User talk:PROF.S.K.DAS

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Prior to the Twenty-first century, human academic endeavor across the globe was highly dominated by the feudal economy and subsequently by modern industrial economy. The dawn of twenty first century witnessed the evolution of knowledge economy, the supreme form of economy that world in its annals of history has ever had. Educational policies that were chalked out toward the end of century in India though acknowledge and highlight our failures in terms of poor execution and supervision, yet the significance and relevance of policies relating to school education cannot be ignored. Indian schooling system has been emerging as potential education sector and thus has been successfully feeding significantly with adequate human resources to higher education sector.As a result, Indian higher education system in its true sense is the single largest in the world. Though Indian higher education sector is displaying colorful achievements in all possible directions, as a system it is not far away from growing criticism both at local and global levels. Qualitative interpretations in introducing Indian education is being eluded with the quantitative expansion thus generating a need for landscaping the prevailing form of Indian higher education in the context of globalization and privatization.

The representation of India at global level has less noticeable impact on the potentiality issue at the local level. In other words, how India is known to Asian and Indian per se? Ironically, instead of embracing our own strengths we always dream for more infrastructure and investments in educational endeavor. Whats is needed has never been in discourse and what is available within the discourse is far away from the dire need. All above notable achievements are to be accredited to the Indian professional and technical education at tertiary level. In the present context, challenges need to be highlighted that demand for landscaping globalized higher education in terms of minimizing growing academic performance gap among all sectors/levels of education.

Gaps in Academic Performance( GAP) may be defined as the academic performance desired to be exhibited by the academia of an institution or set of institutions across all levels/sectors of education namely elementary, secondary and tertiary. Each level is deemed as sector for better clarity and understanding. Question that comes to the context is what the determinants of academic performance are? Three major determinants of academic performance include--- teaching/training, research and dissemination. Either institution or set of institutions ( within a sector or level of education) needs to project such performance as the gross contribution of academia involved at that sector. The pyramid structured education system is the quantitative expansion of our education system, what about the sectoral academic contributions? Do the contributions are significantly correlated with their numbers? One can wonder for a right answer.

Schools transport students with sub standard knowledge and competencies in almost all subjects and primarily in mathematics and science subjects....Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) were defined up to lower primary(I to Vth) by Professor Dave under aegis of UNESCO but we could not extend M.L.L beyond Vth grade within last three decades; how do we plan our school education and how could we dream for employability....GAP in HEIs are attributed to such LAPSE at school stage..

Key words: Gaps in Academic Performance(GAP), Higher education, Higher Education Institutions, Globalization and Privatization.

MANUAL FOR EDUCATORS: SLM(Print media supported) DEVELOPMENT[edit source]


                            (PRINT MEDIA)
                             Dr. S.K.Das

                    NIMS UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR, Rajasthan

___________________________________________ Brief outline of the Manual ____________________________________________ Alike ours, dual mode universities often brush up knowledge and skills of academic staff and faculty on various aspects of the university. One of the potent aspects is the distance education which is at the core of educational entrepreneurial activities. Distance education promotes lifelong and continuing education and demands for a set of unique skills and competencies among academia. Such competencies range from course designing to material development, counselling to promotion. Course material is found to be central to all support services rendered by Open and Distance Learning Institutions. Developing course material on the self-learning format is the mission of this manual which is expected to serve its very purpose in generating basic understanding among the academia involved in distance education. ____________________________________________


____________________________________________ 1. Introduction to Self Learning Material Development 2. Learning Outcomes 3. Significance of Self-Learning Material in ODLIs 3. Steps in Course Material Development 4. Thumb rules on Course Material Development 5. Course Development Team

_______________________________________________________________ 1. Introduction to Self-Learning Material Development _______________________________________________________________ Assumptions are often made about educators on dual mode universities that they possess pre-requisite knowledge and skills relating to the open and distance education. With the back ground of these assumptions, attempt has been made to generate certain scientific understanding on the significance of course material development in Open and Distance Learning Institutions (ODLIs). Course materials serve the basis for the foundation of instructional processes in distance education programmes. Distance learners have limited sources for learning in open and distance education. Despite of their presence away from ODL institutions, learners approach with high level of self-confidence and self-determination to pursue desired programmes or courses with the support of study material (provided by the ODLIs). The trend analysis (Das, 2012) on the status of course delivery at ODLIs revealed that course materials (print media based) in standardised format continues to be at the core of academic support services offered by open and distance education system. Print based course material serves as the primary and fundamental academic support provided by the institutions. _____________________________________________________________ 2. Learning Outcomes _____________________________________________________________

This manual will enable educators and prospective distance educators to • explain significance of course material development in open and distance education; • follow various steps in order to develop course materials for D.E. programmes; • abide by the rules of material development; and • develop and format course material on a specified unit relating to any discipline of their own interest. _____________________________________________________________ 3. Significance _____________________________________________________________ Course material development activities signify its relevance and essence at the core of all academic support services rendered by ODLIs. Significance may be discussed in terms of various issues. The foremost issue is the connotations used for distance. Distance education, by its unique in-built structure, attracts the attention of experienced potential adult learners who are self-motivated to pursue the programme at a distance. If attempt is made to define distance education in absolute terms then distance signifies geographical distance just beyond the boundary walls of ODLIs to any corner of the universe. The second issue is pertaining to the potential and unique profile of distance learners. It is well noticed that most of NIMS distance learners pursue certain courses/programmes while they are engaged with some form of vocations. The profile indicates that distance learners are either adults or young adults. Such heterogeneity in terms of age, experiences, localities and learning styles among distance learners brings number of challenges to the present discourse on instructional pedagogical strategies. Instructional pedagogical strategies are derived from theories of learning and instructions which essentially becomes the basis on which instructional designs are selected and applied to course contents while writing and formatting the course materials. Following underlying assumptions may be useful in understanding the significance of CMD (Course Material Development). ______________________________________________________________ 4. Steps in Course Material Development ______________________________________________________________

Course material development in any conventional and non-conventional modes of education is the sole responsibilities of the academic staff either directly or indirectly involved in the academic delivery process. Course material development (exclusively in conventional mode) includes a number of steps that are to be followed upon.

1. Deciding the courses/subjects within a programme and drawing the outline of the each course. 2. Formulating Instructional Objectives (I.Os) in behavioural terms on each of the course based upon the course outlines. I.Os serves the basis for which Expected Learning Outcomes (E.L.Os) are assessed. 3. Drawing the structure of the write ups or outlining the write ups relating to course contents. 4. Conventional form of writing course contents includes introduction, explanations and definitions of major concepts, brief discussion on minor concepts, summary and references. 5. Preparing the first draft of course content writings. 6. Editing the write ups in terms of sequence, coherence between paragraphs, level of language, length and breadth of the discussions/explanations, and style of content presentation. 7. The edited version of first draft is submitted for content editing. 8. Language editing 9. Submitting content edited form for printing and publishing.

It is universally acknowledged that course material in self-learning format is essentially “the text based teaching or teacher in print.” It means that the entire deliberations and activities carried out by the teachers (in a face-to-face mode) in a particular unit or sub-unit of a course are to be presented in such a way that learners are able to attain the expected learning outcomes (E.L.Os). Self-learning materials are defined as the text based materials that are instructionally designed (in agreement with the principles of teaching – learning and application of instructional strategies) to facilitate the process of learning acquisition among learners and ensure the attainment of mastery learning (Das, 2012). SLMs are found in a variety of forms, but all of them, in principle, are designed with a set of learning theories and instructional strategies. SLMs are prepared and branded by the ODLIs at their institutional level depending upon the academic policies and regulations. The universally accepted models of the UKOU and IGNOU are the bench marking models on SLMs. Since SLMs are based upon the instructional designs, it has its own structure and style of formatting. The formats* (unit based) used by the UKOU and the IGNOU are given below as exemplary. _________________________________________________________________________________ SLM format of the IGNOU _________________________________________________________________________________

                                 UNIT 2  UNIT DESIGN
                                  2.0 Objectives
                                  2.1 Introduction
                                  2.2 Key Terms Used in a Distance Education Text
                                      2.2.1 Aims and objectives
                                      2.2.2 Units
                                      2.2.3 Assessment Questions
                                      2.2.4 Essential and Recommended  Texts/further readings
                                  2.3 Key feature of a unit
                                      2.3.1 Beginning a unit
                                      2.3.2 The Body of a unit
                                      2.3.3 Ending a unit
                                 2.4 Different Kinds of self-learning Texts
                                     2.4.1 Teach-yourself books
                                     2.4.2 Manuals and handbooks
                                     2.4.3 Programmed Instruction
                                     2.4.4 Open learning materials
                                     2.4.5 Correspondence units
                                     2.4.6 Study guides/Wrap-up materials
                                     2.4.7 Distance education units
                                 2.5 Let Us Sum Up


Source: PGDDE, ES-312, Block 2, UNIT 2, IGNOU, New Delhi.

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________

                                    SLM format of the UKOU


                                         Unit 15
                                         The mechanics of an electric lift
                                         Aims                                              4
                                         Introduction                                      5
                                         1. Electric lifts                                 6
                                         2. Lift Kinematics                                7
                                         3. Lift structure                                  13
                                         4. Buffer dynamics                                 19
                                         5. Haulage dynamics                                22
                                         6. Conclusion                                      28
                                            References                                      28 
                                            Date sheet                                      29

__________________________________________________________________________________ (Courtesy: PM752A, OU Course, Block 9, Unit 15) ___________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  • Source: P.R.Ramanujam ( 2003) STRIDE (Revised) Handbook 6 “ Editing in Distance Education” New Delhi: IGNOU.(p.31)

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ At NIMS, in pursuance with the academic guidelines for distance programmes, the development of course material in the form of SLMs include following steps: 1. The course writers are expected to follow the steps of conventional style of writing till they prepare the first draft. 2. Structuring the first draft (as per specified format given in page 10) 3. Customizing with relevant instructional design(s) 4. Editing of the customized first draft by instructional designer or educational technologist 5. Content editing by the expert 6. Language editing 7. Printing and Publication

                               4.1 Activities on Outlining the Course

Activity-4.1.1: Read and Compare the Course outlines narrated below.

Course Outline : Example-1 You have read earlier that education being a discipline has its origin in five major branches of knowledge. We have already generated understanding on three branches, i.e., philosophy, sociology, and economy. The fourth one is the technology which has salutary effects on teaching and learning. Since communication is at the core of all educational endeavour, technology in education, and technology of education is essential for the prospective teachers at the higher education stage. The present course is therefore titled as ICT in Higher Education. [84 words]

Course Outline: Example-2 The present course is known as ICT in Higher Education. Various forms of communication and information processing technologies have been significantly influencing the entire education system right from elementary to tertiary level of education. And because of technological influence and interventions learning and education has become the cup of everybody. It is desired that teachers at higher education level should have basic insights on technology of education and technology in education. [71words]

Course Outline: Example-3 The present course demands the utmost application of relevant and adequate information and communication technologies in teaching and learning at higher education institutions. Emerging technologies in education and technology of education are major aspects of current discourse on ICT in Higher Education. [42 words]

Activity-4.1.2: Which one you find suitable and why?

                                    4.2 Activities on Formulating Instructional Objectives

Activity-4.2.1: Prepare a list of all types of behaviour that can be modified through training and instruction.


Activity-4.2.2: Identify those behaviours which can be measured in any standardised manner.

1------------------------------ 2-------------------------- 3---------------------------------- 4-------------------------------------

Activity-4.2.3: Examine the taxonomy (Bloom’s taxonomy of Educational Objectives ) given below.


Cognitive---------Thought Processes(Knowledge, Understanding,Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation)

Affective---------Feeling and attitude

Psycho motor------Actions

Following terminologies* are to be used while writing objectives: 1. Declarative or descriptive verbs—define, describe, explain, write, name, list, state 2. Discriminative verbs—compare, differentiate, identify, distinguish, summarise, outline 3. Motor performance verbs—drive, type, draw, measure, name, outline ________________________________________________

  • Source: STRIDE Handbook-5(2008), IGNOU


Activity-4.2.4: Decide the relative importance or weight of each of above cited three domains.

For example, in the course titled “ICT in Higher Education” is re-written depending upon their relative weight. Cognitive (Weight=30%) Affective (Weight=30%) Psycho motor (Weight=40%) Activity-4.2.5: Study the both sets of objectives written below. Set-I: Students will be able to— 1. state the meaning of ICT in Higher Education; 2. understand the meaning of technology in education; 3. feel the difference between “technology in education” and “technology of education”; and 4. utilize the gained knowledge in teaching.


Students will be able to— 1. define ICT in Higher Education; 2. appreciate the role and significance of ICT in teaching and learning; 3. differentiate between “technology in education” and “technology of education”; and 4. apply various types of technologies regularly in classroom teaching

Activity-4.2.6: Which one is the appropriate set of objectives and why?

_______________________________________________ Check your views across following tips on Objectives: _______________________________________________ 1. Is the behaviour focussed in each objective (mentioned above) being mentioned in measurable term? Can the behaviour be measured objectively through any standard techniques? 2. Are objectives achievable in the context of teaching-learning hours? 3. Do they cover entire course contents? 4. Are they meaningfully and lucidly written? 5. Do they serve the purpose for which they are being formulated?

