Earth's gravitational acceleration = g ≈ 9.8m/s2. Speed of light = c ≈ 3×108m/s. The electron has charge, e ≈ 1.6 × 10−19C and mass ≈ 9.11 × 10-31kg. 1eV = 1.602 × 10-19J is a unit of energy, defined as the work associated with moving one electron through a potential difference of one volt.
is the potential energy of a particle of charge, q, in the presence of an electric potential V.
(measured in Volts) is the variation in electric potential as one moves through an electric field . If the field is not univorm, then
is the (equal and opposite) charge on the two terminals of a capacitor of capicitance, C, that has a voltage drop, V, across the two terminals.
is the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with surface area, A, and plate separation, d. This formula is valid only in the limit that d2/A vanishes. If a dielectric is between the plates, then ε>ε0≈ 8.85 × 10−12 due to shielding of the applied electric field by dielectric polarization effects.
is the energy stored in a capacitor.
is Gauss's law for the surface integral of the electric field over any closed surface, and is the total charge inside that surface.
20-Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law
defines the electric current. is Ohm's Law relating I, and resistance, R, to the difference in voltage, V, between the terminals. is the power dissipated as current flows through a resistor. Power is the rate at which energy is transformed.