World History/Honors World History Guide/Cuban Revolution

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Honors World History Guide From Wikiversity Jump to: navigation, search Intended for Mr. Wood's class as a study guide.

Contents [hide] 1 Bellwork 2 Ancient Greece and Rome 3 Enlightenment 4 French Revolution 5 The Industrial Revolution 6 Latin American Revolutions 7 Romanticism and Realism 8 New Imperialism 9 World War I 9.1 How did it start? 10 Russian Revolution 11 Rise of Dictators in the 1930s 12 Upheavals in China and Japan 12.1 Japan 13 Between the Wars in Europe 14 World War II 15 Cold War 16 Modern World 16.1 China 16.2 Africa 16.3 Kenya 16.4 South Africa 16.5 Mideast 16.6 Terrorism 17 World Leaders

Bellwork  [edit]Athenian Jurors expressed their verdicts using round disks. If the center was hollow, the defendant was guilty. If the center was filled, the defendant was innocent. 

Justinian regulated the Byzantine Empire by ordering legal experts to create 100s of years of laws & opinion to create one uniform code for his "New Rome." This legal code was his lasting constitution in western civilization. The Scientific Revolution was a new way of thinking about the natural world. It occurred in the mid-1500s. The Bill of Rights and the cabinet system came from England. The Enlightenment was a new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke were philosophes. Rousseau argued that laws established for and by the people are the hallmark of a free society. The cartoon shows the 3rd estate heavily burdened at the bottom. George Danton was a lawyer who led the Indulgent group. He was executed as a famous Jacobin because he defended himself very well. La Marseillaise is a song written to inspire French people to fight. It gave people a sense/reason to stick with France. It aroused people in Marseilles to March. The Directory lost control of the political situation and the confidence of the French people. A coup d'État is a sudden seizure of state. At Trafalgar Horatio Nelson split the larger French fleet while capturing many ships. It was successful because the French had less cannons in the front and back than on the sides. The Congress of Vienna was a forerunner of the United Nations. The bonds that create a nation-state are culture, language, history, religion, nationality, and territory. The two groups that made up the majority of the population of Spanish America were peninsulares and Creoles. For a state building to occur, culturally distinct groups must form into a new state by accepting a single culture. For separatists groups to form, culturally distinct groups needs to resist being added to a state or break away. Beethoven was deaf. The first industry to industrialize was the textile industry. The flying shuttle speedily carried threads of yarn back and forth when the weaver pulled a handle on the loom. Manchester, Birmingham, Glasgow, and London grew during the Industrial Revolution. There are 5 communist countries today: China, North Korea, Laos, Vietnam, and Cuba. Imperialism is the seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country. Imperialists brought railways for better transportation. Imperialists took away other people's farms and families. Ottomans are followers of the most successful warrior of Islam, Osman. By 1566 Ottomans controlled Hungary, Crimea, Mesopotamia, Syria, Egypt, Tripoli, Algeria, Balkans, and Greece. India was considered the "jewel in the crown" of the British Empire because of its potential. Gandhi adopted the spinning wheel as a symbol because he suggested Indians spin their own cloth instead of getting it from the English. Queen Liliuokalani was Hawaii's only queen and last monarch. She tried increasing her power and restoring political power of Hawaiians at the expense of wealthy planters. American businessmen overthrew the Hawaiian monarchy. At least 20 million people died from the Taiping Rebellion. Commodore Perry was an American diplomat who astounded the Japanese with his black wooden steam powered ships. He threatened the Japanese to open free trade between the United States and Japan. Japan's social class (highest to lowest): emperor, shogun, daimyo, samurai, (merchant, peasant, farmer) American engineers built the Panama Canal to destroy the mosquitoes that carried diseases and rats that carried bubonic plague. It was also built to shorten trade routes through Central America. Tiananmen Square the site of many political activities during the 20th century.