                                       4.3 Activities on Writing Structure of Unit*
                               Introduction to Distance Education & Evolution of Open and Distance Learning
                                                 1.0 Outline of the Course
                                                 1.1 Instructional Objectives
                                                 1.2 Introduction
                                                 1.3 Education and Human Development
                                                 1.4 Challenges before Education System
                                                 1.5 Typology of Education
                                                 1.6 Various forms of Non-conventional Education
                                                     1.6.1 Home schooling
                                                     1.6.2 De-schooling 
                                                     1.6.3 Correspondence Education
                                                     1.6.4 Distance Education
                                                     1.6.5 Open and Distance Education
                                                 1.7 Current trends and Futurology of Distance Education
                                                     1.7.1 Global trends
                                                     1.7.2 Regional trends
                                                     1.7.3 Futurology
                                                 1.8 Summary
                                                 1.9 Checklist on Learning Outcomes
                                                 1.10 References and Suggested Readings 


  • Source: Das, S. K. (2012) Handbook on ODE for Educators. Japiur: NIMS University


                                                   4.4 Activities on Writing Introduction

Activity 4.4.1: Read the introduction portion of any text of your choice and respond to the below given checklist S. No. Features of Introduction Response Very Significantly Significantly Undecided 1. Does introduction establish a linkage or kinship between

       to-be-learned and already learned concepts?			

2. Does introduction is written on the principles of interest

       arousal and learning activeness?			

3. Does guidance support mechanisms are in-built in introduction? 4. Does introduction self-contained? 5. Does introduction lead leaner towards progressive learning?

                                                   4.5 Activities on Content Organisation 

Content organisation refers to the process of organising the presentations on the written contents of the course. Content organisation plays significant role in the activities relating to writing the course outline and introduction to the course and as well as in instructional design.

Activity 4.5.1: Why do you think that linkages between to-be-learned and already learned concepts are to be established while doing the activities on course outline and introduction?

Activity 4.5.2: Why do you think that contents of a unit are to be presented in structure form?

Activity 4.5.3: Do you find following seven considerations* are relevant and important in content organisation? If yes, why do you assume so? Cosideration-1: Small steps Cosideration-2: Logical arrangements (continuity and consistency) Cosideration-3: Ordering the content

                            3.1: known to unknown
                            3.2: simple to complex 
                            3.3: concrete to abstract
                            3.4: particular to general
                            3.5: actual to representative   

Cosideration-4: Personalized style (Addressing the learner within text) Cosideration-5: Language (Lucidity and at par level of students) Cosideration-6: Illustrations (attractive, meaningful, contained) Cosideration-7: Assessment (self-directed and application oriented) ______________________________________________

  • Source: STRIDE Handbook-5(2008), IGNOU


Activity 4.5.4: Why do you find pictures, graphs, diagrams are important in presenting the content?

Activity 4.5.5: How do you recommend improving content organisation?

______________________________________________________________ 5. Thumb rules on Course Material Development ______________________________________________________________ • Writing involves articulation, presentation and explanation of ideas and concepts depending upon the level of creativity and imagination of the course writer. No C-C-P (cut-copy-paste) work and no plagiarism. It should be the original and genuine writing of the author. • Do acknowledge all the documents either referred or cross referred • Type and size of fonts are to be used as per given specifications. • Uniformity is to be maintained across all units in a block and all blocks in a programme. • Knowledge on formulating behavioural objectives (especially Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives) is essential for the course writer. • Implications of various learning theories on instruction are essential competencies of the course writer. • Understanding instructional designs and selecting appropriately is a must for all course writers. • Make the writing interactive( address the learner within text) • No one way is recommended for course writing and formatting. • Each of the sub units of a unit is to be ended with self-engaged activities. • Length of the unit write- ups depends upon the quantum of hours in approximation is required for learner (termed at NIMS as Engaged Learning Hours) for achieving mastery learning. • It is not a book rather course material where attempt is be made on the prior experience of learners. • Small and sizeable sentences are to be written. • More use of active voices than passive ones. • Writing should be clear, comprehensible and holistic. ___________________________________________________________ 6. Team responsible for Course Development ____________________________________________________________ Course development team comprises of following expert members who are drawn from various branches of knowledge. 1. Course Team Chairperson 2. Course Writers/authors 3. Instructional Designers (Educational Technologists)

4. Media person

5. Editors (content and language) 6. Graphic Expert 7. DTP Operators ______________________________________________________________ References: ______________________________________________________________ 1. Ramanujam, P.R.(2003). Editing in Distance Education [STRIDE Handbook-6], New Delhi: IGNOU. 2. STRIDE Handbook-5(2008), New Delhi: IGNOU 3. 4. 5. Das, S.K.(2012) 6. Das, S.K.(2012) 7. Das, S.K.(2012) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The author is currently the Director, Directorate of Distance Education, NIMS University, Jaipur, Rajasthan. All rights reserved with the author. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________ Brief outline of the DDE ________________________________

Directorate of Distance Education was established in 2009 to fulfill the national goal of Education for All (EFA) and international mission of Millennium Development Goals on education. Being recognised by the joint committee of DEC-UGC-AICTE, the DDE has its networking in almost all states and Union Territories and catering to the needs of more than 15000 distance learners (gross). The Directorate offers 43 programmes in two major areas—paramedical and non-paramedical. _________________________________ Publications of DDE _________________________________ 1. Das, S.K (2012) Open and Distance Education- A Handbook, NIMS University. 2. Das, S.K (2012) Emerging ICT in Higher Education,NIMS University. 3. Das, S.K.( 2013)Designing Instructions in Higher Education,NIMS University. 4. Das, S.K.(2013) Distance Education and Educational Entrepreneurship,NIMS University.




The Millennium Development Goals of UN and the MOST( Management of Social Transformations )programme of UNESCO necessarily call for an immediate action towards achieving social cohesion. Absolute social cohesion and inclusiveness is seldom possible without breaking the social- economical- psychological barriers. Poverty and malnutrition go hand in hand and thus are found to be figured out as the prominent factors responsible for making more than half of world population within the bracket of marginalization. The underprivileged population grow rapidly in proportion to their counter parts.It is universally proven that poverty and malnutrition are not the only causes rather there are other factors which are more or less accentuating the process of societal development. Metros were cities of yesterday and cities were born out of village structures. This is the societal structures that each nation is moving towards globalization, though the definitions of globalization vary from one nation to another. Realizing the potentiality of villages in Societal Development Indices and moving towards absolute inclusiveness, the current program is developed in order to bring transformations within the villages so that we evolve as a learned community. The path to progress lies in the villages of India.

Rural population is excluded marginally from urban and national development while urban population are found to be excluded within urbanization. Rural people have no money to participate in the developmental process naturally while urban population have money but excluded by chance factors.India enacted two important acts ( the Right to Information-2005, and the Right to Education-2010) in the first decade of the new millennium. Both the acts are meaningfully related to each other and focussed towards inclusive human development. The Right to Information has no potentiality without the successful implementation of the Right to Education and vice versa. In other words, it can be stated that both of them are complementary and supplementary to each other. Right to Education is implied in the Right to Information, since it is the literate or educated one who can afford to have information. The political arithmetic behind the enactment of the RTE in India is quite interesting and striking. The political consensus was not attained by the regional and national parties for the cause of education for all rather the RTE-2012 was the result of the decision of the Supreme Court of India (2008) on the politically sensitive and socially important issue of 27% OBC reservation in higher education. Therefore, though all citizens of India do realize the importance of free and compulsory education for all, people yet to accept the reservation policies of the Indian government. Unless rural mass are made literate or educated, the dreams of developed India can never be transformed to realities. Each and every citizen is to be ensured with free and compulsory elementary education, because of which Education Commission(1964-66) recommended for Universalization of Elementary Education( UEE)-- the Gate way of Lifelong Learning. Caste, class, gender, regionalism, and religious beliefs have been depriving villages to grow; along with villagers villages have been excluded, and as such -“exclusion in any form with any individual in anywhere of the world is insidious and has become a global concern and causing wastage to national wealth.”

Though substantial improvements are noticed in all dimensions of national development, Indian villages have been at the core of discourses on meeting the Minimum Levels of Living( MLL)” that are as follows-- 1. Safe drinking water at the door steps of each house in villages 2. Providing adequate food with minimum nutritional values 3. Providing shelter that should have minimum standards to protect from natural calamities 4. Adequate fundamental health care support 5. Ensuring Reading, Writing and Computational( functional mathematics)abilities 6. Locale specific Vocational Training and economic empowerment 7. Culture and locale specifc ICT induction

Minimum Levels of Living(MLL) can not be decided based on the per capita income alone rather per capita expenditure on living with minimum standard. It is still an illusion prevailing in the society that determining per capita expenditure lacks validity beacuse of nature of human needs and requirements( Theories on Human Needs, such as Maslow's Need Hierarchy etc.). Therefore, there is a need of using various key indicators to determine MLL by employing a number of transdisciplinary modular sociometric, econometric,psychometric, anthropometric, and bibliometric techniques.Though in many parts of the world, econometric models are frequently used to describe the health and over all living status of individuals, application of such models have become subjected to criticisms because of their own limitations.

What does research inform ?

"Women have been oppressed in many parts of the world, though they equally contribute towards national development. Gender diversity is cancerous in all the nations across globe"( Mohanty,2012). Jackson (1999) reported that “gender mediates particular forms of exclusion." Gustafson, Kaaryn(2010) criminal law enforcement goals, strategies, and perspectives have grown entangled with the welfare system, indicating a tendency towards relating to criminal law enforcement and welfare of people. Mass unemployment among young people breaks the continuity in developing labour skills (Iskra Beleva, 1997) thus making unemployed youth hopeless and handicapped. It affects the growth rate at the individual level and national level. Wilson's (1987), Durlauf (2001), Vartanian and Buck (2005), Gregory and Hunter (1996), Gregory and Hunter (2001) Hunter (1995) Hunter (2003), Lawson and Dwyer (2002), Garnett & Lewis (2007), Kelly & Lewis (2002), Buck (2001) have proven the kinship of social exclusion and regional or territorial effects, and residential effects. In certain contexts, reviewed evidences represent that the institutional set up (especially schools) and classrooms are fueling social exclusion on the basis of casteism. Professions or types of vocations or jobs are also responsible for alienations— adolescent girls in slums of Delhi (2005), scavangers in Lucknow (Mohanty, 2011), SC girls at primary level in Haryana (Mohanty, 2000). The American debates on the emergence of an urban “underclass” (Wilson 1987) and the French discussion on “exclusion social” (Dubet/Lapeyronnie 1994) represent two strands of a debate, which was soon followed up by empirical research in different European countries under this perspective (Mignione 1996, Haeussermann et al 2004). Exclusion as a concept is not as straightforward as is appears, and it has different meanings in different contexts (Haeussermann et al 2004, Room 2004). Firstly, it is relational: exclusion is measured by the predominant standards of the respective society. Secondly, it is multidimensional: exclusion may take place in different dimensions (e.g. labour, health, social networks, education etc.). The desire for social relationships is one of the most fundamental and universal of all human needs (Baumeister and Leary 1995). Social exclusion, a painful yet common part of life, thwarts this ingrained motivation and has striking consequences for people’s psychological and physiological functioning (Buckley, Winkel, and Leary 2004; DeWall and Baumeister 2006; Maner et al. 2007; Twenge et al. 2001; Williams 2001). In support of the assertion that social connections are a need, not just a desire, Baumeister and Leary (1995) reviewed decades of research and concluded that people suffer psychologically and physically when they lack sufficient social ties.

Program Objectives

The program is regular and for two years. Most of the time the students ( who undertake this program) are expected to visit the villages and country side. Out of 35 seats only three international students ( two from Africa and one from America) are allowed to take up the course.There is absolutely no provision of scholarship or stipend. The program is expected to ensure--

a)absolute social development, b) integrated human development, c) indigenous knowledge, lifelong and continuing education, d)Self empowerment; and e) absolute inclusiveness and social Cohesion The proposed PGDSTM Course is designed to— Primary Objectives: a) enable beneficiaries to develop conceptual framework and theoretical constructs of social transformations in the context of rural India, b) develop relevant attitude and adequate aptitude for research in relating to social transformations, c) play the role of social mentors for bringing desired socio-economic transformations among communities and villages, and d) transform excluded communities and villages through community owned - context specific- interventions. Secondary Objectives: The designed Course is helpful in terms of— i) ensuring utmost societal development, ii) promoting integrated human development, iii) empowering community with education, and iv) achieving absolute inclusiveness and social cohesion.

Methodology for achieving above-cited objectives

Villages will be adopted and monitored with context-specific interventions with the support of Village Education Committee, Panchayats, Health Department, Social Welfare Department, and Education Department. Mentoring model will be employed to educate and empower the communities. Students (who are expected to undertake the course) will be involved in conducting action research on various issues relating to social transformations. Students are expected to develop insights on social exclusion and to chalk out village –specific road maps for absolute inclusiveness among the selected communities.

   Conceptual and theoretical                Empirical validation through action                                        

framework of social transformations research and case studies

Context-specific Intervention              Absolute Inclusiveness and social cohesion


Statements towards achieving specified objectives

I. The proposed course is expected to promote Social Science Research (Refer Conceptual framework , theoretical constructs and learning objects of the Course proposal) on the national and global issue of “ exclusion and social cohesion.” The course has been designed with ideas originated from the UNESCO’s goal of “Management of Social Transformations (MOST)” and the UN’s “Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) .”

II. An inter-disciplinary approach is employed in the present course design. Integrating services available at the doorsteps of communities and developing income generation skills among community for absolute inclusiveness is at the core of the proposed course. The uniqueness of the course is that students (who undertake the course) will be bringing changes within selected villages and communities through community owned interventions by actively participating within communities.

III. NIMS University, being a composite dual-mode self-financed university, has been successful in introducing inter-disciplinary and trans-disciplinary courses. The academic structure and statutes provide sufficient scope for implementing such innovative inter-disciplinary courses with the support of other departments such as, sociology, anthropology, health science and education, psychology and mental health, economic, rural development, science and technology, management and law.

IV. The proposed course is designed to empower communities for absolute social inclusiveness. The course is expected to ensure social cohesion by dealing firmly on issues—school exclusion, digital divide, poverty, underprivileged, casteism, communal tensions etc.

V. Passed out master level students of various disciplines such as economics, social work, education, philosophy, psychology. The course is expected to accommodate science discipline students also. Successful candidates will be placed in the national and international N.G.Os, UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF , and Center for Policy Research.

