Radiation astronomy/X-rays/Quiz

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This false-color temperature map shows solar active region AR10923, observed close to center of the sun's disk. Blue regions indicate plasma near 10 million degrees K. Credit: NASA.

X-ray astronomy is a lecture for the radiation astronomy courses on the principles of radiation astronomy and X-ray astronomy.

You are free to take this quiz based on X-ray astronomy at any time.

To improve your scores, read and study the lecture, the links contained within, listed under See also, External links, and in the {{principles of radiation astronomy}} template. This should give you adequate background to get 100 %.

As a "learning by doing" resource, this quiz helps you to assess your knowledge and understanding of the information, and it is a quiz you may take over and over as a learning resource to improve your knowledge, understanding, test-taking skills, and your score.

Suggestion: Have the lecture available in a separate window.

This quiz may need up to an hour to take and is equivalent to an hourly.

Enjoy learning by doing!

Quiz[edit]







  

1

True or False, Whenever "X-ray" is used in a sentence where the context refers to X-radiation, the "X" is always supposed to be capitalized.

TRUE
FALSE

2

Which of the following is not a characteristic of X-radiation?

throwing a beam
a stream of charged or neutral rays
calculating the energy of a beam
sending out a traveling ray
a secondary-object hazard

3

Which of the following are X-radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Sun?

a core which emits neutrinos
a solar wind which emanates out the polar coronal holes
gravity
the barycenter for the solar system
polar coronal holes
coronal clouds
its position
temperatures at or above 1 MK

4

Natural X-ray sources emit, reflect, fluoresce, or

.

5

Complete the text:

X-ray astronomy consists of three fundamental parts: 1.

with respect to incoming X-rays, or X-radiation, 2.

, and 3. the

and associated

with respect to X-rays.

6

Yes or No, X-rays span approximately three decades in wavelength, frequency, and energy.

Yes
No

7

Which of the following is not a characteristic of X-radiation?

electromagnetic radiation
ionizing radiation
emitted by a few atomic nuclei
occurs when a positron and an electron annihilate each other
only penetrates so far into a gaseous-objects atmosphere

8

Which of the following are X-radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Sun?

a chromosphere which emits neutrinos
coronal loops that are particle accelerator-like
synchrotron radiation
a photosphere
a polar diameter that exceeds ever so slightly the equatorial diameter at solar cycle minimum
a polar temperature inside two radii of 1 MK
hot active regions with temperatures hot enough to fuse hydrogen
sunspots at the feet of coronal loops

9

The darker regions in X-rays at the North and South poles of the Sun are coronal holes, where the magnetic field lines are

.

10

Complete the text:

The photosphere of the Sun has an effective temperature of

yet its corona has an average temperature of

. The high temperature of the corona shows that it is heated by something other than direct

from the photosphere.

11

True or False, Super soft X-ray sources are in most cases only detected below 0.5 keV.

TRUE
FALSE

12

Which of the following is not a characteristic of super soft X-radiation?

electromagnetic radiation
ionizing radiation
usually hidden by interstellar absorption in the galactic disk
readily evident in external galaxies
have energies in the 0.09 to 2.5 keV range

13

Which of the following are X-radiation astronomy phenomena associated with stellar surface fusion?

luminosities below ~3 x 1038 erg/s
a few SSS with luminosities ≥1039 erg/s
synchrotron radiation
a photosphere
a polar diameter that exceeds ever so slightly the equatorial diameter at solar cycle minimum
super soft X-rays
hot active regions with temperatures hot enough to fuse hydrogen
sunspots at the feet of coronal loops

14

Intragalactic super soft X-ray sources may be heavily reddened by

15

Complete the text:

Both

and

powered cataclysmic

have been observed to be X-ray sources.

16

True or False, Theorists try to generate or modify models to take into account new data.

TRUE
FALSE

17

Which of the following is not a characteristic of theoretical X-radiation astronomy?

a theory for any natural X-ray source
X-ray generation
theoretical X-ray emission
analytical models
computational numerical simulations

18

Which of the following are theoretical X-ray astronomy phenomena associated with astrophysics?

a thermal plasma mechanism
idea of a close binary
synchrotron radiation
high-density wind extinction
a polar diameter that exceeds ever so slightly the equatorial diameter at solar cycle minimum
super soft X-rays
hot active regions with temperatures hot enough to fuse hydrogen
sunspots at the feet of coronal loops

19

X-ray emission dividing lines may be explained by low transition region densities leading to low emission in

20

Complete the text:

X-ray emission dividing lines may be explained by changes in a

field

to that of an

topology, leading to a decrease of magnetically confined

.