Ancient Greece and Rome  [edit]democracy - rule by the people; everyone has power 

anarchy - freeform rule; no one has power monarchy - rule by one king/queen; no one else has power aristocracy - rule by the noble or wealthy class dictatorship - complete rule by one person Aristotle - language was important to him because it could explain reason; polis; middle class should rule Augustus - ended Roman republic; 1st emperor of Rome; led a 200 year period of stability called Pax Romana Classical Rome and Greece's legacy to the modern world Roman Republic compared to Athenian Democracy

Enlightenment  [edit]Hobbes - wrote Leviathan; believed absolute monarchy was the best type of government; because everyone is equal there is a war for power; men are naturally in war; give up rights to the leviathan 

Montesquieu - wrote Spirit of the Laws; favored division of government; argued for a system of checks and balances; admired Britain Rousseau - believed that obedience would preserve freedom; wrote the Social Contract Voltaire - used satire to avoid being caught writing; criticized French society; believed in freedom of religion and right to a fair trial Locke - freedom is law; wrote Two Treatises on Civil Government; everyone has life liberty and property Glorious Revolution of 1688 - a bloodless revolution that overthrew King James II of England and replaced him with William of Orange William & Mary - first monarchs under a constitutional monarchy in Britain English Bill of Rights - (1689) changed England to a constitutional monarchy philosophes - French word for philosopher (lovers of wisdom) Women's roles salons - women set up salons to spread enlightenment ideas Habeas Corpus - undeniable right to petition against charges in court Magna Carta - (1215) influenced development of the common law Petition of Right - Charles I signed it; originated from Sir Edward Coke's list of complaints; it argued for no unlawful arrests, no quartering of soldiers, due process (respect all legal rights), and no unjust punishment US War of Independence Declaration of Independence - (1776) served as a basis for other declarations of independence Example of U.S. Constitution to the world

French Revolution  [edit]old regime - the name of the era in France before the French revolution 

3 Estates First Estate - had the king Second Estate - consisted of the nobles & clergy Third Estate - consisted of laborers and peasants Louis XVI - king during the French Revolution National Assembly - consisted of the third estate, vowed to the Tennis Court Oath to not disband until a new constitution was drafted Bastille - In 1789, the National Assembly stormed it looking for weapons to avoid threat from Louis XVI's army Bourgeoisie - upper middle class above proletariat; power comes from employment, education, or wealth Versailles - former capital of France cahiers - lists of grievances compiled in a notebook by each estate. La Marseillaise Estates General - Louis XVI summoned it to compiled cahiers Tennis Court Oath - oath taken in a tennis court by the National Assembly; would not disband until there was a constitution for France March on Versailles - march for bread led by women because prices were very high Declaration of the Rights of man and the Citizen (1789) - based on U.S. Declaration of Independence; focused on universal natural rights Constitution of 1791 - made constitutional monarchy and legislative assembly Marie Antoinette - Austrian who became queen of France; was married to Louis XVI; executed by guillotine in 1793 for treason; said "Let them eat cake!" Bastille Day - (July 14th) day celebrated in France to honor the short constitutional monarchy in France Declaration of Pillnitz - (1791) Leopold II and Frederick William II issued it to prevent French revolutionaries from taking away Louis XVI's power Robespierre - led the Reign of Terror; believed the only form of punishment was the guillotine; eventually he was executed in the guillotine Reign of Terror - 12 months in which mass guillotine executions occurred deficit spending - spending more money than gained, leads to debt; led France into financial crisis Napoleon Bonaparte - a Corsican-born man who sought expansion of the French empire 1st Republic - (1792-1804) Napoleonic Code - Napoleon Bonaparte's laws Austerlitz - one of Napoleon's most successful victories; destroyed the Third Coalition against the French empire Waterloo (Battle of) - (1815) Napeoleon's last battle; exiled into St. Helena afterwards; constitutional monarchy set up afterwards Battle of Nations (aka Battle of Leipzig) - (1813) Napoleon's last battle before abdication to ELBA nationalism - feeling that one should be loyal to one's nation instead of leaders guerrillas - hit and run style of attacks Congress of Vienna - group formed to redraw the map of Europe; surrounded France with stronger countries; unified the 39 German states; recognized Switzerland as independent nation; consisted of Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain, France, and Klemens von Metternich; combined Austrian Netherlands and Dutch Republic Prince Metternich - attempted to create a balance of power; had idea of aiding other nations if revolutions broke out