'Nature of the Course' The Course is trans-disciplinary in nature and has been designed with adequate curricular weightage to contents relating disciplines, such as, health and welfare, science and technology, economics, sociology, rural development, philosophy, psychology, law and human rights, anthropology. The issue of “exclusion and social cohesion” will be dealt in relation to all such disciplines.

The Course is expected to develop village level transformation professionals to deal effectively with the issue of social cohesion in rural areas by bringing transitions in all possible directions—poverty alleviation, health, education and empowerment especially in Rural Rajasthan.  

The vision with which the proposed course is designed is as follows:- '“Transforming Villages, Transforming India”' Problem Specific Course : Brief Outline 1. Mission Statement: Food, Health, & Shelter for Education, Education for Empowerment and Sustainable Development. Thrust Area: Setting the Minimum Levels of Living in Villages Though substantial improvements are noticed in all dimensions of national development, Indian villages have been at the core of discourses on meeting the Minimum Levels of Living” 1. Safe drinking water at the door steps of each house in villages 2. Providing adequate food with minimum nutritional values 3. Providing shelter that should have minimum standards to protect from natural calamities 4. Adequate fundamental health care support 5. Ensuring Reading, Writing and Computational( functional mathematics)abilities 6. Locale specific Vocational Training and economic empowerment 7. Culture and locale specifc ICT induction 2. Genesis:

In synch with the vision “Transforming villages, transforming India”, the proposed course is designed exclusively for bringing desirable transitions in villages by dealing with the socio-psychological and economic issues effectively. “Food, health, shelter and security” will be at the primary level interventions and to be linked to the secondary level mission on “education for empowerment and sustainable development”. The rationale behind selecting villages is only because a majority of the population that live in such deprived and underprivileged conditions. Villages are far away from the mainstream of development and they are structurally and socially at a distance. This distance has accentuated the process of social exclusion— a curse on human society and blot on humanitarian thought.

The proposed course has its origin in the UNSECO’s “The Management of Social Transformations (MOST) Programme” and supplemented with the UN’s The Millennium Development Goals”. The MOST Programme is the only UNESCO programme that fosters and promotes social science research. This places MOST in a pivotal position in the overall promotion of UNESCO's goals. The conviction that in order to achieve the Millennium Development Goals it is necessary to link political decisions to scientific knowledge is at the heart of the MOST Programme. This affirmation however raises a series of theoretical implications that need to be clarified. The MOST programme primarily focuses on building efficient bridges between research, policy and practice. The programme promotes a culture of evidence-based policy-making – nationally, regionally and internationally.

The design of the proposed course has certain kinship with the ideologies of Federico Mayor, who made a humble appeal in 1998-- “New technologies are bringing the different peoples of the world closer together, helping them to become more aware of their common humanity and shared concerns and hopes for the future. The world we leave to our children depends in large measure on the children we leave to our world.” 3. Concept Note

Exclusion in varied forms with diversified magnitudes exists in all corners of the world. Significantly excluded are the populations of urban slums and villages. Both the contexts more or less depict the similar structure and are found to be having equal concerns for their development. Villages are found to be worse affected in comparison to urban slums in terms of availability of basic amenities, health, education, transport and ICT—the magic tool for development. Systematic examination of studies and evidences on social exclusion reveal the bare fact that villages are socially, educationally and economically are excluded to the extent to which the population of villages need to take decades to place them in the mainstream of development. Such village level exclusion is adversely affecting the gross national development in terms of human resource wastage and imbalance consumption and production of other resources.

Transformations within the lap of Indian villages are indeed needs of the hour. The conceptual framework of the proposed course reiterates that villages populations structurally— 1. accommodate poverty; 2. give low priority to education(since no significant kinship is noticed between education and income); 3. exhibit increasing dependency on traditional/conventional/ancestral low skilled profession/job; 4. reflect home sickness and unwillingness to migrate; 5. less prone to transition/change( because of unawareness and ignorance); 6. indicate low level of confidence, self-esteem and level of aspiration; and 7. fail to fetch maximum benefits from the government run schemes.

Inter-disciplinary Approach and PGDSTM Inter-disciplinary approach has been employed to design the proposed course. It is mainly due to the nature and characteristics of the issues/emerging concerns relating to inclusion and sustainable development. Cohesion and sustainable development(CSD) as an emerging area has reference to dozens of theories and concepts relating to anthropology, sociology, economics, religious studies, psychology and mental health, education and humanities, child and human rights, Health and physical education, rural development, science and technology and management.

Milestones to be achieved a) Transition-1: Food-health-shelter-security (FHSS) b) Transition-2: Zero Illiteracy Zone ( ZIZ) c) Transition-3: Integrated Economic Development (IED) d) Transition-4: Integrated Human Development e)Transition-5: Continuing & Life-long learning(CLL) f) Transition-6: E-enabled Learning Centres and Global Village (ELCGV) The proposed course is intended to –

1. provide stipend to pursue the course;

2. entrepreneurial activities will be initiated at the village level by the students on the products and resources created through income-generation interventions at community level, and 3. placements in the NGOs ( at national and international level).

  • Copy right: Dr. S.K.Das,NIMS University, Jaipur, India.

(Dr. Sanjaya Das, NIMS University,2012-03-04)[1]


Ongoing debates and discourses on territorial jurisdiction of Open and Distance Learning Institutions(ODLIs) raise a number of potential issues that need to be addressed by Indian academia.

Issue-1 : If students of any state(s) preferred to take up any course(s)elsewhere other than their parent state(s) they are allowed to pursue their studies through regular mode. Why this provision ( democratic provision) is not extended to distance learners?

Issue-2: If this provision of getting access to formal education is equally coined with distance courses in a maximum number of states, then why this provision is not universalized?

Issue-3: If the territorial jurisdiction is not practiced in service industry( like hotel, cafe, motels, restaurants etc.) then why the state or central government is insisting for territorial jurisdiction on ODLIs? When we have been focusing on national pattern of education( across all levels-- elementary, secondary and tertiary level) and practicing centrally regulated strategies( prescribed by National level Regulatory ( Apex) bodies/councils and each of these states has equal right to be part and parcel of the whole country then why do we restrict states to cater to needs of learners across the country by imposing Territorial Jurisdiction-- is not the issue controversial in nature?

Issue-4: Education up to the level of senior secondary level has become the responsibility of state/local government and education beyond senior secondary is left to the choice and preference of parents and students; and if students opt any dual mode/ODL Institutions anywhere within the country then how Territorial jurisdiction is going to address this demand. Matching "supply with demands" is prerequisite of progress then how do we plan to employ our young population without educating them beyond secondary/senior secondary ( existing number of Regular colleges/universities within the country could hardly accommodate approx.35-40%)? Could regular mode education alone be sufficient enough to provide education and training beyond senior secondary passed out students?

Issue-5:Information and Communication Technologies have become part of life and those who read and write are able to connect through some form of device, then why do we suspect potentiality of ODLIs ( which heavily rely on three medium--print media, face-to-face,electronic media) if they are operating under a legal framework?

Issue-6: Should regulations and norms be uniformed for all states?

Issue-7:" Learning is lifelong" is well proven, adults could learn all across their life ( if they have attained certain level of competencies during formative period of their life) and Open and Distance Learning Institutions are creating platforms to make learning lifelong and could help adults to elevate their competencies, then why do we restrict on them?

Higher Education is High in Academic Stature and Low in Social Returns[edit source]


The present article should not fuel more debates and deliberations, since higher education sector in India has witnessed the highest number of seminars and conferences both at national an international level in the last century and the especially at the dawn of the new millennium. Though many of the universities and institutions of higher education in India is funded by the government either at the state of national level, academic performance of higher education institutions continues to be confined to the boundaries of the nation. The University Ranking Survey of the Times Higher Education published the list of 400 world class top universities and institutions where the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai is the only Indian institution to be spotted on the list. What makes our higher education to be such? Is it because the social return of higher education is low hence low priority is given to this sector? Do Indian universities and institutions carry certain inbuilt errors within? What made IIT-Mumbai to maintain its status at the international level? The present article introduces a framework that deals education as the quintessential public good, and investment as well as returns of higher education in India.Another significant aspect that has been addressed in this article include disconnections between disciplines and professions& vocations. An attempt has been made to narrate how various programmes (that are meaningfully designed, transacted with adequate academic support , and evaluated with great care and caution)offered by the higher education sector India while benefiting a few to excel in their career, the system has given birth to a large number of educated unemployed youths. Certain facts are revealed on some programmes that enable graduates to land up no where. Towards the conclusion, the article recommends about innovative approaches that institutions of higher learning should adopt to create meaningful pathways to Careers.

Key words:Higher education, academic performance, academic stature, social returns, disconnections between disciplines and vocations and professions, quality assured higher education.

Why School Leaving Certificate (SLC)matters most in Career?[edit source]

School Leaving Certificate(SLC) serves as primary passport to enter institutions of higher learning. Students choose pathways to establish their career either through general education or technical or vocation guaranteed programs, students find secondary stage as the most important educational transit. Years of schooling vary from countries to countries, but in India it is twelve years that are comprised of 10 years of secondary schooling and 02 years of senior secondary schooling.

Indian life expectancy is 63.5 years. We live to learn for half of our life and another half is we learn to live. We go away from home to a preschool at age of 3 and learn developing good habits and become ready for school at the age of 5 years. 10 years of secondary schooling followed with 2 years of senior secondary makes our life covered with about 18 years. Job oriented technical and vocational courses take six months to 6 years. If one wishes to have university education then after 12 years of schooling one takes up 3 years of U.G. courses, and 2 years of P.G and another 3 to 4 years as pre/Ph.D. A total of 27 years invested by individuals who are at higher learning institutions. It means about 30 years one invests time, money and resources to stand up in society and rest half we work, learn and practice across another about 34 years. A scholarly life has always been full with optimism. How do we draw a balance with our both internal and external world?

Why High School Leaving Certificate (HLC)matters most in a Career? Discovering 101 Secrets.

1. High School Leaving Certificate is the primary document for admission in subsequent stages for further education. 2. The award or CGPA or division or marks are first sentence of academic qualification mentioned every individual's bio data or resume or curriculum vitae. 3.It is the cumulative learning outcomes of knowledge, competencies and attitude of about three years of pre-schooling and twelve years of schooling. 4. It is first legal document proof on date of birth. 5. A significant number of life enrichment competencies are achieved across school years.

Cognitive development during pre-operational to formal operational stage is too critical because “acquisition” process starts through memory (children starts memorizing from 7 months onward) and “acquired behavior” is learned—“as learning or learned behavior essentially depends upon abilities to know, understand and retain [acquire or acquisition](as cited by Das, SK ;2014 “Learning to learn is prerequisite for four pillars, and may be considered first followed with four pillars of learning as Delors Commission;UNESCO-1996, since learning to know is not transferred may be extended more towards beginning whereas meaningful learning depend upon “ability to do”(second pillars of learning as advocated by Delors Commission; ibid) . Cognitive functioning (childhood through early adolescence) becomes logical in manipulating symbols related to abstract objects. During formal operational stage, thoughts become logical to use symbols related to abstract objects. This transition in cognitive functioning (manipulating symbols from concrete to abstract) is not smoothly accommodated by a large number of adolescents and young adults.

More than Two Decades of Indian School Education: The History that Sounds higher than Actions.[edit source]


In the beginning year of last decade of 20th century,political thinkers across a majority of nations of the world came forward under the forum titled World Declaration on Education for All(WDEFA). The first historic conference was held in Jomtien(Thailand, from 5th to 9th March 1990) and attended by delegates from 155 countries and 150 governmental and non-governmental agencies of the world. The resolution was drawn by all delegates was "Meeting Basic Learning Needs." Access, equity and learning outcomes were at the core of this discussion forum. A glance at the Global Monitoring Reports posted on UNESCO's Website reveals that 1990- the year world searched for strategies for meeting basic learning needs of children irrespective of caste, class, locality, region, color, and gender. The year 1992 witnessed an upward track record of achievements in relation to EFA goals. Gender issues were at the core of discussion in years 1993-4, and achieving gender parity, and equality was on the top of the agenda. While quality of education was tabled for discussion in 1995, the world explored that literacy is to be prioritized and hence the year-1996 was strategically planned for literacy. Primary education or school education depends heavily and largely on the readiness to attend schools which is formed at the preschool stage. Early childhood education was kept on the top in the year-2007. While governance was found to be major goal of EFA in 2009, marginalization was prioritized in 2010. It is ironical that EFA begun its history in 1990 on the issue of equal opportunities and after glorious achievements of 20 years, cursor is fixed at marginalization. India is growing with 4.1 percent literacy every year since the year 1950 when the Constitution of India was adopted. And this year we celebrated 64th Republic Day and our literacy rate is about 74%( Census of India,2011), while it was 18.33% in 1950. The literacy rate is though growing inversely with time, the quality of education of these twenty years has been under a big question mark. The gross outcome of these twenty years of education is reflected as Youth, Skills and Work in the year 2012. But in the current year(2013), attention has been shifted to the "Learning and Teaching for Development". The present paper examines the goals of EFA from 1990 to 2010 and beyond in the context of Indian School Education. One of the major construct of current analyses of more than two decades of implementation of EFA is the marginalization in education. Another substantial construct that has been explained in the present article and of equal concern is the gender disparity in education. The executive summary of Global Employment Trends 2013 of International Labor Organization reads as " This Global Employment Trends report for 2013 is a special edition, warranted by the resurgence of the crisis in 2012. The year 2011 saw a tapering of the recovery, followed by a dip in both growth and employment in 2012. Unemployment increased by a further 4 million over the course of 2012." The executive summary honestly titled as " Recovering from a second jobs dip". The central idea with which the present paper is articulated to what extent marginalization and gender issues are addressed in the context of EFA. The author attempts to have rear views on goals of EFA and our commitments, efforts and effects, practices and policies in school education.