21

True or False, An entity in X-ray astronomy is either an X-ray source or an X-ray object.

TRUE
FALSE

22

Which of the following is not a characteristic of an entity in X-ray astronomy?

a theory for any natural X-ray source
X-ray generation
X-ray reflection
an analytical constant
a common or ancient name

23

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena associated with an entity?

a thermal plasma mechanism
a close binary
synchrotron radiation
high-density wind extinction
a polar diameter that exceeds ever so slightly the equatorial diameter at solar cycle minimum
super soft X-rays
hot active regions with temperatures hot enough to fuse hydrogen
sunspots at the feet of coronal loops

24

An entity in X-ray astronomy may be a researcher who turns on an X-ray generator to study X-ray emission,

.

25

Complete the text:

The X-ray luminosity of the

group is an order of

fainter than that of the X-ray

.

26

True or False, An error circle on the celestial sphere about a detected X-ray source is an X-ray object.

TRUE
FALSE

27

Which of the following is not a characteristic of an entity in X-ray astronomy?

a theory for any natural X-ray source
produces refereed journal articles on the CGB
X-ray generation
X-ray reflection
a common or ancient name

28

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena associated with an entity?

discovers an X-ray source in Scorpius
a control group
synchrotron radiation
intergalactic medium
a polar diameter
super soft X-rays
hot active regions
sunspots at the feet of coronal loops

29

An entity in X-ray astronomy may be a researcher who turns on an X-ray generator to study X-ray

aboard the International Space Station.

30

Complete the text:

Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are

, nonnuclear X-ray sources with

above the

limit.

31

True or False, Some cosmic-ray observatories also look for high energy gamma rays and X-rays.

TRUE
FALSE

32

True or False, As gamma rays are defined to be radiation emitted from radionuclides, there are no radionuclides that emit X-rays.

TRUE
FALSE

33

True or False, A small amount of aluminum-26 is produced by collisions of magnesium atoms with cosmic-ray protons.

TRUE
FALSE

34

True or False, Aluminum-26 is generally distributed out of the plane of the Milky Way.

TRUE
FALSE

35

True or False, Aluminum-26 decays by either beta-plus or electron capture.

TRUE
FALSE

36

Which of the following is not a characteristic of a meteor in X-ray astronomy?

a detection of iron or nickel
determination of quantitative proportions
X-ray reflection
X-ray scattering
a meteorite impact site

37

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the diffuse X-ray background?

a higher intensity than the CMB
isotropic X-ray flux
a wide range of energies
a general increase in intensity from the Galactic plane to the poles
a thermal emission at the lowest energies

38

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the X-ray continuum?

Bragg peaks
may arise from an X-ray jet
may arise from the coronal cloud of an accretion disc
a power-law spectrum
a thermal emission at the lowest energies

39

Which of the following is not a characteristic of X-rays associated with neutron stars?

X-ray jets
X-ray binary
emission peaks indicative of neutron decay
X-ray burster
a low-mass X-ray binary

40

Which of the following is not a characteristic of X-rays associated with atomic number?

emission lines
X-ray continuum
unique atomic structure
creating an electron hole
discrete energy levels

41

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena that may be associated with a superluminal?

loops and rings in the X-ray emitting gas
an X-ray source
synchrotron radiation
Cherenkov radiation
signals with a velocity above c
super soft X-rays
hot active regions with temperatures hot enough to fuse hydrogen
starspots

42

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena that may be associated with the Earth?

lightning
Van Allen radiation belts
electrons striking the ionosphere
the geocorona
ice cores
meteorites
diffuse X-ray background
hurricanes

43

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena that may be associated with Mercury?

lightning
surface composition
electrons striking the ionosphere
a geocorona
minerals high in magnesium
surface sulfur enrichment
diffuse X-ray background
low-oxygen conditions

44

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena that may be associated with comets?

lightning
solar wind
a sunward region
a geocorona
minerals high in magnesium
solar X-rays
diffuse X-ray background
low-oxygen conditions

45

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena that may be associated with Jupiter?

lightning
aurora
a geocorona
minerals high in magnesium
solar X-rays
diffuse X-ray background
a sunward region
low-oxygen conditions

46

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena that may be associated with Saturn?

