitamins can be an exception. Vitamins A, D, E, and B with C complex can be individually supplemented. Unlike minerals, vitamins have less risk of imbalancing, but deficiencies and overdoses can still occur. For vitamins: the Reference Daily Intake (RDI) on nutritional labels is the minimal for human survival. Optimum Daily Intake (ODI), Guideline Daily Amount (GDA) and Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) are designated for improved health. A B with C vitamin complex supplement and an antioxidant complex supplement are ideal. Melatonin is useful as a synergistic terminal antioxidant, and it is useful for improved rest during which growth occurs. Vitamin supplements with artificial colors or flavors are counterproductive to health. Protein powders should be heavily diluted in water.

Multivitamins have protective properties for women with breast cancer,[12] and it might also help with preventative measures. Fruit and vegetable intake is correlated to lower incidence of ER negative breast cancer.[13]

Calorie intake[edit]

Natural peanut butter, olive oil, soup, fruit juice or other staple foods can be used for supplementary calorie intake.

Calorie intake, most necessary for mass, is necessary for any type of growth, and there are 7,700 kilocalories in a kilogram.

Excessive aerobic physical activity has an effect on the amount of calories needed. Olive oil is the only or few vegetable oils safe to be taken by itself, but too much can cause temporary digestion problems. Whole foods are healthy unlike refined foods: especially avoid or limit chemically extracted vegetable oils, refined sugars, or foods. Peanut butter can be eaten out of a jar. Herbs in powder, tea or extract form can be mixed in with these foods or drinks. Eating sufficiently to have enough body fat is necessary for breast tissue gains.

Non-dietary considerations[edit]

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Breast development can still occur into adulthood.

Exercise[edit]

Core exercises can influence chest definition and appearance. This has no known direct effect on breast fatty tissue, except when there is lack of pectoral muscle that results in an abnormality in reduced breast tissue. Pectoral resistance training might help with this. Weight change may have an effect on breast tissue reduction or gain.

If back strain is an issue, resistance exercise and rest can strengthen back muscles so this won't be a concern.

Clothing[edit]

Back strain or other problems may be reduced by proper sized garments. About 7 out of 10 women don't wear the correct bra size,[14] and 8 out of 10 women wear the incorrect sports bra size.[15] Breast pain during exercise may be reduced by wearing the proper size sports bra.[16]

It is possible that tight fitting clothing may restrict breast shape and size.[6] A bra that is too tight, may promote sagging, because it restricts the growth of elastic tissue.[17] There might also be a relationship between wearing bras and sagging breasts.[17]

Physiological[edit]

Tissue damage may be a cause for an undeveloped breast, and may be an increased risk in breast cancer. Radiation therapy or physical trauma may cause one breast to remain undeveloped in comparison to the other.

Some abnormalities of reduced breast tissue are the result of a lack of pectoral muscle tissue, and one set of chest resistance training once a week can help with this.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. (2003) "“Bust enhancing” herbal products". Obstetrics & Gynecology 101 (6): 1345–1349. doi:10.1016/S0029-7844(03)00362-4. ISSN 00297844. 
  2. (2004) "Breast-Enhancing Pills: Myth and Reality". Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 114 (5): 1330–3. doi:10.1097/01.PRS.0000141495.14284.8B. PMID 15457059. 
  3. Whibley, Annette (December 8, 2011). "Women advised to avoid ZEN bust-enhancing supplements because of possible cancer risk". AAAS; Wiley-Blackwell. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2011.02805.x. 
  4. Poluzzi et al (February 2014), "Phytoestrogens in Postmenopause: The State of the Art from a Chemical, Pharmacological and Regulatory Perspective", Current Medicinal Chemistry, doi:10.2174/09298673113206660297, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3963458/ 
  5. Rochester, Klasing, Millam (January 2009), "Dietary red clover (Trifolium pratense) induces oviduct growth and decreases ovary and testes growth in Japanese quail chicks", Reproductive Toxicology, doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2008.11.056, PMID 19103282, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2858001/ 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 "Mammary gland". Encyclopedia Britannica. (2012).
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Brisken; Malley (December 2, 2010), Hormone Action in the Mammary Gland, Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol, doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a003178, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2982168/ 
  8. Hajirahimkhan, Dietz, Bolton (May 2013), "Botanical modulation of menopausal symptoms: Mechanisms of action?", Planta Medica, doi:10.1055/s-0032-1328187, PMC PMC3800090, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3800090/ 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Jemström; Olsson (1997), "Breast Size in Relation to Endogenous Hormone Levels, Body Constitution, and Oral Contraceptive Use in Healthy Nulligravid Women Aged 19-25 Years", American Journal of Epidemiology (The John Hopkins University), http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/145/7/571.long 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Breast - premenstrual tenderness and swelling, A.D.A.M., May 2012, http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003153.htm 
  11. MacKenna, Caitlin (October 6, 2007), Natural Breast Enlargement with Fenugreek, http://naturalremedysite.blogspot.com/2007/10/natural-breast-enlargement-with.html 
  12. Multivitamins With Minerals May Protect Older Women With Invasive Breast Cancer, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, October 9, 2013, doi:10.1007/s10549-013-2712-x, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131009105751.htm 
  13. "Vegetables, fruits and phytoestrogens in the prevention of diseases", Journal of Post Graduate Medicine, 2004, http://www.jpgmonline.com/article.asp?issn=0022-3859;year=2004;volume=50;issue=2;spage=145;epage=149;aulast=Heber 
  14. Scientists help develop new sports bra fitting service, University of Portsmouth, 2011, http://www.port.ac.uk/uopnews/2011/09/27/scientists-help-develop-new-sports-bra-fitting-service/ 
  15. Sports bras: Get fit for action, Los Angeles Times, 2013, http://articles.latimes.com/2013/jan/05/health/la-he-sports-bras-20130105 
  16. Breast pain issue for 1 in 3 female marathon runners, BMJ, 2013, http://medicalxpress.com/news/2013-04-breast-pain-issue-female-marathon.html 
  17. 17.0 17.1 Professor warns against tight bras, United Press International, April 9, 2008, http://phys.org/news126959097.html