Location and Formation
The Laki volcano is located in Iceland. Divergent boundaries are located on the ocean floor. This divergent boundary creates mid-ocean spreading centers, also known as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This volcano is located above this boundary. The Laki volcano is also part of a chain of volcanoes that form from a hotspot. The Laki volcano is a shield volcano, meaning that the volcano is a large, gently sloped volcano made entirely out of lava (volcanoes form when lava or pyroclastic material builds up around a vent).
This eruption lasted for about 8 months going into 1784. The volcano produced about 14(3.4 cubic meters) cubic kilometers of lava containing basalt with lava fountains up to 1400 meters. The volcano was a nonexplosive volcano since it contained lava flows. The lava was pahoehoe lava, since it had basalt and had ropy-like coils.
Ash/haze erupted from the eruption was carried from Iceland to Syria and Europe by winds. The ash caused a drop in temperatures in the entire Northern hemisphere killing more than 8000 people nearby living in Britain. In 1784, winter was one of the longest and coldest winters recorded in North America. There was a large amount of snow in New Jersey, the Mississippi River was frozen at New Orleans, and there was ice in the Gulf of Mexico. Clouds of flourine and sulfur dioxide killed most of Iceland's livestock and crops, causing famine and causing the death of one fourth of the residents living there. The volcano is now dormant since this eruption.
There have been no other eruptions. This is because the volcano was over a mantle plume and the tectonic plate has moved past the mantle plume.