Volcanoes/Volcanic rocks/Quiz

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Geological sample is on display at the House of the Volcano, Reunion Island. Credit: David Monniaux.

Volcanic rocks is a lecture and an article about rocks that occur in, on, around and between volcanic rocks. It is a volcanoes lecture offered by the astronomy department and the school of geology.

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Quiz[edit]







  

1

Yes or No, An olivine basalt intermediate between alkali olivine and mugearite is called a hawaiite.

Yes
No

2

Which chemical phenomenon are associated with the Earth?

quartz is the second most abundant mineral
an atmosphere containing CO2
green, red, blue, and yellow airglow
the production and escape of hot H+ ions
oxygen emissions
helium ions

3

Yes or No, A rock similar to granite, but containing more plagioclase than potassium feldspar is called a granodiorite.

Yes
No

4

With respect to protoplanetary disks what green mineral has been found?

5

True or False, A type of igneous rock with a coarse-grained or phaneritic texture with 90 % or more by volume of olivine is called a dunite.

TRUE
FALSE

6

Observations of Io have benefited greatly from what phenomenon?

a dense, opaque atmosphere
lightning
extensive meteorite cratering
a flattening out
liquid hydrocarbon lakes
the reflected light of allotropes and compounds of sulfur

7

Yes or No, A coarsely crystalline, igneous rock consisting of lamellar pyroxene and labradorite is called a gabbro.

Yes
No

8

Moldavite is a mineral that may be associated with what green astronomy phenomenon?

predicting the end of the Earth
determine the accuracy of local computers
meteorite impacts
demonstrating that Venus was once a comet
predict when currently dormant volcanoes will erupt
green fireballs

9

Yes or No, The behavior of a lava flow depends primarily on its viscosity (resistance to flow), slope of the ground over which it travels, and the rate of lava eruption.

Yes
No

10

Which of the following are associated with greenstone belts?

metamorphosed mafic sequences
ultramafic volcanic sequences
Archaean and Proterozoic cratons
chlorite
Humphreys series
Rydberg series
green hue of metamorphic minerals

11

True or False, A plume of water ice particles emanating from Enceladus is reaching altitudes as high as 400 km above the surface.

TRUE
FALSE

12

A terrestrial planet is composed primarily of?

13

True or False, The XRS aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft maps mineral composition.

TRUE
FALSE

14

Complete the text:

At its effective temperature of 1250 K, the atmosphere of the extrasolar planet 51 Pegasus B has clouds composed of

and

.

15

Yes or No, Andesite is a gray to black volcanic rock with between about 52 and 63 weight percent silica (SiO2).

Yes
No

16

Soil samples from the mare of the Moon reflect primarily cyan due to the presence in the soils of what?

17

Yes or No, Andesites contain crystals composed primarily of plagioclase feldspar and one or more of the minerals pyroxene (clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene) and lesser amounts of hornblende.

Yes
No

18

Phenomena associated with some meteorites?

have a gaseous surface
long nickel-iron crystals
octahedrite
kamacite
taenite
plessite

19

Yes or No, Blueschist is a metavolcanic rock that forms by the metamorphism of basalt and rocks.

Yes
No

20

Purpurite is a natural mineral pigment composed of what likely source of violet or purple?

21

Yes or No, Basalt is a hard, black volcanic rock with less than about 52 weight percent silica (SiO2).

Yes
No

22

True or False, Most of the ocean floor is made of basalt.

TRUE
FALSE

23

Red ochre is a natural pigment composed of what likely source of red?

24

Yes or No, Shield volcanoes, such as those that make up the Islands of Hawai`i, are composed almost entirely of basalt.

Yes
No

25

Which of the following is involved in planetary astronomy more so than planetary science?

the occurrence of cyan rock types on the surface of rocky objects
the Earth and other rocky objects have a cyan mineral containing mantle
checking equations about complex systems
the advantages of a 490 nm band pass
digging holes in the surface of the Moon
surface temperatures low enough to produce methane lakes

26

Yes or No, A classification of volcanic rocks when modal analyses are lacking is on a non-genetic basis using the total alkali-silica (TAS) diagram.

Yes
No

27

Which of the following are total alkali-silica (TAS) diagram root names?

basaltic andesite
andesite
trachybasalt
dacite
caprolite
basaltic trachyandesite
basalotite
basalt
trachyandesite
trachyte
trachydacite
picrobasalt
microcline
basanite
tephrite
phonotephrite
tephriphonolite
phonolite
foidite

28

Silicates occur as part of the rocky surface beneath a visually opaque cloud layer on what planet?

29

Orpiment is a natural mineral pigment composed of what likely source of orange?

30

True or False, Optical reflectance studies of Mercury provide evidence for Mg silicates.

TRUE
FALSE

31

Which of the following are radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the apparent liquid-object Earth?

rain
snow
hail
neutron emission
polar coronal holes
meteor emission
rotation

32

True or False, a rock composed mostly of ash is called a cinerite.

TRUE
FALSE

33

Which of the following characteristic of a dacite lava?

most often light gray, but can be dark gray to black
contains elongated dust particles
consists of about 63 to 68 percent silica (SiO2)
erupts at temperatures between 800 and 1000°C
between 15 and 30 Rayleighs
one of the most common rock types associated with enormous Plinian-style eruptions
can be even more viscous (resistant to flow) and just as dangerous as rhyolites
erupted from Mount St. Helens 1980-86

34

Yes or No, Any of several volcanic rocks having a high potassium content is called a lamproite.

Yes
No

35

Yes or No, A kind of orthoclase-bearing basalt that is made up of olivine, apatite, and opaque oxides is called a mugearite.

Yes
No


Hypotheses[edit]

Main source: Hypotheses
  1. Most of the colorful minerals found on Earth do not seem to occur anywhere else.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

{{Astronomy resources}}{{Geology resources}}