Gender Disparities and Vocations in Indian job Market[edit source]

Do we find women in each and every vocation? Ironical social structure and rigid attitude of male have pushed girls and women to significant extent not only in home situation but also in job market. An industry that has scaled up well in the last century to current one is the hotel and hospitality industry. Across globe, kitchens of hotels and restaurants are filled with all male chefs and cooks while about more than 90% families are fed by women. Why are they excluded from chef/cook jobs hotel and hospital industry? Do we have means to include them in such industry? It is not true that they are quite neglected in hotel industry, but they are seen as the front desk managerial jobs.--PROF.S.K.DAS (discusscontribs) 21:58, 24 February 2013 (UTC) Prof. Sanjaya K. DasReply[reply]

Practicing Innovations for Innovating Practices in Higher Learning Institutions--Insights that lead actions and vice versa.[edit source]

--PROF.S.K.DAS (discusscontribs) 17:34, 26 March 2013 (UTC)Professor(Dr.)Sanjaya.K.DasReply[reply]

Millennium Pathshala--Quality School Education Guarantee Programme[edit source]

--PROF.S.K.DAS (discusscontribs) 16:55, 2 April 2013 (UTC)Prof.(Dr.)Sanjaya K.Das,Nims UniversityReply[reply]

English Curriculum at Primary Stage in Bhutan: An Evaluation[edit source]

--PROF.S.K.DAS (discusscontribs) 16:58, 2 April 2013 (UTC)Sanjaya K. Das and Gyeltshen DukpaReply[reply]

Effectiveness of Concept Attainment Model and Advance Organiser Model in Mathematics Achievement Among Ninth Grade Students In RoopNagar District of Punjab[edit source]

Effectiveness of Concept Attainment Model and Advance Organiser Model in Mathematics Achievement Among Ninth Grade Students In RoopNagar District in Punjab

Type: Research Document Year: 2010 Institution: School of Education, Lovely Professional University Investigators: Mr. Deepak Sood and Dr. S.K.Das


The objectives of education have changed from time to time and so has our concept of teaching. What we teach depends to a great extent on what we want to achieve. Teaching is both art and science. Able teacher always find ways and means to improve their teaching techniques. With the change in time, the teachers are asked to employ newer methods of teaching so that their students are able to cope with the demands of times. The improvement of the teacher by employing newer methods of teaching and the latest techniques of teaching is a need of the locus.

The ways of knowledge, skills and values are delivered to the learner have a meaning both for the teacher and the taught. A would be teacher is expected to be equipped with appropriate methodology of teaching.

The most recent concept of teaching is: teach the child how to learn, how to discover, how to think, and how to inquire. The emphasis is upon ‘know how’ rather than ‘know what’. One of the important activities of the educational process is teaching which includes training, instruction and development of cognitive process and abilities. Schools will have to struggle hard to find out new techniques of instruction to cope with the changes in situation.

In the modern world, knowledge increases at a terrific pace and social change is very rapid. Education can no longer be taken as the preparation of a finished product. The tremendous advances in science and technologies are impacting all human activities. So the teacher should adopt dynamic methods to create the needs and interest in children. The teacher should create the needed environment for full development of the learner’s potentials. In teaching of mathematics, a mere lecturing of facts may not prove effective. One of the major aims of education is to make students successful social beings; therefore efforts should be made to provide social practices along with formal education.

At present, instructional strategies are being developed for effective mathematics teaching. The models can create appropriate environment and stimuli for the student to solve problems. The Concept Attainment Model (CAM) & Advance Organizer Model are designed to teach concepts and to help students become more efficient at learning. The CAM developed by Bruner & AOM developed by Ausubel succeeded in learning the concepts. So a genuine interest was aroused in the investigators mind to probe the effectiveness of CAM & AOM on secondary school


The review of research studies indicates that many research efforts have been made in India and abroad on models of teaching. Concept Attainment Model developed by Bruner was studied by many researchers in India, with reference to Science and mathematics teaching. The research evidences under the review includes the studies of Chitrive (1983); Sharma(1986); Passi (1986); Bihari (1986); Das (1986); Gangrade (1987); Kaur (1987); Sushma (1987); Raina (1993);. D’lima and Suvarna (1990); kumari (1990); Prabhu (1991); Gupta (1993); Ayishabi(1996); Rathod and Verma (2000); Aruna and Smitha (2009)

Effect of models of teaching on achievement of learners cannot be ignored. It plays a vital role in the education of children. Effect of Advance Organizer on academic achievement of learners and their relationship at different levels of education have drawn the attention of   Dennis(1984); Morgan (1985); . Lewis (1986); Ghosh (1986); Raina (1993); Townsend(1969);  Nixit (1972); Grabber (1975); Kersten (1976);  Tavares(1976); Goodman ( 1977); Tamthai(1982) and Mahajan (1983);  Hisang (1987);  Bharmbe (1999); Mehra and Sangwan (1998); Schiever (1986); Buddisagar (1986); singh (2009).   

A quick glance on the studies discussed above revealed that almost all the researches reported the positive and significant effects of Concept Attainment Model and Advance Organizer model on the academic achievement of students. .


Attempt has been made to examine the effectiveness of various models of teaching on achievement levels of ninth grade students in mathematics. The topic for research is stated as “Effectiveness of Concept Attainment Model and Advance Organiser Model on Achievement level in Mathematics Among  Ninth Grade Students.”


Models of teaching are based on the teaching theories which have emerged out of learning theories. Teaching through the application of various models has been proven effective. However, applications of models of teaching in Mathematics haven not been empirically proven .Research evidence on application of models of teaching in teaching Mathematics is scant. Mathematics as a subject of special concern in schools demands an extra care and attention. In order to develop an insight on how teaching models can influence Mathematics achievement among children. An attempt is required to be made through an empirical study.


• To find out the effectiveness of Concept Attainment Model on academic achievement of students in mathematics. • To find out the effectiveness of Advance Organiser Model on academic achievement of students in mathematics.

HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY • There exist a significance difference in achievement levels of students taught through Concept Attainment Model and Traditional method • There exist a significance difference in achievement levels of students taught through Advance Organizer Model and Traditional method.


After studying the review of literature and considering the objectives of the study the researcher found that post- test only, Equivalent group design is most suitable for the present study. It is a true experimental design. In a true experiment the equivalence of experimental and control group is provided by random assignment of subjects to experimental and control treatments. It helps in minimizing the threats to experimental validity. Although it is difficult to arrange a true experimental design, particularly in school classroom research but it is the strongest type of research design and should be used whenever possible.

In this research design the equivalent groups are selected from the population which was made on the basis of average of marks of mathematics subject in previous class. After this subjects are randomly assigned to two experimental groups and one control group which are equivalent in their performance.


All items in any field of inquiry constitute a ‘Universe’ or ‘Population’. The selected respondents from the population which is technically called a sample and the selection process is called sampling technique. Sampling is the process of obtaining information about entire population by examining only a part of it. Sample should be truly representative of population characteristics without any bias. So that, it may result in valid and reliable conclusions.  The investigator used simple random sampling technique to select the sample for the study. The investigator selected the sample for the study from Arya Model School of Roopnagar district of Punjab state and this school is affiliated to Punjab school education board. A sample of 105 students of class IX was selected randomly from the population of 125 school student of class IX.  The sample size was divided into three equivalent groups. i.e. two experimental groups and one control group which is common for the comparison with  both experimental groups. Each equivalent group contains a sample of 35 students.


Tools are nothing but the instrument that helps the researcher to gather data. Tools are the ways and means to conduct research and the conduct of research could be justified through the methods and techniques means for it. The collected evident is called data and the tools used for collecting data are called tools or data collecting devices. These tools help to analyze the responses of a sample on related variables. In order to collect the data following tool was used.

a) Title of the test – Mathematics Achievement Test
b) Construction and dimensions of the test: To collect the required data, the researcher used the self developed Mathematics Achievement test which is consisted of 100 items. Each item carries one mark for the right answer & all the questions are multiple choice questions. The questions were selected from the topics of mathematics of class IX.  The areas were covered in this test (i) polynomials ( ii) ratio and proportion ( iii) Trigonometry (iv) linear equations in one variable v) congruence of triangles  vi) statistics vii) area 

c) Administration of tool: the present study aims at determining the effectiveness of CAM and AOM as independent variable on the academic achievement of learners as a dependent variable. For this purpose, the investigator had to administer the Mathematics Achievement test which was developed by the investigator himself. In order to administer all such tests for the purpose of collection of required data, a testing schedule was planned by the investigator for post testing phase. The test was administered on the learners of control group and experimental groups when the experimental treatment was over. On the day of administration of the respective test, the learners of concerned groups were informed about the purpose of testing and the procedure of recording their responses. The learners were ensured that their responses would be kept strictly confidential and be used for the research purpose only, further they were also assured that the results of the tests had no bearing on their school examination and hence they should feel free to respond all the items of the test. The test is administered in a congenital atmosphere after establishing rapport with the learners and their class teachers. Before the distribution of tests, the learners were advised not to open the test booklets till they asked to do so for responding. They were also told to return the test booklets after responding to all the items of respective test with in time specified for each of them. After the time was over, all answer sheets were collected and made ready for scoring.


The statistical techniques are employed to get a precise and exact picture of the data. Statistics is a process by which data is gathered, described, organized and analyzed in numerical terms. In research studies, statistics is used not only to understand and compare but also to test hypotheses. The statistical technique bring objective in interpretation and leads to reliability in results. Thus the results become more accurate, quantified and comparable. The present study employed the following statistical techniques.

i) t-test: in a view of significant t-ratios, the t-test was employed to find out the significance of difference between means related to different groups and different variables.


In the light of interpretation of the data, the researcher has to use all care and caution in formulating conclusions and generalizations. The final step of research demands critical and logical thinking in summarizing the findings of the study and compares them with the hypotheses formulated in the beginning. The researcher should not draw conclusions which are inconsistent among themselves or with external realities.

Conclusions are as essential as investigation. They provide a finishing touch and review to the whole of the critical work. In the present study the investigator has tried to study the Effectiveness of Concept Attainment Model and Advance Organiser Model on Achievement in Mathematics Among Ninth Grade. On the basis of analysis and interpretation of data, following conclusions can be drawn. Conclusion on effectiveness of Concept Attainment Model  Achievement level of the children in Mathematics taught through Concept Attainment Model is found to be superior than achievement level of children taught through traditional method.  Concept Attainment Model is found to be effective in influencing the achievement level of children in Mathematics. Conclusion on effectiveness of Advance Organizer Model.

 Achievement level of the children in Mathematics taught through Advance Organizer Model is found to be superior than achievement level of children taught through traditional method  Advance Organizer Model is found to be effective in influencing the achievement level of children in Mathematics.


The most outstanding characteristics of any research are that it may contribute something new to the development of the concerned. The present price of research has its recommendations for teachers, students, school and society. The major findings of the study and hence the conclusions drawn helped the researchers to suggest and recommend the following measures for improving the achievement in mathematics. 

 Constructive approach in teaching should be practiced more and more in the school for the subjects like Mathematics and Science.  Teaching method and strategies are to be modified keeping the implication schema theory in mind.  Since the prior knowledge of the students is an important aspect of teaching, teachers should be oriented to utilize the prior knowledge of students more and more in teaching.  Teaching should emphasize more on fundamental knowledge than on subject matter. More emphasis should be laid on organized and meaningful learning than mechanical learning.  Better student teacher understanding and relationships, better adaptation of teaching – learning, encouragement of students towards acceptance of responsibility of learning, greater satisfaction of student with his learning etc. should be given importance.  Pupils should be provided with free and necessary environment at home and school for learning mathematics  .The study reveals that the CAM and AOM of Teaching are effective for proper understanding and clarifications of concepts. Even though the investigation is carried out on a small sample, the findings through light on the current educational practices in secondary classes.  The CAM offers teachers a method for teaching thinking across the curriculum using the subject matter of the disciplines which they teach.  These models helps teachers broaden their own, holistic understanding of their disciplines as ways of thinking about the world, and helps them consider which concepts in the discipline students most need to understand in order to use the knowledge and skills the discipline encompasses. These models strengthens teachers own subject –area knowledge and critical thinking skills by engaging them in opportunities to create realistic exemplars that reflect the concept and in doing so, helps them understand the thinking process students need to use as in order to derive the concept  .It provides teachers with opportunities to help students apply the concepts and critical thinking skills they learn in classroom and beyond.  By adopting the Brunerian Model of teaching in the classroom, the teacher can develop an easy method of attaining scientific concepts which is the basic to content mastery. Concepts which seem to be not so difficult apparently may not be that easy in reality; therefore learning experiences have to be selected in such a way as to reinforce and develop the deeper meanings of the ideas to be learned.


Research has always some limitations. This is especially true in the case of research studies because at the time of data collection, any individual can try to conceal his negative aspects. The present study has also some limitations; such limitations of study reduce the reliability and validity of the study. The researcher considers the following limitations in present study.  In the present study sample size was small due to which drawing inferences may not be feasible.  There was language problem in case of Hindi and Punjabi medium students.