X-radiation concentrated near equator
reflection of solar X-rays
aurora
stronger than expected reflected solar X-rays
X-rays from rings
diffuse X-ray background
soft X-ray emission
fluorescence of solar X-rays

47

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena that may be associated with Venus?

scattering of solar X-rays
reflection of solar X-rays
fluorescence of solar X-rays
lightning
X-rays from rings
diffuse X-ray background
soft X-ray emission

48

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena that may be associated with Mars?

scattering of solar X-rays
reflection of solar X-rays
fluorescence of solar X-rays
lightning
X-rays from rings
collisions with solar wind
soft X-ray emission

49

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena that may be associated with the Moon?

scattering of solar X-rays
reflection of solar X-rays
fluorescence of solar X-rays
lightning
X-rays from rings
collisions with solar wind
soft X-ray emission

50

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena that may be associated with the Sun?

coronal cloud
hot regions of 8–20 x 106 K
fluorescence of Jovian X-rays
lightning
X-rays from rings
collisions with the Jovian wind
soft X-ray emission
hard X-ray emission

51

A method used to count the number of X-rays of a specific wavelength diffracted by a crystal?

52

Many elements emit or fluoresce specific wavelengths of X-rays which in turn allow their?

53

The incident beam may excite an electron in an inner shell, ejecting it from the shell while creating an?

54

The number and energy of the X-rays emitted from a specimen can be measured by an?

55

A device that narrows a beam of particles or waves is a?

56

Complete the text:

To "narrow" can mean to

the spatial

of the beam to become

limit.

57

Complete the text:

The three key parameters of a

waveform are its

,

and its

.

58

Complete the text:

With the modulation collimator, the amplitude (

) of the incoming

is reduced by the presence of

diffraction gratings of

that block or greatly reduce that portion of the

incident upon the wires.

59

Complete the text:

The multigrid collimator has the additional

inserted at a specified

position between the two grids,

approximately

to them, and

and rotated so that each third

lies in a plane defined by a wire in the outer grid and a wire in the

grid.

60

Complete the text:

The

effects of the grid

or external metal

determine the envelope for the

transmission peaks.

61

True or False, Wolter Type I X-ray optics uses three reflections to focus the incoming X-rays.

TRUE
FALSE

62

True or False, Wolter Type II X-ray optics uses two reflections to focus the incoming X-rays.

TRUE
FALSE

63

True or False, Wolter Type III X-ray optics uses one reflection to focus the incoming X-rays.

TRUE
FALSE

64

Which of the following is not a characteristic of X-ray optics?

grazing incidence mirrors
tungsten-silicon multilayer coatings
nested mirrors
an angular resolution
X-ray lens

65

Which of the following are X-radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Crab Nebula?

a core which emits neutrinos
low-energy X-rays detected by the Chandra X-ray Observatory
26Al
undetectable with balloon-borne detectors
hard X-rays
steady enough emission to be used as a standard for X-ray emission
observed with X-rays in 1731
Taurus X-1

66

An Aerobee 150 sounding rocket flight on April 25, 1965, discovered how many candidate X-ray sources?

67

Complete the text:

The interstellar medium is the gas and

dust that pervade

space and is the matter that exists between the

within a

. It blends smoothly into the surrounding

medium.

68

True or False, The energy that occupies the same volume as the interstellar medium in the form of electromagnetic radiation is the interstellar radiation field.

TRUE
FALSE

69

True or False, The hot ionized medium (HIM) consists of a coronal cloud which emits X-rays.

TRUE
FALSE

70

True or False, The first extragalactic X-ray source is the radio galaxy Messier 88.

TRUE
FALSE

71

Complete the text:

An astronomical X-ray source may have one or more

locations, plus associated

circles or

, from which

X-radiation has been

.

72

Complete the text:

An astronomical X-ray source catalog is a list or

of astronomical

that are X-ray

, typically grouped together because they share a common

, morphology,

, means of detection, or method of

.

73

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
sources - A
339 - B
satellite - C
earlier designation - D
actual observation dates - E
4U - F
The catalog contains how many?