The Industrial Revolution  [edit]Jethro Tull - inventor of the seed drill 

Putting Out System - old system of industry; predecessor of factory system; central agent contracted subcontractors to do work in their own home; then central agent collected goods Luddites - minority group against industrialization, broke machines and favored traditionally made goods John Wesley - early leader of the Methodist movement; Christian theologian laissez-faire - economy without the interference of the government steam engine - James Watt improved it Malthus - believed population would increase more rapidly than food supply; believed most people were destined to be poor and miserable Enclosure Movement - wealthy land owners set boundaries on their land making it unavailable to others causes and effects of British industrialization Transportation Revolution socialism - economic system in which the people would own the means of production methodism - a group of Protestant Christianity utilitarianism - a type of govern in which moral worths of actions are based on their utility, or how useful it is; John Stuart Mill was a follower of this communism - a type of government in which there is no private property; everything is operated for the people, by the people seed drill - planted seeds in even rows, more effective than planting seeds by hand flying jenny (flying shuttle or spinning jenny?) spinning jenny - (James Hargreaves) a multi-spool spinning wheel flying shuttle - (John Kay, 1773) sped up weaving water table - place where water pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure spread of Industrial Revolution - spread through study-touring

Latin American Revolutions  [edit]peninsulares - Spanish born people who held power 

Creoles - 2nd generation of peninsulares mestizos - people of mixed European descent living in Latin America role of enlightenment Miguel Hidalgo - started El Grito do Dolores José Morelos - led the Mexican independence movement El Grito de Dolores - call for insurrection against authorities of mexico Itúrbide - emperor of Mexico from 1822-1823 Toussaint L'Ouverture - led a slave revolt in Haiti yellow fever - hindered Napoleon's army's ability to stop the revolution in Haiti Napoleon's invasion of Spain Bolívar - liberator of southern Latin American nations San Martín - leader of southern South America's independence from Spain; won Chile's independence Gran Colombia - republic of Colombia; located in northern South America Dom Pedro and Brazil - leader of Brazil's independence (from Portugal)

Romanticism and Realism  [edit]neoclassicism - a type of art that utilized reason 

romanticism - a type of art that reflected emotions realism - a type of art that tried to express the world how it was impressionism - a type of art that tried to give the artist's impression of a subject or moment in time Jacques Louis David - neoclassic artist; highly influential; painted pictures of the French Revolution Byron Dickens - depicted life in industrial cities in his works Beethoven- deaf musician; composed Eroica (heroic)