Mathematics is a very useful subject for vocational and higher specialized courses of learning. Therefore the duty of the school to give to high school students a broad view of what’s he is capable of achieving and be able to choose a suitable line out of that. At the university stage most of the physical and social sciences require the applications of mathematics. Ignorance of mathematics will be a great handicap in the progress of his/ her students in many other subjects. To remove these problems the research at these level should be conducted.  Sample size can be increased to reach more concrete results.  The tool can be modified in local language  Similar study can be conducted on college students, universities students etc.  Similar study can be conducted in different cities of Punjab and other states.  Similar study can be analyzed by different statistical techniques for verifying the results.  Comparison can be made between achievement level in mathematics of students who belong to urban and rural areas of school.  A study can be also conducted by taking different Models of Teaching like Taba inductive thinking model etc.  The same study can be conducted by adding more variables like mathematics creativity, attitude towards mathematics, test anxiety and achievement motivation. PROF.S.K.DAS (discusscontribs) 09:29, 9 May 2013 (UTC)Dr. Sanjaya K. DasReply[reply]


Training and education of teachers heavily rely on the quality of teacher educators who provide wisdom and competencies. Because all teachers are not born and all born teachers are limited in number, training of teachers at college level draw attention of policy makers at local, national, and international perspectives. Tracing the history of Indian Teacher Education, it has originated from an indigenous system. The Vedic period is the first landmark that witnessed knowledge in the form of Vedas and the Gurukula system was the divine paradise.PROF.S.K.DAS (discusscontribs) 15:13, 23 July 2013 (UTC)Dr. Sanjaya K. Das.Reply[reply]

Licensing[edit source]

Please provide licensing for your picture at: File:10399826 1127097019374 4292147 n.png -Atcovi (Talk - Contribs) 20:18, 11 February 2017 (UTC)Reply[reply]



This Deed of Public Charitable Trust executed by Prof.( Dr.) Sanjaya Kumar Das ( CHAIRMAN-CUM-MANAGING TRUSTEE) S/o Late Shri Nityananda Das & Smt. Prabhasini Das, Educationist & Social Worker by Profession, Aged about 54 years, At- Tikira, P.o- Agarpada, P.S.-Agarpada, Dist- Bhadrak, PIN-756115 in the state of Odisha, India hereinafter called the “settler”( which expression shall, unless excluded by or repugnant to the context, be deemed to include his heirs, executors, administrators and representatives) on one part and (1) Dr. Prasamita Mohanty Daughter of Shri Guru Prasad Mohanty, Educationist & Social Worker by Profession, aged about 50 years, residing at Haripur Road, P.O.-Buxi Bazar, P.S- Puri Ghat, Cuttack-753001, Odisha as VICE-CHAIRPERSON- CUM- SECRETARY (2) Ms. Madhusmita Mohanty Daughter of Shri Guru Prasad Mohanty, Advocate by Profession, aged about 50 years, residing at Haripur Road, P.O.-Buxi Bazar, P.S- Puri Ghat, Cuttack-753001, Odisha as TREASURER (3) Mr. Manoranjan Nayak Son of Late Shri Kshetra Mohan Nayak, Financial Advisor by Profession, aged about 52 years, residing at Block No- C1, Flat No-10/03, New Govt. Colony, Near Sainik School, Bhubaneswar- 751017, Odisha as MEMBER (4) Dr. Keshab Chandra Jena Son of Sh. Narayan Chandra Jena, Archivist by Profession, aged about 53 years , residing at B-44, II Floor, Karan Marg, Green Fields Colony, Faridabad-121010 , Haryana as MEMBER (5) Dr. Pallabi Das Daughter of Dr. Sanjaya Kumar Das & Dr. Prasamita Mohanty, Doctor by Profession, aged about 25 years, residing at Plot No 34/F-1, Sector-1, Vaishali, Ghaziabad- 201010, Uttar Pradesh as TRUSTEE

(6) Ms. Kashish Das Daughter of Dr. Sanjaya Kumar Das & Dr. Prasamita Mohanty , Doctor & Social Worker by Profession, aged about 18 years, residing at Plot No 34/F-1, Sector-1, Vaishali, Ghaziabad-201010, Uttar Pradesh as TRUSTEE And Any other members

Herein after jointly referred to as “trustees”( which expression shall, unless excluded by or repugnant to the context, be deemed to include the trustees for the time being of those presents and their successors in office) whereas the settler is desirous of establishing a public charitable educational trust to carry out meaningful activities for the cause of serving humanity more fully set out in the following clauses and whereas it is necessary to declare the objects and terms of the public charitable education trust, being constituted under these present. Now this trust deed witnesses as follows: (1) NAME That the name of the trust shall be “NITYAPRABHA CHARITABLE & EDUCATIONAL TRUST(NPCET) (here after called the “Trust” In this deed, the expression “the trust” refers to NPCET). But the trustees may draw resolutions to change the trust’s name from time to time as the trustees may deem fit and proper at their discretion. (2) REGISTERED OFFICE Office of the trust shall be situated At-Tikira, Po-Agarpada, Ps-Agarpada, Dist- Bhadrak, Odisha-756115, which may be changed from time to time to such other place or places as the trustees may deem fit and proper at their discretion. (3) SEED MONEY/DEPOSIT That in order to effectuate his aforesaid desire, the settler has set apart and handed over the trustees , a sum of Rs. 10,001/-( hereinafter called the “Trust Fund which expression shall include cash and any other property or investment of any kind whatsoever in to which same or any part thereof might be acquired by the trustees or may come to their hands by virtue of these presents or by operation of law or otherwise howsoever in relation these present), and trustees shall hold and stand possessed of the same upon the trust subject to the power, provisions, agreements and declarations hereinafter contained. (4) ADMINISTRATION The Charitable trust created by this deed NITYAPRABHA CHARITABLE & EDUCATIONAL TRUST (NPCET) shall be administered by trustees (In this deed, the expression “the trustees” refers to the individuals who are the trustees of the trust at any given time. It includes the first trustee and his successors. The word ‘trustee” is used to refer to any one of the trustees.) (5) APPLICATION OF INCOME The Trustees shall stand possessed of the said sum of Rs. 10,001/- (Rupees Ten Thousand and one only) and of all other money and property which may be donated or gifted or given or paid or transferred to them for the said objects and the investments and property from time to time representing the same (hereinafter called “the Trust Fund”) upon trust either to retain or sell the same and invest the proceeds in or upon any investments hereinafter authorized with power from time to time to change such investments for other of a like power, time to time to change such investments for other of a like nature UPON TRUST that both the income and the capital thereof shall be applied at the discretion of the trustees in pursuance of the said objects as hereinafter declared. (6) VISION “SYNCH WITH PRINCIPLES AND VALUES ENSHRISHNED IN THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA, THE TRUST(NPCET) WILL CONTINUE TO SERVE HUMANITY IN TERMS OF CARING, NURTURING & PROMOTING HUMAN RESOURCES THORUGH APPROPRIATE TRANSFORMATIVE MEASURES—EDUCATION, HEALTH & EMPLOYMENT.” (7) MISSION 7.1 Transforming lives and living of rural communities with the support of adequate health, education and employment services.

7.2 Reassuring and ensuring optimal & holistic human resource development in the areas of operation/selected areas or locations or villages.

7.3 Unfolding potentialities of specially focussed groups such as Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Other Backward Communities, Socially and Economically Weaker Sections, Below Poverty Line Population, Differently Abled Population, and Transgender.

7.4 Serving communities in need for shelter, safe drinking water food and economic support.

7.5 Tweaking rural agriculture, economic and other practices in the light of current needs and prevailing norms and standards. (8) OBJECTS/OBJECTIVES 8.1 To establish schools, colleges/higher education institutions/ universities including Technical, Paramedical, Medical & Allied Services to provide quality education from early childhood education to tertiary level of education. 8.2 To establish Vocational Training Centres, Skill Enhancement Training Centres, Employment Guaranteed and Industry Oriented Training Centres and other centres as and when need arises. 8.3 To establish health care centres, nursing homes, dispensaries, and hospitals. 8.4 To provide adequate and desired support and services to old aged people, orphans, girls and women by establishing Old Age Care Centres/Homes, Orphanages, and Centres for Empowerment of Girls and Women. 8.5 The undertake programmes for fulfilment of basic needs like food, clothes, education, health home, drinking water, electricity, communication etc. in an easy smooth and comfort manner for economically backward and weaker section persons of the society. 8.6 To open coaching, study centres, training centres for under graduate, post graduate, professional studies on its own or on franchise basis, manpower ( skilled and unskilled ) supply on contractual basis to various government, aided or private organizations. 8.7 To promote self employment through central and state govt. agencies and developmental project among economically backwards, SHG, Weaker Community, unemployed artisans, professional by implementing support, assistance, negotiation, arrangement facilities along with the support of science and technology. 8.8 To set up institution with programmes for rehabilitation of distress, helpless and poor section, shelter home for old age persons orphans short star homes, hostels for working women’s. Community centres, care and treatment clinics mobile dispensaries for welfare of weaker community. 8.9 To undertake programmes for eradication of child labour, child & women exploitation, women torture, dowry system, use of tobacco, wine & drug, prostitutes, dropouts, violation of human right, consumer protection, blind belief, narrowness in castes, religion, language, anti- socialism, corruption, violation of traffic rules, citizen right, use of fertilizer & pesticides, polythene & chemicals to provide safety, security and to live in peace and discipline in the society. 8.10 To promote yoga and meditation along with spiritual programmes for moral and physical development to build of relation, humanism, co- operation, personality, confidence in body and mind with peace for life and social living through the ideology for divine soul. 8.11 The Chairman and the Managing Trustees shall in his absolute discretion spend such sum of money as he deems proper and for the general welfare of the Trust after being duly empowered through a resolution by the majority of the Trustees or fulfilling the objects of the Trust. 8.12 To establish, support, and provide education & health services to poor girl child and ensuring inculcation of culture, tradition, moral values in them. 8.13 To arrange seminars, conferences, symposiums, awareness camps focussing on development of self confidence & values among girls and women and to ensure protection of their dignity. 8.14 To establish, maintain and run studentships, scholarships and render other kind of aid to students including supply of books, stipends, medals and other incentives to study without any discrimination of Caste, Colour, race, creed or sex. 8.15 To promote, establish, support, maintain or grant in aid to institutions for the promotion of science, literature, music, drama and fine arts for the preservation of historical monuments and for research and other institutions in India having similar objects for the benefit of the public in general. 8.16 To establish and maintain or provide financial support to libraries for the benefit of public in general. 8.17 To establish and maintain research centres equipped with latest technology and tools on various aspects that are connected with human welfare and development. 8.18 To establish, maintain or grant aid for the establishment and/or maintenance of park, gardens, gymnasiums, sports clubs, Dharmashalas, and Rest Houses for use of public in general. 8.19 To establish and maintain educational institutions for differently abled student population and provide them education, food, clothing and/or other desired help including rehabilitation and employment. 8.20 To grant relief and assistance to the needy victims during natural calamities such as famine, earth quake, natural disasters, flood, fire pestilence and to give donations and other assistance to institutions, establishments or persons engaged in such relief work. 8.21 To grant aid or render assistance to other public charitable trusts, registered societies and /or institutions for optimal development of such organizations. 8.22 To establish, promote, setup, run, maintain, assist, finance support and/ or aid to or help in the setting up of and / or maintaining and or running schools for nursery, primary, secondary and higher education including managements, information technology and all type of technical education including managements, information technology and all types of technical education including computers, engineering, medical college and pharmaceutical sciences, systems engineering and architecture. 8.23 To establish, promote, setup, run, maintain, assist finance, support and/ or aid to or help in the setting up and / or maintaining and / or running training schools and other institutions in the field of job oriented, vocational and professional degree, diploma and certificate courses in collaboration with Govt. of India / Govt. of Odisha. 8.24 To open, found, establish, promote, set up run maintain assist finance support and / or aid help in the setting up and / or maintaining and / or running schools, colleges for the most vulnerable section of society, lecture halls, libraries and other establishments or instructions for advancement of educations spread of knowledge in humanities science and all other useful subjects in all their manifestations. 8.25 To grant, pay or give scholarship, stipends, prizes, rewards, allowances and other financial assistance or help in cash or kind students with a view to help them in prosecuting their studies in schools, colleges, educational institutions, technical institutions, art schools, institutions of teaching commercial and other arts including teaching of cultural arts or other training, research or educational works in India or aboard which include doctoral and post doctoral programmes. 8.26 To organize, encourage and initiate socio-economic programmes by poverty alleviation, rehabilitation and social awareness through non- government voluntary organization with the help of trust to develop Human Resources. 8.27 To promote any charitable purposes for the benefits of the inhabitants of India including the relief of poverty, distress and suffering and to attempt total human development and social transformation in the underdeveloped, poverty stricken and neglected rural and urban pockets / areas in India. 8.28 To establish, promote, set up or help in the setting up and / or maintaining and / or running schools, care centres, crèches, orphanages, old age homes short stay homes destitute homes, widow homes, houses for the poor or other establishments for relief and / or help to the poor old and infirm people and / or destitute. 8.29 To establish, grant aid, promote set up, run, maintain, assist, finance, support and / or aid to schools, colleges, training and vocational centres / institutions, lecture halls, boarding, hostels, libraries, reading, rooms, sports, arts and leisure centres / complexes and other establishments and initiatives for advancement of education and knowledge, science and technology, sports, arts and culture etc, and other useful subjects that enable the needy to lead decent human life. 8.30 To open, establish, promote, set up, run, maintain, finance, support and / or aid or help in setting up and / or maintaining and / or running hospitals, charitable dispensaries, drug de-addition centres, mental health care centres, maturity homes, child welfare centres, hostels and other similar institutions / centers for rendering or providing medical service / relief and / or aid to the suffering humanities or for research centers and institutions for promotion of research education for new medical science / health promotion. 8.31 To promote better health and nutritional status among the needy and poor and promote and improvise the Ayurvedic, Homeopathic and Naturopathic medicines and treatment practices for sustainable health care as well as to undertake special projects / programs / camps for medicinal plant blood donation, eye camps, integrated health services, control of STD, HIV / AIDS, Malaria, TB, Ammonia, water borne disease, blindness and other diseases for better health of the poor. 8.32 To provide and or render help and assistance in cash or kind to poor and or destitute people, widows and other needy people for relief of their sufferings. 8.33 To bring awareness and initiate appropriate actions for employment & income generation, self reliance, sustainable development, protection of human rights, environment protection, socio-economic, education and create awareness on various government / non-government schemes / programmes meant for socio-economic and cultural development of the poor and to co-operate with the government departments and other agencies for effective implementation of poverty reduction, income generation and welfare / developmental programmes and realization of basic rights and entitlements by the poor. 8.34 To take all necessary steps / initiatives for socio-economic, educational, political and cultural development of the tribes / indigenous people and work for protection and promotion of their rights, their lives and livelihood and to undertake research and studies relevant to the target groups with the aim to searching alternative development strategies and fulfil the objects of the trust. 8.35 To organize meetings, workshops, trainings, seminars, discussions, conventions, conferences, camps, demonstrations, exhibitions, symposia and other such programs on social and developmental issues & for furtherance of the said objects of the trust. 8.36 To disseminate information regarding the aim, objects and activities of the trust & to edit, print, publish and exhibit and circulate books, booklets, posters and leaflets etc. and open, run and maintain libraries, documentation and resource centres for furtherance of the objects of the trust. 8.37 To initiate/take up all other lawful activities as may be incidental to or conducive to the attainment of the above cited objects of the trust.

