User talk:Pheonix

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Hi, I think that you could include something about optimism in your book chapter.

Optimism is a mood or attitude associated with an expectation about the future-- one which the evaluator regards as socially desirable, to his advantage, or for his pleasure (Peterson, 2000). Optimism is closely related to happiness, as optimists tend to have higher levels of well-being, higher self-esteem, and fewer symptoms of depression (Forgeard & Seligman, 2012). In a 30-year study, Daukantaite and Zukauskiene, (2011) also found that optimism was the best predictor of life satisfaction in middle age. So, I think its fair to say optimistic people are happy :) Not only do optimists perceive failure differently to more pessimistic people, but they act differently based on this information (Forgeard & Seligman, 2012). One perspective on optimism sees it as an explanatory style (See this link for more on explanatory styles]. Optimists tend to view failure as the result of external causes, and of events that are specific and unstable (for example - "We lost the the soccer game because it was unfair, but I will try harder next time, and we can still come on top this season"). In contrast, individuals with pessimistic attributional styles tend to see failure as generated by internal, stable and global causes (“I failed the driving test because I am hopeless – I will never get any better and it will affect my whole life.”). Because optimists view failure in this way, they tend to persevere even after setbacks (Forgeard & Seligman, 2012). Optimists also tend to use approach coping strategies where they deal with problems by actively trying to solve them (Peterson, 2000). This is contrary to the popular belief that optimists are more likely to deny problems. On the other hand, pessimists appear to cope using avoidance strategies, which may prevent them from solving the problems at hand (Forgeard & Seligman, 2012). For example, Taylor and collegues (1992) found that in a sample of patients suffering from AIDS, optimists were more likely to seek information about the disease and make plans for recovery, and less likely to blame themselves and engage in fatalistic thinking.

Taylor, S., Kemeny, M., Aspinwall, L., Schneider, S., Rodriguez, R., Herbert, M., 1992. Optimism, coping, psychological distress, and high-risk sexual behavior among men at risk for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Journal of personality and social psychology 63, 460–473.

Peterson, C. (2000). The future of optimism. American Psychologist, 55(1), 44-55. Doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.44 Daukantaite, D., & Zukauskiene, R. (2011). Optimism and subjective well-being: Affectivity plays a secondary role in the relationship between optimism and global life satisfaction in the middle-aged women. Longitudinal and cross-cultural findings. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12, 1–16.

Forgeard, M. J., & Seligman, M. E. (2012). Seeing the glass half full: A review of the causes and consequences of optimism. Pratiques psychologiques, 18, 107–120. Doi: 10.1016/j.prps.2012.02.002

Hope this helps! :) Amber12 (discusscontribs) 04:56, 12 September 2013 (UTC)

Hey, I just wanted to say that it's fine for you to link your chapter to mine (fear of failure). I was thinking of doing the same, if that's ok? Victoriagc (discusscontribs) 02:36, 1 November 2013 (UTC)