Prefix for sources detected during the final observation period

. The fourth is a catalog of X-ray

. Uhuru was a

. The catalog does not necessarily contain the

. It does not contain

.

74

True or False, The 35 astronomical X-ray sources detected by sounding rocket in 1967 was launched by the X-ray astronomy group at NRL.

TRUE
FALSE

75

Which of the following is not a characteristic of SFXTs?

short outbursts
well fitted with a thermal synchrotron spectrum
OB supergiants
X-ray binaries
a growing number of transients

76

True or False, To reflect at the 79 keV level, glass layers are multi-coated with W/SiC.

TRUE
FALSE

77

Which of the following are X-radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Ulysses spacecraft?

hard X-ray detectors
CsI(Tl) scintillators
soft X-ray detectors
windowless soft X-ray detectors
detected soft X-ray emission inside two solar radii over the poles
higher energy X-rays detected with a maximum at about five solar radii over the poles
observed X-rays in the 1980s
discovered Circinus X-1

78

Which of the following X-ray phenomena is not a characteristic of the Helios satellites?

heliocentric orbit
short-lived (0.5 h) soft X-ray events
longer-lived X-ray events (3 h on average)
any steady X-ray source
XREs

79

True or False, The NuSTAR observatory has a 10.14 m instrument focal length for its Wolter I telescopes.

TRUE
FALSE

80

Which of the following are X-radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the NuSTAR spacecraft?

hard X-ray detectors
CdZnTe pixel detectors
CsI anti-coincidence shield
windowless < 3 keV soft X-ray detectors
1.5" strong source positioning
2 µs X-ray temporal resolution
900 eV at 68 keV spectral resolution
FOV at 68 keV of 6'

81

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Sun - A
Mercury - B
Venus - C
Earth - D
Comets - E
Mars - F
Jupiter - G
Saturn - H
Auroral currents on the order of 106 Amps

Fluorescent radiation from oxygen at ~130 km above the surface

.
Faint halo of X-rays extending out some 7,000 km

.
Solar wind lighting up with X-rays

.
Bright X-ray arcs at low energy

.
Major source of hard X-rays

.
X-ray emission concentrated near the equator

.
Low surface iron content in minerals

.

82

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
synchrotron X-rays - A
power law - B
inverse Compton - C
thermal Bremsstrahlung - D
black body - E
cyclotron - F
Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients

Galactic diffuse emission

.
Crab nebula

.
continuum

.
accretion disk

.
strongly magnetized neutron stars

.

83

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
X-ray burster - A
gamma-ray burster - B
X-ray pulsar - C
SFXT - D
soft X-ray transient - E
diffuse X-ray background - F
power law afterglow

magnetized neutron star

.
absorbed by neutral hydrogen

.
Aquila X-1

.
Factor of 10 or greater luminosity increase

.
thermal bremsstrahlung

.

84

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Moon - A
Eros - B
Io - C
Ganymede - D
Europa - E
Titan - F
X-ray producing electric arc, current spots

reflecting solar X-rays

.
soft X-ray emission

.
possible soft X-ray emission

.
synchrotron X-ray diffraction of methane hydrate up to 10GPa

.
ordinary chondrite composition

.

85

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Skylark - A
V-2 - B
Nike-Asp - C
Aerobee 150 - D
Black Brant XII - E
Vertikal - F
Terrier Sandhawk - G
Wallops Flight Facility

Woomera, Australia

.
Natal, Brazil

.
Kapustin Yar

.
White Sands Missile Range

.
Point Defiance

.
Barking Sands

.
White Sands Proving Grounds

.

86

True or False, The NRL and NASA established another rocket launching facility outside Natal, Brazil to detect X-ray sources in the southern hemisphere.

TRUE
FALSE

87

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Hydrogen - H, or D
Helium - He
Lithium - Li
Beryllium - Be
Boron - B
Carbon - C
Nitrogen - N
Oxygen - O
Fluorine - F
Neon - Ne
consumed in chromosphere fusion to produce lithium and neutrinos

.
isotope fusion in the chromosphere producing neutrinos

fusion in the chromosphere producing the most neutrinos

.
a factor of ~200 below meteorite abundance in the Sun's photosphere

.
detected with X-rays on the Moon

.
an organic form detected in Allan Hills 84001 probably from Mars

.
detected marginally on Venus with Chandra

.
found in the X-ray spectra of comets

.
consumed to produce beryllium and neutrinos

.
a surface impurity on meteorites

.