(9) POWERS In furtherance of the said objects but not otherwise the trustees shall have the following powers.

9.1 To raise funds and invite and receive contributions from any person or persons, agency or agencies or institution or institutions, government or private bodies within and outside India whatsoever by way of donation, subscription, Grant, loan and otherwise in lawful means for the said objects. 9.2 To purchase, take on lease or in exchange hire or otherwise acquire any property and rights and privileges necessary for the attainment of the said objects and to construct, maintain and alter any buildings or erections so necessary as aforesaid. 9.3 Subject to such consents as may be required bye-law to sell, let, mortgage, lease of otherwise dispose of all or any part of the property or assets belonging to the trust. 9.4 Subject to complying the provision as may be required by law to borrow money and to charge the whole or any part of the property belonging to the trust. 9.5 To co-operate and collaborate with other charities, voluntary bodies and statutory authorities and to exchange information and advice and undertake developmental programmes with them. 9.6 To establish or support any charitable trust, associations or intuitions formed for any of the said charitable objects. 9.7 To acquire, merge or enter into any partnership or joint venture arrangement with any other voluntary / charitable organization formed for any of the objects. 9.8 To create such advisory committees as the trustees think fit and proper. 9.9 To employ and pay any person or persons including lawyer, manager, solicitors, auditor, engineer or other employees to manage, supervise, organize and carry on the work of the trust as authorized by the trustees. 9.10 To arrange and provide for or join in arranging and providing for the holding of exhibitions, meetings, lectures, seminars and training courses etc. 9.11 To establish and manage local branches / field offices. 9.12 To invest trust money’s not immediately required for the said objects in or upon such investments by the terms of this Deed as the trustees may in their discretion deem fit and proper. 9.13 The trustees may from time to time frame schemes and rules and regulations to carry out the objects of the trust and otherwise for giving effects to the objects of the trust and very the same from time to time as the trustees may in their discretion deem fit and proper. 9.14 If the present Chairman-cum-Managing Trustee becomes inactive or in case of demise/death, Dr. Prasamita Mohanty will be the next Chairperson-cum Managing Trustee and will hold the chair. If Dr. Prasamita Mohanty becomes inactive or in case of her demise/death Dr Pallabi Das and Ms. Kashish Das (both) will be Managing Trustees and will hold office as Chairperson and Vice Chairperson respectively. 9.15 The trustees shall be entitled at their discretion from time to time to start, discontinue, abolish and re-start any charity or charitable institution to impose any condition or conditions to any subscription or donation made by them and to earmark any portion of the trust property or income for any particular object or objects. (10) STATUTORY POWERS As required by the law, the trustees to take advice and to consider the need to invest in a range of different investments, the employment of agents, nominees and custodians while engaging its statutory powers.

(11) DELEGATION 11.1 The trustees shall have the power the delegate any of their powers of functions to office bearers or a committee of two or more trustees. The office bearers or the committee must act in accordance with any directions given by the trustees. The office bearers and / or the committee must report its decisions and activities fully and promptly to the trustees. 11.2 The trustees must exercise their powers jointly at properly convened meetings except where they have :

              11.2.1 Delegated the exercise of the powers (either under this            provision or under any statutory provision) or

11.2.2 Made some other arrangements, by regulations under clause 26. 11.3 The trustees must consider from time to time whether the powers or functions which they have delegated should continue to be delegated. (12) DUTY OF CARE AND EXTENT OF LIABILITY

      When exercising any power (whether given to them by this deed, or by statute, or by any role of law) in administering or managing the trust, each of the trustees must use the level of care and skill that is reasonable in the circumstances, taking into account any special knowledge or experience that he or she has or claims to have (the duty of care). No trustee, and no one exercising powers or responsibilities that have been delegated by the trustees, shall be liable for any act or failure to act unless, in acting or in failing to act, he or she has failed to discharge the duty of care.

(13) APPOINTMENT OF TRUSTEES 13.1 There must be least three trustees. Apart from the first trustees, every trustee must be appointed by a resolution of the trustees passed at a special meeting called under clause 15 of this deed. 13.2 In selecting individuals for appointment as trustees, the trustees must have regard to the skills, knowledge and experience needed for the effective administration of the trust. 13.3 The trustees must keep a record of the name and address and the dates of appointment, re-appointment and retirement of each trustee. 13.4 The trustees must make available to each new trustee, on his or her first appointment. 13.4.1 A copy of this deed and any amendments made to it. 13.4.2 A copy of the trust’s latest report and statement of accounts. 13.5 The first trustees shall hold office till they retire, die, wish to leave or not able to give time for trust. 13.6 The successors and or new additional trustees will also be as trustees till they retire, die, wish to leave or not able to give time for trust. 13.7 On a new additional trustee being appointed and on his / her signifying his / her acceptance in writing to the effect of this accepting the appointment the trust property shall automatically vest in him / her along with other trustees for the time being and he/ she will entitled to carry out all the duties and functions of a trustee without any other deed or writing. (14) ELEGIBILITY FOR TRUSTEESHIP 14.1 No one shall be appointed as a trustee. 14.1.1 If he or she is under the age of 18 years or 14.1.2 If he or she would at once be disqualified from office under the provisions of relevant clause of this deed. 14.2 No one shall be entitled to act as a trustee whether on appointment or on any reappointment as trustee until he or she has expressly acknowledge, in whatever way the trustees decide, his or her acceptance of the office of trustee of the trust. (15) TERMINATION OF TRUSTEESHIP A trustee shall cease to hold office if he or she : i) Being an un-discharged insolved or convicted of an offence involving moral turpitude or unsound mind or becomes bankrupt. ii) Is disqualified from acting as a trustee by virtue of the appropriate law. iii) Becomes incapable by reason of mental disorder, illness or injury of managing his or her own affairs or dies. iv) Is absent without the permission of the trustees from all their meetings held within a period of twelve months and the trustees resolve that his or her office be vacated


Resigns from trusteeship (but only if two-third trustees will remain in office when the notice of resignation becomes effective to form a quorum for meetings). (16) VACANCIES

    If a vacancy occurs the trustees must note the fact in the minutes of their next meeting. Any eligible trustee may be re-appointed. So long as there are lower than three trustees, none of the powers or discretions conferred by the deed or by law on the trustees shall be exercised by the remaining trustees except the power to appoint new trustees.


  The trustees must hold at least two ordinary meetings and an annual meeting each year. One such meeting in each year must involve the physical presence of those trustees who attend the meeting. Other meetings may take such from, including online meetings/video-conferencing, as the trustees decide provided that the form chosen enables the trustees both to see and to hear each other.


    The trustees must arrange at each of their meetings the date, time and place of their next meeting, unless such arrangements have already been made, ordinary meetings may also be called at any time by the Vice Chairperson-cum-Secretary of the Trust in consultation with the Chairman or by any two trustees. In that case, not less than ten days clear notice must be given to the other trustees.


  A special meeting may be called at any time by the Secretary in consultation with the Chairman of the trust or by any two trustees. Not less than four days clear notice must be given to the other trustees of the matters to be discussed at the meeting. However, if those matters include the appointment of a trustee or a proposal to amend any of the trusts of this deed, not less than 15 days notice must be given a special meeting may be called to take place immediately after or before an ordinary meeting.

(20) BOARD OF TRUSTEES 20.1 The Board of Trustees consists of all the trustees of the trust. 20.2 The Board of Trustees shall have the entire control and the management of the business and affairs of the trust and the administration of all its properties movable and immovable, and shall have such power of the trust and do all such things to carry out the objects of the trust. 20.3 Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing powers and without restricting or reducing the powers of implementation vested in the trust under the deed the Board of Trust is empowered to do execute and perform all the acts, deeds and things as are set out in the deed of the trust as if the same related power of the trustees and were specifically enumerated and set out in the deed.


21.1 THE CHAIRMAN-CUM-MANAGING TRUSTEE : 21.1.1 The Chairman-Cum-Managing Trustee shall preside over all the meetings of the Board of Trustees and other meetings of the Trust. He may delegate his power to any trustee to conduct meetings on his / her behalf. In his / her absence the trustees will select a person among them to preside over the meeting. 21.1.2 In case of equality of votes in any of the meetings mentioned above, the chairman shall have casting vote. 21.1.3 The Chairman-Cum-Managing Trustee shall ensure the functioning of the trust and the implementation of the policies and decisions of the trust through the Director of the Trust. 21.1.4 The Chairman-Cum-Managing Trustee can direct any trustee to continue as the trustee even after its expiry till new trustee is found. 21.1.5 The Chairman-Cum-Managing Trustee will be responsible for implementation of the policies and decisions of the trust as decided by the board of trustees and also look after the day to day functions of the trust. 21.1.6 The Chairman-Cum-Managing Trustee has power to dismiss any staffs, consultants and volunteers at any time for indiscipline, misconduct, negligence, inefficiency and lack of attention after seeking explanation and informing them the reasons for the same. 21.1.7 The Chairman-Cum-Managing Trustee shall keep a record of the minutes of proceedings of every meeting and so recorded and signed shall be receivable in evidence of the proceedings there in recorded without further proof. 21.1.8 The Chairman-Cum-Managing Trustee shall prepare the annual budget of the trust in consultation with the treasurer and present the same before the board of trustees for approval. 21.1.9 The Chairman-Cum-Managing Trustee will act as the chief spoke person of the trust and represent the trust in different forums, meetings and other events and various bodies / agencies as required from time to time for the best interest of the trust in fulfilling its objects. 21.2 THE VICE-CHAIRPERSON-CUM-SECRETARY 21.2.1 The Vice-Chairperson-cum- Secretary shall call the ordinary and / or Special Meetings in consultation with the Chairman of the Trust. 21.2.2 To carry out the development / charitable works within the frame work of the trust deed, the director can employ staffs, consultants and volunteers. However the information to this effect will be communicated to the board of trustees in the succeeding meeting of the board of trustees according to order of the Chairman-Cum- Managing Trustee. 21.2.3 The Vice-Chairperson-cum- Secretary under the guidance of the Chairman-cum-Managing Trustee is responsible for implementing polices as laid down by the board of trustees. 21.2.4 The Vice-Chairperson-cum- Secretary shall prepare the annual budget of the trust in consultation with the Treasurer and present the same before the board of trustees for approval. 21.2.5 The Vice-Chairperson-cum- Secretary shall prepare the Annual Report and Action plan of the trust and present the same before the board of trustees for approval. 21.3 THE TREASURER 21.3.1 The Treasurer shall maintain or cause to be maintained the account of the trust in a proper manner. 21.3.2 The Treasurer shall credit all receipts to the trust’s account and incurred expenditure from the trust’s funds under proper sanction of the board of trustees. 21.3.3 The Treasurer shall maintain record of funds, properties and liabilities of the trust. 21.3.4 The Treasurer shall assist the director to prepare the annual budget and supplementary budget of the trust. 21.3.5 The Treasurer shall get the annual accounts of the trust audited by duly approved auditors and under direction of the director place the accounts before the board of trustees for their endorsement. (22) QUORUM

22.1 Subject to the following provision of this clause, no business shall be conducted at a meeting of the trustees unless at least one third of the total number of trustees at the time, or trustee (whichever is the greater) are present throughout the meeting. 22.2 The trustees may make regulations specifying different quorums for meetings dealing with different types of business. (23) VOTINGS At meetings, decisions must be made by a majority of the trustees present and voting on the question. The person chairing the meeting shall have a casting vote whether or not he or she has voted previously on the same question but no trustee in any other circumstances shall have more than one vote. (24) CONFLICT OF INTEREST A trustee must absent himself or herself from any discussions of the trustees in which it is possible that a conflict will arise between his or her duty to act solely in the interests of the trust and any personal interest (including but not limited to any personal financial interest). (25) MINUTES The trustees must keep minutes, in books kept for the purpose or by such other means as the trustees decide, of the proceeding at their meetings. In the minutes the trustees must record their decisions and, where appropriate, the reasons for those decision. The trustees must approve the minutes in accordance with the procedures, laid down in regulations made under clause 26 of this deed. (26) GENERAL POWER TO MAKE REGULATIONS The trustees may from time to time make regulations for the management of the trust and for the conduct of their business, including. 26.1 The calling of meetings 26.2 Methods of making decisions in order to deal with cases or urgency when a meeting is impractical. 26.3 The deposit of money at a bank. 26.4 The custody of documents and 26.5 The keeping and authenticating of records. (If regulations made under this clause permit records of the trust to be kept in electronic form and requires a trustee to sign the record, the regulations must specify a method of recording the signature that enables it to be property authenticated). 26.6 The trustees must not make regulations which are inconsistent with anything in this deed. (27) FINANCIAL YEAR, ACCOUNTS, BANK ACCOUNT, AUDIT, ANNUAL REPORT AND ANNUAL RETURN 27.1 The financial year of the trust shall be the end of 31st March, every year provided that the board of trustees shall at liberty of change the same from time to time if they deem fit and proper. 27.2 The trustees shall cause true and accurate account to be kept of all the moneys received and spent and off all matters in respect thereof in course of management of trust properties or in relation to carrying out of objects and purpose of the trust as well as of all the assets, credits and effects of the trust properties. 27.3 If the income of the trust properties of a particular year is not fully utilized, the unutilized income subject to the applicable provision of Income Tax Act. 1961 shall be carried over to the next year and spent in such subsequent year or years for advancement, of the objects of the trust. 27.4 The trustees shall keep an account or accounts with any nationalized bank of Banks or co-operative society or societies to operate such accounts, whether in debt or in credit and to give all appropriate instruction (s) to the banker or bankers or head of the society or societies concerning the operation of such account or accounts. 27.5 Any bank or co-operative society account in which any of the funds of the trust are deposited must be operated by the office bearers of the trust and / or by any two trustees and held in the name of the trust. Unless the regulations of the trustees make other provision, all cheques and orders for the payment of money from such an account shall be signed by at least two office bearers and / or trustee. The joint account will open or operate according to order to Chairman-cum-Managing Trustee and the Board. 27.6 The Treasurer in consultation with the Vice-Chairperson-cum-Secretary should prepared the annual statements of accounts and take all necessary steps for auditing of the accounts of the trust, unless and otherwise the trustees make other provisions and authorize other trustee or trustees to prepare the accounts for audit. The accounts of the trust shall be audited by a qualified auditor or government auditor annually. A copy of the audit report will be sent to respective funding agencies as well as to concern government authority or authorities. 27.7 The Vice-Chairperson-cum-Secretary of the trust shall take appropriate steps for preparation of an annual report, presentation in the meeting of the Board of Trustees for its approval and its submission of the approved annual report to concern agencies or bodies and / or appropriate government authorities. 27.8 Vice-Chairperson-cum-Secretary will take all necessary action for preparation of an annual returns, its approval from the trustees and its submission to appropriate government authorities. (28) LEGAL ACTION The Chairman-cum-Managing Trustee may sue or be sued on behalf of the trust for movable and immovable properties. The legal jurisdiction of any dispute shall be Bhadrak, Odisha, India.