New Imperialism  [edit]Queen Victoria 

King Leopold II - sent Henry Stanley to claim territory in the land he called Congo Shaka Zulu - almost defeated the British without guns Menelik II - emperor of Ethiopia who strategically avoided imperialism Livingstone - missionary sent to go to Africa and got lost; when Henry Stanley found his body, Stanley was presumed to have said "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" colony - a form of imperial control protectorate - a form of imperial control Kipling - English author/poet born in Bombay, India; wrote The Jungle Book sphere of influence - a form of imperial control; a region where another entity indirectly dominates the region Berlin Conference (1884) - conference set up to decide the division of Africa, no Africans were invited Imperialists' motives - political, economic, and military interests social Darwinism - a type of racism based on the concept that more developed countries have an advantage over less developed countries, making the less developed countries seem inferior to the more developed countries how, why, and where the Imperialists were largely successful - because they had superior weapons Boer War (2nd) - (1899-1902) war between Britain and South Africa Ottoman Empire - a Turkish-ruled empire that was the center for Western and Eastern worlds efforts at reform Armenian genocide - slaughter of many Armenians during World War I. young Turks Egyptian modernization Muhammad Ali - sometimes referred to as the one who modernized Egypt Suez Canal - artificial port that joined the Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea British protectorate British East India Company - Mughal emperor Jahangir gave trade rights for this company Mughal Empire - ruled over most of the Indian subcontinent and part of present-day Afghanistan. when it became weak the British Raj (rule) took over British improvements in India - they brought a railway system to India Sepoy Rebellion - a rebellion led by Indians who refused to work because their guns were oiled in beef (which Hindus do not eat) and pork (which Muslims do not eat) fat Growing Indian nationalism - grew after the Sepoy Rebellion Indian National Congress - nationalist group (mostly Hindu) that fought for India's independence Muslim League - a nationalist Muslim group that fought for the Muslim state of Pakistan Gandhi's civil disobedience - Gandhi realized civil disobedience as the only way to combat against British colonization of India Salt March - 241 mile long march to Dandi; Gandhi led it to get salt from sea water instead of getting it from Britain Qing Dynasty - last imperial dynasty of China Opium War - when Britain refused to stop trading opium with China, war started Treaty of Nanjing - marked the end of the first opium war Taiping Rebellion - a rebellion led by Hong Xiuquan with a goal to end poverty Boxer Rebellion - a group that wanted to end poverty and make every place a utopia. they killed foreigners and were against imperialism Sun Yixian - leader of the Chinese Nationalist Party, aka the kuomintang/guomindang Chulalongkorn - successed Mongkut Liliuokalani - last Hawaiian monarch and only queen. see bellwork for more info Aguinaldo - played an important role for the Philippines' independence. Spanish-American War - (1898) United States aided Cuba and the Philippines to liberate them form Spain's control Philippine Insurrection - 11 campaigns from 1899 to 1913 Tokugawa Shogunate - predecessor of Meiji Restoration Isolation - Japan stayed in this to avoid imperial powers Commodore Perry - president Millard Fillmore sent him with black wooden steam ships (which the Japanese feared) to negotiate the Treaty of Kanagawa Treaty of Kanagawa - (1854) allowed free trade between Japan and the United States in 2 Japanese ports Meiji Restoration - occurred in later half of 19th century; Japan went under big changes during this era; began industrialization in Japan industrialization - Japan sent people to study Western nations to learn new ways of industrializing nationalization - a feeling that one should stay loyal to one's country and not its leaders constitution - (1854) based on the German constitution diet - a bicameral legislature in Japan; consists of House of Representatives (lower) and House of Councillors (upper) zaibatsu - families that controlled banking Russo-Japanese War - (1904) a war between the Japanese and Russians held at Manchuria. caused by Russia and Japan's want to expand their empires annexation of Korea - (1910-1945) the Japanese tried to eliminate Korean existence during this period. they taught Japanese in schools instead of Korean

World War I  [edit]
How did it start?  [edit]When the news of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria's trip to Sarajevo was announced, Serbian revolutionaries were outraged. A young Serbian peasant named Gavrilo Princip joined the terrorist group called the Black Hand. Seven members of the Black Hand were at the trail with instructions to kill Franz Ferdinand. When Gavrilo Princip noticed that Franz Ferdinand's driver's car's gears shut off, he took his chance and shot Franz and his wife Sophie. They both died on June 28th, 1914. On July 23rd, Austria-Hungary sent an ultimatum, or harsh set of demands, to Serbia. These demands mostly tried to get rid of Anti Austria-Hungary opposition. On July 25th, Serbia refused some of these demands. As a result, Russia gave Serbia support. On July 26th, Russia asked Germany to ask Austria-Hungary to lower its response to Serbia. Germany issued a blank check to Austria-Hungary. Since Serbia failed to comply to the July ultimatum, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28th, 1914. On July 30th Russia asked France for help, and France issued a blank check to Russia. From there Russia began mobilization of its army. On August 1st, Germany declared war on Russia. On August 3rd, Germany declared war on France. Germany also invaded Belgium. On August 4th, Britain declared war on Germany.