88

Which of the following are associated with X-radiation?

spans three decades in wavelength
spans three decades in frequency
spans three decades in energy
emitted by 26Al
coronal clouds
60 keV electromagnetic radiation
90 eV electromagnetic radiation
visually dark source

89

True or False, The cosmic X-ray background has higher intensity than the cosmic radio background.

TRUE
FALSE

90

True or False, Ranger 2 carried instruments that detected the X-ray background.

TRUE
FALSE

91

True or False, Super soft X-ray sources have been detected in the Magellanic clouds.

TRUE
FALSE

92

True or False, To fall into the class of intermediate X-ray binaries, the X-ray source must be intermediate in luminosity.

TRUE
FALSE

93

True or False, Inverse Compton scattering allows low energy electromagnetic radiation to become high energy electromagnetic radiation.

TRUE
FALSE

94

Complete the text:

While exceptions may occur, match up the star class letter with each of the X-ray possibilities below:
star class - O
star class - B
star class - A
star class - F
star class - G
star class - K
star class - M
LX >> Lv

.
constant X-ray luminosity across the class

independent of visual luminosity

.
LX ~ 10-3Lbol

.
abrupt onset of X-ray emission across the class

.
LX ~ 10-7Lbol

.
LX << 10-3Lbol

.

95

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Scorpius X-1 - A
Serpens X-1 - B
Circinus X-1 - C
Virgo X-1 - D
Taurus X-1 - E
Cygnus X-1 - F
Cepheus X-1 - G
Sagittarius X-1 - H
Crab Nebula

Messier 87

.
2U 1744-26

.
Tychos's Nova SN 1572

.
Carina X-1 misprint

.
the first X-ray source widely accepted to be a black hole candidate

.
discovered in 1962 by a team under Riccardo Giacconi

.
not Caput

.

96

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Chemistry - A
Geography - B
History - C
Mathematics - D
Physics - E
Science - F
Technology - G
Geology - H
solar eclipses

a spatial frequency of occurrence or extent

.
radio observations revealed a radio corona around the Sun

.
elemental abundances

.
microcalorimeter arrays

.
The Ariel V /3 A/ catalogue of X-ray sources. II - Sources at high galactic latitude |b| > 10°

.
Carancas meteorite

.
a thermal bremsstrahlung source may fit

.

97

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Meteors - A
Cosmic rays - B
Neutrons - C
Protons - D
Electrons - E
Positrons - F
Gamma rays - G
Superluminals - H
X-ray jets

the index of refraction is often greater than 1 just below a resonance frequency

.
iron, nickel, cobalt, and traces of iridium

.
Sagittarius X-1

.
escape from a typical hard low-mass X-ray binary

.
collisions with argon atoms

.
X-rays are emitted as they slow down

.
Henry Moseley using X-ray spectra

.

98

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Balloons - A
Sounding rockets - B
Aircraft assisted launches - C
Orbital rocketry - D
Shuttle payload - E
Heliocentric rocketry - F
Exploratory rocketry - G
Lunar rover - H
Ranger 5

microcalorimeter arrays

.
MeV Auroral X-ray Imaging and Spectroscopy

.
Lunokhod 2

.
ALEXIS

.
Ulysses

.
Broad Band X-Ray Telescope

.
Solar Heliospheric Observatory

.

99

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Optical bench - A
Focal length - B
CCD - C
Coded aperture - D
Grazing incidence - E
Modulator - F
Collimator - G
Normal incidence - H
a device for the movement of electrical charge

gold mirrors

.
narrows a beam

.
a measure of how strongly a system converges or diverges

.
reflective multilayer optics

.
varying amplitude, phase, or frequency

.
a flat grille

.
a platform used to support systems

.

100

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the X-ray angular resolution possibilities below:
Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer - A
XMM-Newton - B
Chandra X-ray Observatory - C
Swift - D
Astro-rivelatore Gamma ad Imagini Leggero (AGILE) - E
Solar Heliospheric Observatory - F
Suzaku - G
Koronas-Foton - H
2"

3"

.
~2'

.
1"

.
5.9'

.
7'

.
1"

.
0.5"

.


Hypotheses[edit]

  1. Gamma-ray emitters should be emitting X-rays as well.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

{{Radiation astronomy resources}}