(29) TRUSTEES NOT TO BENEFIT FINANCIALLY FROM THEIR RUSTEESHIP 29.1 No trustee may receive remuneration for any service provided to the trust and no trustee may acquire any interest in property belonging to the trust or be interested in any contract entered into by the trustee otherwise than as a trustee of the trust. 29.2 Any trustee who is a solicitor, accountant or engaged in any profession may charge and be paid all the usual professional charges for business done by him or her or his or her firm, when instructed by the other trustees to act in a professional capacity on behalf of the charity. However, at no time may a majority of the trustees benefit under this provision and a trustee must withdraw from any meeting of the trustees at which his or her own instruction or remuneration or performance, or that of this or her firm, is under discussion.


          The trustees may keep in repair and insure to their full value against fire and other usual risks all the buildings of the trust (except those buildings that are required to be kept in repair and insured by a tenant) and valuable belongings of the trust. They must also insure suitably in respect of public liability and employer’s liability.


           The trustees may use the trust’s funds to meet any necessary and reasonable expenses which they incur in the course of carrying out their responsibilities as trustees of the trust.

(32) AMENDMENT OF TRUST DEED 32.1 The trustees may amend the provisions of this deed, provided that no amendment may be made whose effect is that the trust ceases to be a trust at law. 32.2 Any amendment of this deed must be made by deed following a decision of the trustees made at a special meeting.

(33) FUND 33.1 The trust shall raise its funds : 33.1.1 By receiving Donations from Public Bodies, Corporations, Companies, Business Houses, Institutions, Trusts, Foundations and individuals. 33.1.2 By receiving Foreign Contributions from donors whose objectives are in conformity with the aims and objects of the trust. 33.1.3 By receiving Grant-in-Aid from the agencies working in India and foreign country committed for bringing relief from poverty, distress and suffering and development and uplift of the poor. 33.1.4 By negotiating with Local Bodies, Universities, Colleges, Schools and other institutions, Government Departments / Agencies International Agencies. Multilateral Bodies, National and International Industrial Houses, Business Communities and Donor Agencies of India and Foreign Countries to receive fund and materials for the implementation of all its programmes and activities under the frame work of its objects. 33.1.5 By sale of Publication and other legally permitted products for raising fund for particular cause under the frame work of its objects. 33.2 The trust may accept loans and advances from individuals, Government Bodies, Banks, Agencies, Organizations, Corporations. Trusts, Local Bodies, Financial Institutions and other sources to undertake development projects and for such purpose as decided by the Board of Trust under the frame work of the objects of the trust. It may undertake business / production / marketing and / or organizing cultural and / or sports and / or any public events or activities for raising fund and for furtherance of the specific objects of the trust during a specific period of time and for specific purpose. (34) CUSTODY OF DOCUMENTS

           The Chairman-Cum-Managing Trustee or  his / her nominee or any other Trustees if so authorized by the Board of Trustees shall have the custody of documents, deed of title regarding the Trust properties and investment, books of title regarding the Trust properties and investment, books of accounts and other records relating to the Trust and shall be responsible for the preservation of the same.


            For a proper and efficient administration of the Trust and for the furtherance of the objects of the trust.

35.1 The trustees may appoint experts, nominate advisors and secure their service and advises in the interest of the trust and incur necessary expenditures therefore. 35.2 The Board of Trustees may appoint committee or committees and entrust with them the powers to execute or administer the projects under taken by the Board while carrying out the objects of the Trust and incur necessary expenses therefore. (36) EXCLUSION OF THE SETTLER AND IRREVOCABILITY

          It is hereby specifically declared that all the trust property and income thereof shall be used only for the purposes specified in this deed of the settler and no part of the trust property or income thereof shall be paid to or applied for the benefit of the settler in any circumstances whatsoever. The settler has no right, title or interest whatsoever in the trust property and hereby declares that he has reserved no benefit for himself, and further declared that this is an irrevocable trust.


           The trustees may dissolve the trust if they decide that it is necessary or desirable to do so. To be effective, a proposal to dissolve the trust must be passed at a special meeting by a two-thirds majority of the trustees. Any assets of the trust that are left after the trust’s debts have been paid (the net assets) must be given.

37.1 To another trust (or other trusts / societies) with objects that are no wider than the trust’s own, for the general purposes of the recipient trust (or trusts / societies) ; or 37.2 To any trust / society for use for particular purposes which fall within the trust’s objects. (38) INTERPRETATION

          In   this   deed,   all   references to particular   understood   as references to legislation in force at the date of this deed and also to any subsequent legislation that adds to, mediates or replaces that legislation.

Counting Footprints of Indian Scholars in European Academic Research Journal—Rarest Review[edit source]

Abstract: The present article is merely a review of scholarly contributions made by Indian academia and meaningfully showcased in the Multidisciplinary Research Journal of European Academic Research (EAR). Credit goes to the editor and editorial team members for their interest in promoting Indian writings and thoughts in variety of disciplines. The author was honoured to be a member of the International Advisory Board ( of the journal) and tried to determine the trend in professionalism among Indian scholars, due to which attempt has been made to review a total of 113 articles and research papers being published since April 2013 through March 2014. Drawn from more than two dozens of disciplines, quite striking number of scholars have employed multidisciplinary approaches while a large number of authors have formulated research objects either through one or two disciplines. With respect to frequencies on scholarly contributions, a linear trend is noticed from first issue through eleventh issue. The trend that emerged out from the review process is that frequencies on Sociological perspective and literature related articles are highest and both of these disciplines accounted for more than half of total reviewed articles. Education, Pedagogy and Psychology discipline related articles are covering up about 15 percent, while other disciplines contributed towards the rest. Keeping the trends in full view, author tried to conclude that Indian academia prefer to demonstrate more on sociological and literature related contributions, may be because of effects of knowledge economy and information technologies. In order to make the approach more holistic and comprehensive to serve heavily towards the mission and vision of the journal, a demand for scientific and technology related research communications is generated. Therefore, the present reviewer solicited more scholarly contributions from environment, health, science, and technology related disciplines.

Key words: Indian academia, European Academic Research, multidisciplinary approach, Sociology, Literary Studies, Education, Pedagogy, Psychology, Sciences.

'Sikkim State Higher Education (SSHE) in India— Visionary Monologues of Koottathuppatty Natarajan Sundaram Mudaliar '[edit source]

Abstract: The present article is documented with five sections being originated from review process the book titled “Current Scenario of Higher Education in Sikkim” authored by Dr. KNS Mudaliar and published by the SRM University, Sikkim. Sikkim State Higher Education-- a promising sector for harvesting more with low expenditure on Employment Based Education is a visionary monologue by the author, set to open up new vistas to livelihood through education. The book is an educational panorama that provides a gestalt view on current state of higher education in Sikkim. Pictures that are depicted on the cover page provide a gross outlook of how challenging for the state to educate its citizenry. The blurb is being meaningfully articulated a paragraph where the author has submitted that the book describes origin and development of institutions imparting higher education in the state and gives emphasis on their present status. The author has claimed that an analysis has been made on the prospects of the SSHE during 21st century. The back side of cover page contains the profile of the author has been lucidly articulated. An Emeritus Scientist; recipient of Padmashree, Bharat Bhusan, Padma Vibhusan, Professor M.S. Swaminathan’s foreword on the book highlights significance of higher education, in general, in terms of cultivating humanism, tolerance, reasoning, adventure of ideas, and search of truth. Published by Sri

Professional Ethics Grow with Teaching Experience: A Study of Women Teachers in Higher Education Institutions of Punjab[edit source]

Parenting Pattern Leads to Adolescents’ Depression through Academic Load in Competitive and Regular Course Examinations[edit source]

World Academy of Leadership for Professional Excellence[edit source]

With the vision of addressing to emerging needs of professionals across countries in the world and practicing the philosophy of oneness( The whole world is one) idea of establishing "World Academy of Leadership for Professional Excellence" is came into existence which has mission to create a forum among leaders of institutions and industries at global level.

Professional Development &Engagement Needs Assessment Questionnaire for Faculty Members of HEIs[edit source]

Genesis of the PDE Plan

There is a dire need to establish a mechanism/ecosystem to ensure continuing and sustained professional development of faculty members to shine in academics and allied activities. Alike ours, higher education across nations is under pressure to transform. It is growing at a faster pace and its salutary contribution to economic success is found to be vital. The universities and Higher Education Institutions are established to create knowledge, to improve equity, and to respond to students’ needs. Higher Education Institutions are increasingly competing for students, funds, resources and academic staff. Hence there is a dire need for looking at models of innovation within and outside of higher education. We need to transform our faculty members to be true academic leaders and to leverage those faculty who have passion for welcoming transformations and transitions.

Institutional effectiveness is a tri-polar paradigm that demands continuous & constructive interaction between teachers and students; and judicious utilization of resources.  Developing institutions as effective learning communities where effective pedagogical practices are developed and shared. Quality teaching in higher education matters most for student learning outcomes. Higher Education Institutions are increasingly competing for students, funds, resources and academic staff. Institutions need to ensure that the education they offer should meet the expectations of students and stakeholders both today and for the future. In order to achieve this noble goal of higher education institutions, professional development and engagement of teachers has become absolute today as to prepare students for the future.  Therefore, there is a dire need to transform academic fraternity to be true academic leaders and to leverage those faculty who have passion for welcoming transformations and transitions. With this mission, Professional Development &Engagement  Needs Assessment Questionnaire for Faculty Members of HEIs is designed to assist academic staff higher education institution, university leaders and practitioners in fostering quality teaching.

Designed by Prof.( Dr.) S.K.Das         


Professional Development &Engagement  Needs Assessment Questionnaire for Faculty Members of HEIs

(For University Teaching Faculty)

Name …………………………………………………………. Employment ID…………………………Subject…………………………Gender…………………

(A) Background Information

Following questions are related to you and your profile in Chandigarh University (CU). Please encircle/write in the appropriate box.

S. No. Questions Preferences/Choices
1 How old are you? <25       25-34         35-44             45-54                   55-64
2 In what capacity are you working? Lecturer Asst. Prof Asso. Prof     Prof. Any other
3 What is your level of education?  P.G.  P.G. +         M.Phil.     Ph.D.  D.Lit./D.Sc.
4 Are you qualified? JRF NET SLET SET Any other
5 What is your total years of work experience? < 1 years   2-3 years   4-6 years 7-9 Years  10 years>
6 How long have you been associated with the University?  < 1 year   1-3  4-6  7-9  9 years>
7 How do you rate learning culture of the University? Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor
8 How do you feel about academic environment at University? Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor
9 How many hours of load/weekly   (teaching/research/ both)  currently you have? Only Teaching=

Only Research=

Teaching+ Research=

10 Are you currently pursuing any higher studies? Yes No Mention the Course:

(B)  Information about you as a learner

As a learner, you might have experiences on following acts/occurrences/events. Please put a tick mark in the appropriate box that suits most to your experience.

S. No Act/Occurrence/Event Never Often Always
1 I remember something better if I write it down.
2 When trying to remember someone’s telephone number, or something new like that, it helps me to get a picture of it in my mind.    
3 Using flashcards helps me to retain material for tests.
4 It’s hard for me to understand a joke when someone tells me.
5 It is better for me to get work done in a quiet place.
6 It helps to use my finger as a pointer when reading to keep my place.
7 I understand how to do something if someone tells me, rather than having to read the same thing to myself.
8 I remember things that I hear, rather than things that I see or read.
9 Writing is tiring.  I press down too hard with my pen or pencil.
10 It’s hard for me to read other people’s handwriting.
11 I don’t like to read directions; I’d rather just start doing.
12 I learn best when I am shown how to do something, and I have the opportunity to do it.
13 Studying at a desk is not for me.
14 I find myself needing frequent breaks while studying.
15 I think better when I have the freedom to move around.

(C) Information about you as a teacher (Generic)

Please encircle/put a tick mark on the appropriate answer (mentioned in the box) against each of the following abilities which you might have experienced as a teacher.