Russian Revolution  [edit]collective farms - farms compiled from farms of individuals to produce one big farm with modern equipment owned by the government 

Great Purge - the police and terror part of Stalin's rule NEP (New Economic Policy) - a policy that Lenin issued, it included a little bit of capitalism (peasants could keep or sell surplus crops); Lenin said it was one step back to go to two steps ahead; government would only control large business but not small ones 5 year plans - set impossible quotas for Russia's economy at a harsh human cost; never was achieved Karl Marx - influenced Lenin's ideology Comintern (Communist International) - a communist group founded in Moscow gulags - Russian labor camps War Communism - aimed to keep the Red Army with enough supplies2 Cheka - the secret police working for communist Russia Red Guard - armed groups of workers soviets - councils of workers Nicholas II - czar who abdicated after March Revolution whites - loyalists to the czar Rasputin - believed to be a "mad monk," czarina Alexandra believed god sent him to save Russia Duma - parliament of Russia Trotsky - led the Red Army in civil war Lenin - leader of the Bolsheviks, had some Marxist thought Treaty of Brest-Litovsk - a treaty that stopped Russia's involvement in World War I "Peace, Land, and Bread" - a slogan during the Russian Revolution Stalin - totalitarian leader who tried to greatly improve Russia's economy Bloody Sunday (1905) - a march against the czar in St. Petersburg at the winter palace, many were shot, Father Gapon led it bolsheviks - followers of Lenin's plan for a communist revolution "All power to the Soviets" - slogan during Russian revolution redemption payments - annual payments that peasants made to the government totalitarianism - a form of government in which the leader controls every aspect of public and private life autocracy - the form of government in Russia before the Bolshevik Revolution reds - followers of Lenin's beliefs Communist Party - formerly Bolsheviks, name was changed after the Bolshevik/October Revolution USSR - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics atheism - under Stalin's rule, this is what was taught

Rise of Dictators in the 1930s  [edit]dadaism - a form of "anti-art"; went against everything in classical art 

surrealism - a type of art that used surprise and unexpected juxtapositions Lost Generation - generation of people after World War I Weimar Republic - Germany's form of government before Hitler's rule Flappers - young women who wore short skirts, put on a lot of makeup, and listened to jazz Popular Front New Deal - Franklin D. Roosevelt's plan for building the United States up after the Great Depression stock market crash - triggered the Great Depression Great Depression - caused people to lose faith in the ability of western democracies to solve problems Franklin D. Roosevelt - president of the during Hitler - Nazi dictator who defied the Treaty of Versailles Mussolini - leader of Fascist Italy; teamed up with Hitler Il Duce - Mussolini's title during his rule Nazism - Hitler formulated it; encouraged racism and Hitler's view Mein Kampf - written by Hitler; a book of Nazism; said Germans were superior lebensraum - "living space", a phrase for the expansion of Germany to take Austria and Czechoslovakia Führer - Hitler's title during his rule anti-Semitism - racism against Jews Guernica - Nazi Germans attacked this Spanish city (Hitler's) Third Reich cubism - a type of art that broke down objects into simpler shapes; Picasso was a famous cubist artist spirit of Locarno - symbolized banishment of war Kellogg-Briand Pact - further banished war after treaties at Locarno, Switzerland swastika - Nazis adopted this as their symbol kristallnacht - a Nazi rampage against German Jews black shirts brown shirts - "stormtroopers"; helped Hitler gain power King Emmanuel Hindenburg Franco - a cautious Spanish dictator who battled in the Spanish Civil War; ruled until his death Second Spanish Republic Lincoln Brigade Nuremburg laws Maginot Line - provided a false sense of security to France fascism - militant political movement that emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader

Upheavals in China and Japan  [edit]Sun Yixian 

Jiang Jieshi - leader of Chinese nationalists Chinese Republic May 4th Movement Nationalists - supported republic of China (aka Taiwan) Communists - supported people's republic of China Mao Zedong - leader of Chinese communists Long March Japanese Invasion 21 Demands Rape of Nanjing

Japan  [edit]1920's Liberalization 

Militarists Manchuria/Manzhouguo Hirohito - emperor of Japan from Greater East-Asia Co-prosperity Sphere

Between the Wars in Europe  [edit]See rise of dictators in the 1930s

World War II  [edit]Spanish Civil War 

sanctions appeasement pacifism Axis Powers Guernica Austrian Anschluss Munich Pact Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact blitzkrieg - German word for lightning war Dunkirk London Blitz/Battle of Britain Operation Barbarossa Atlantic Charter Lend-lease Pearl Harbor El Alamein Stalingrad D-Day Holocaust kamikaze - Japanese suicide crashing technique Battle of the Coral Sea Midway Battle of the Bulge VE Day Hiroshima VJ Day Nuremburg Trials - tried to punish leaders of the holocaust to ensure responsibility of leaders FDR Churchill de Gaulle Stalin Marshall Eisenhower MacArthur Nimitz Rommel

Cold War  [edit]Yalta Conference 

Potsdam Conference Iron Curtain - symbolized division between communism and democracy in Europe Containment Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan Berlin Airlift NATO arms race Sputnik Khrushchev Warsaw Pact United Nations nonaligned nations Greek Crisis Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) brinkmanship - policy of being on the edge of war Imre Nagy Hungarian Crisis Brezhnev Prague Spring Alexander Dubček Fidel Castro Cuban Revolution Bay of Pigs JFK/Cuban Missile Crisis Korean War domino theory Vietnam War Reagan Strategic Defense Initiative Berlin Wall Lech Walesa/Solidarity

Modern World  [edit]
China  [edit]Mao 

Great Leap forward - Mao Zedong's "great leap backward", emphasized non-industralized practices Cultural Revolution Four Modernizations Deng Xioping Tiananmen Square Hu Jintao

Africa  [edit]Negritude movement 
Kenya  [edit]Jomo Kenyatta 

1963 Independence Rwandan genocide

South Africa  [edit]apartheid 

FW de Klerk Mandela ANC -- 17:02, 17 May 2009 (UTC)-- 17:02, 17 May 2009 (UTC)-- 17:02, 17 May 2009 (UTC)-- 17:02, 17 May 2009 (UTC)-- 17:02, 17 May 2009 (UTC)-- 17:02, 17 May 2009 (UTC)-- 17:02, 17 May 2009 (UTC)-- 17:02, 17 May 2009 (UTC)-- 17:02, 17 May 2009 (UTC)-- 17:02, 17 May 2009 (UTC)-- 17:02, 17 May 2009 (UTC)-- 17:02, 17 May 2009 (UTC)-- 17:02, 17 May 2009 (UTC)-- 17:02, 17 May 2009 (UTC)-- 17:02, 17 May 2009 (UTC) Mideast [edit]Israel Zionists Balfour declaration 1948 Independence 1956 crisis 1967 War 1973 War Anwar Sadat Camp David Accords Palestinians Menachem Begin Yasir Arafat Global Economic Development developed nations emerging nations globalization

Terrorism  [edit]cyberterrorism 


World Leaders  [edit]Felipe Calderon - Mexico Nikolas Sarkozy - France Yasuo Fukuda - Japan Kevin Rudd - Australia Hu Jintao - China Steven Harper - Canada Angela Merkel - Germany Ban Ki Moon - UN Secretary General Gordon Brown - United Kingdom Thabo Mbeki - South Africa Vladimir Putin - (old) Russia Dmitry Medvedev - Russia Kim Jong-Il - North Korea Nouri al-Maliki - Iraq Hamed Karzai - Afghanistan Manmohan Singh - India Mahmoud Ahmedinejad - Iran Altaf Hussain - Pakistan Ehud Olmert - Israel Sylvio Berlusconi - ItalyItalic text