S. No. Abilities Preferences/Choices/Options
1 A teacher can be successful if he/she……….. Helps students in becoming better citizens Imparts subject knowledge to students Prepares students to pass the examination Presents the subject matter in a well-organized manner
2 By which of the following methods the true evaluation of the students is possible? Evaluation at the end of the course Evaluation twice a year Continuous evaluation Formative evaluation
3 Research has shown that the most frequent symptom of nervous instability among teachers is………… Digestive upsets
Explosive behaviour
4 The essence of an effective classroom environment is A variety of teaching aids Lively student-teacher interaction Pin-drop silence Strict discipline
5 A teacher is said to be fluent in asking questions, if he can ask Meaningful questions As many questions as possible Maximum number of questions in a fixed time Many meaningful questions in a fixed time
6 For maintaining an effective discipline in the class, the teacher should Allow students to do what they like Deal with the students strictly Give the students some problems to solve Deal with them politely and firmly
7 Moral values can be effectively inculcated among the students when the teacher…. Frequently talks about values Himself/herself practices them Tells stories of great persons Talks of Gods and Goddesses
8 Which one of the following is the most important quality of a good teacher? Punctuality and sincerity Content mastery Content mastery and reactive Content mastery and sociable
9 The most important quality of a good teacher is Sound knowledge of subject matter Good communication skills Concern for student's welfare Effective leadership qualities
10 The teacher's role at the higher educational level is to: Provide information to students Promote self-learning in students Encourage healthy competition among students Help students to solve their personal problems

(D)  Information about you as a teacher (Advanced)

You are required to rate  1 to 5 ( Poor, Fair, Good, Very Good, Excellent) on following attributes and put a tick mark in  the appropriate box,  and in case you don’t possess any of these then please put  a tick mark in the last column as NA( Not applicable).



Attributes 1 2 3 4 5
1 I appear to be interested, confident, energetic, and friendly.
2 I am completely engaged/involved and dramatic while teaching.
3 I maintain a quick lesson pace
4 I insist students to achieve success
5 I use movement to maintain interest and attention.
6 I  greet students by name.
7 I pass smile frequently in the class.
8 I encourage students to approach with any topic or problem.
9 I ensure that all students are successful.
10 I learn about and comment upon students’ life.
11 I am open, honest and equitable.
12 I clearly define expectations.
13 I set reasonable but attainable expectations
14 I provide extended and well organized explanations.
15 I provide extensive, frequent, and specific feedback.
16 I use positive comments about student abilities.
17 I am aware of problems associated with students and suggest remedial measures.
18 I help students work through their own problems and evaluate their own work.
19 I am goal-oriented, serious, and deliberate.
20 I am well organized.
21 I establish clear academic goals and communicate them to students.
22 I treat academic content seriously and respectfully.
23 I am professional educator and maintain professionalism.
24 I carefully consider students characteristics, attributes, preferences, and interests when planning instruction
25 I systematically and carefully monitor student learning (both verbal and non-verbal) and adjust instruction accordingly.

(E)  Being a professional, please rate yourself on following skills.

Rating Pattern: Never (1), Rarely (2), Sometimes (3) Often (4) Always (5)

S. No. Skills      Ratings
1 2 3 4 5
1 I am confident of communicating in English.
2 I am confident in both verbal and non-verbal communication in English.
3 I use context clues when I encounter unfamiliar/difficult words during reading any material.
4 I am comfortable expressing my ideas on any platform.
5 When someone makes me angry I deal with them while still angry.
6 I become impatient with people who do not express their thoughts and opinions clearly.
7 I can get to the solution of the problem without regard to underlying interests or motivations.
8 When I’m negotiating with someone I view them as an opponent.
9 I believe the words I choose in communication with another person convey most of my message.
10 When I listen carefully to what someone is saying to me I can predict what their conclusion will be.
11 When I’m not sure about what someone is saying to me, rather than ask questions, I’ll wait to learn more.
12 When someone gives me instructions and asks, “do you understand,” I say “yes” even if I’m not entirely sure.
13 Effective communication can be achieved simply by taking turns talking.
14 When I’m locked in an argument with someone I view them as an opponent, and I think in terms of win/lose.
15 When I initiate a discussion of something important to me and want to be sure it makes an impact, I invite the other person to explain their viewpoint before I present mine.
16 I ask for more information about why a particular demand is being made to explore for underlying interests and ask why a position is important.
17 I listen fully and affirm that I understand what the other person has said as a sign of respect to the speaker.
18 When I ask questions for clarification, they tend to be open ended and cannot be answered with a simple “yes” or “no” response.
19 The best way to get the listening I need is to make the other person feel listened to first.
20 In negotiations I try to direct the focus away from stated positions and explore for interests and common solutions.
21 I practice direct communication by using “I” statements, such as, “I think…,” “I feel…,” “I need….”
22 I look past a person’s opinion of what solution is necessary to solve the problem to get to their needs and underlying interests.
23 When someone says something I’m not sure about I ask for clarification.
24 I restate the essence of the speaker’s message in my own words as a way of checking on the accuracy of what has been heard.
25 I believe in assertiveness but not in aggression.
26 I prefer to coordinate, cooperate and collaborate in profession.
27 I delegate duties/tasks among co-workers/colleagues.
28 I believe in giving and receiving constructive feedback.
29 I prefer to understand and share the feelings of colleague.
30 I share information and ideas as much as I can.

(F)  Please put a tick mark (√) in the appropriate box (i ) if you have participated in any of the following PDE activities in last 1-5 years, ( ii)  rate the impact factor of these activities on your professional development, and  (iii) mention level of attainment of each of these professional development activities.

Ratings on Impact factor         –(1) No impact ,( 2) Fair impact, (3) Moderate impact, (4) High impact

Ratings on Level of attainment – (1) Awareness (2) Understanding, (3) Engagement, (4) Integration

S. No. Professional Development and Engagement Activities (i) Participation (ii)

Impact Factor


Level of Attainment

Yes No 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 Informal dialogues
2 Courses and workshops
3 Reading professional literature
4 Education conferences / seminars/symposiums/
5 Professional development network
6 Individual and collaborative research
7 Mentoring and peer observation
8 Observation visit to other departments/institutions/universities
9 Qualification programs( Degree Programs)
10 Courses/ Programs conducted by NPTEL
11 Courses/  FDPs conducted by ATAL
12 Courses conducted by Swayam
13 Refresher program conducted by Academic Staff Colleges( ASC)/Human Resource Development Center( HRDC)
14 Orientation program conducted by ASC/HRDC
15 Training programs conducted by STRIDE, IGNOU, New Delhi.
16 Training Programs conducted by CEC-UGC, New Delhi
17 Training Programs conducted by CEMCA
18 Training Programs conducted by CIET, NCERT.
19 Training Programmes/Workshops/Seminars/Conferences by NIEPA, New Delhi
20 Training and Capacity Building Program conducted by ICSSR
21 Training Program conducted by Indian Institute of Entrepreneurship (IIE), Govt. of India.
22 Skill Development Training/Capacity Building Programs conducted by Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India Ahmedabad.
23 Faculty Development Programs organized by Indian Science, Technology & Innovation, DST, Govt. of India.
24 Faculty Development Programs conducted by National Science & Technology Entrepreneurship Development Board,(NSTEDP), GOI.
25 Faculty Development Programs conducted by IIM, Ahmedabad.
26 Faculty Development Programs conducted by IIM, Bengaluru.
27 Faculty Development Programs conducted by IIM, Indore.
28 Faculty Development Programs conducted by IIT, Madras.
29 Online courses conducted by Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru.
30 Courses conducted by NITTTRs.

(G) If you have not participated in above cited PDE activities then mention reason for which you have not participated.

S. No. Reasons Choose the appropriate one(s)
1 Conflict with work schedule
2 No suitable professional development
3 Family responsibilities
4 PDE programs are too expensive
5 Lack of employer support
6 Did not have prerequisites for undertaking professional development activities
7 Have no interest in such activities
8 Professional development programs don’t have much impact on career growth
9 Too outdated to participate/ take up such program
10 Any other

(H)  Keeping your own professional development and engagement needs, please indicate the extent to which you have such needs            in each of the following areas. Please mark one choice in each row.

S. No. Major Areas of Professional Development & Engagement No need            at all Low


of need



of need

High level

of need

1 Knowledge and Society : a Historical Perspective
2 Education as potent instrument of  sustainable development
3 Understanding History of Education in India
4 Philosophy of education versus Educational philosophy
5 Relevance of Philosophy for Teaching and Research
6 Contribution of various schools of philosophical thought towards educational development
7 Academic leadership in Upanishads and its relevance
8 Vedanta and Academic Leadership
9 Kinship between Psychology and Education
10 Education as a sub-system of society
11 Sociology of the Classroom: A micro interpretative approach
12 Education, social change, and  social stratification
13 Technology of Education versus Technology in Education
14 Politics of Education—Educational Policies versus Practices
15 Evolution of University system
16 Higher Education ad Nation Building
17 Higher Education: Challenges and Opportunities
18 Current challenges and opportunities in Indian higher education - implications for the everyday classroom
19 Evolution of the higher education sector of India

(Indian higher education- structure, function and proposed reforms under NEP2020)

20 National and global trends in higher education
21 Ecosystem around the University – Union Ministry of Education, State Departments of Higher Education, UGC, NAAC, NIRF, CEC, INFLIBNET, various regulatory bodies - implications of their role.
22 Schemes under UGC, ICSSR, ICHR, DBT and Any other Funding Agencies including NGOs that has relevance to Higher Education
23 Kinship between  Constitutional values and education
24 Quality Assurance and Accreditation in HE
25 Role of teachers and higher education institutions in supporting nation to attain SDG
26 Global trends in Higher Education
27 Futurology of Higher Education (Global and Local)
28 Inter-Disciplinarity in Higher Education
29 Opportunities for Leadership in Higher Education
30 Education in 21st Century-Role of academic Leadership
31 Leadership versus Administration of Higher Education
32 Change and academic leadership in higher education
33 Research and Development in Higher Educational Institutions
34 National Education Policy and Goals of Higher Education
35 Opportunities of academic resource generation with government agencies
36 Academic integrity and leadership
37 Reforms in Higher Education in India
38 Challenges of a Teacher in 21st Century
39 Synching Skills and  Vocational Education with General Education: Multiple Entry and Exit System
40 Innovation in Research in University Eco-system
41 Teaching Assessment in Higher Education
42 Designing Curriculum—Planning, Development, Transaction and Evaluation
43 Designing Outcome Based Education Curriculum
44 Choice Based Credit System opportunities and challenges of implementation
45 Understanding Learners in Higher Education System- various Perspectives
46 Emerging Needs of Learners in New Millennium
47 Strategies for Motivating Learners
48 Strategies for Enhancing Learning Skills
49 Teaching profession
50 Teacher as a professional
51 Teacher as an innovator and Action Researcher
52 Teacher as Reflective Practitioner
53 Expectations from Teaching Profession
54 Competencies of modern teacher
55 The Effective Teacher
56 Teaching, Learning and Quality in Higher Education
57 Teaching-Learning Process
58 Learning Issues and Concerns
59 Learning Perspectives and Approaches
60 Approaches to Learning
61 Theories of Learning
62 ICT for Teaching and Learning
63 Instructional Strategies and Teaching Skills
64 Teaching for Thinking
65 Facilitating individual learning
66 Cooperative learning
67 Taxonomies of Instructional Objectives: Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy
68 Planning for Instruction- Writing Course Learning Outcomes, Conducting classes based on active and cooperative learning strategies, reflective teaching strategies,  and effective assessment plan
69 Managing Instruction
70 Effective Pedagogy and Critical Analysis of Different Methods of Teaching
71 Practicing Critical Pedagogy: Possibilities and Challenges
72 Significance of Outcomes Based Education ( OBE)in HEIs
73 Foundations and Key Elements of OBE
74 Types of OBE-Traditional, Transitional and Transformational
75 Mapping of Program Objectives and Course Outcomes
76 Setting Targets for Attainment
77 Action plan on students competency
78 Activity Based Learning
79 Rubrics for Assessment
80 Experiential Learning – Concept, Objectives and Stages
81 Experiential Learning Theory
82 Teaching strategies for Experiential Learning
83 Transforming Higher Education in India through MOOCs on SWAYAM Platform”
84 Building Competencies of Teachers for Online Teaching & E-Governance: Issues & Challenges
85 Design and structure of e-courses & Video for Online Courses
86 E-Learning : Theory, Practices & Application of AI
87 E-learning in India: Towards a learner-centric MOOCs on SWAYAM Platform
88 Google Classroom & Cyber Security for LMS and web Conferencing Tools
89 MOODLE: Concepts and Experiences
90 Designing Online Course for SWAYAM Platform
91 OER: Concept & Licensing
92 MOODLE as Learning Management System
93 Online Assessment Tools & Google Tools for Education
94 E-learning& Tools for Teachers
95 Open Source Community and E-Governance: A Challenge and Reality
96 Cyber Law & Cyber Security
97 Blended Teaching and Learning- Concept and Benefits
98 Theories supporting Blended Teaching & Learning
99 Three Models of Blended Teaching & Learning
100 Designing for Blended Learning
101 Technologies for Blended Learning
102 Synchronous and Asynchronous Activities
103 Evaluating Successful Blended Learning
104 Student- centred Approach
105 Characteristics of Student- Centered Learning
106 Implementing student centred learning in classroom
107 Student centred Teaching Methods
108 Understanding Adult Learners
109 Critical Elements of Adult Learning
110 Principles of Adult Learning
111 Pedagogy-Andragogy-Heutagogy
112 Andragogy as a method of Lifelong Learning
113 An Andragogical Process model for learning
114 Andragogy in Practice and Teaching strategies for adult learners
115 Classroom: Learning Environment and Management
116 Dimensions of Classroom Management
117 Components of Classroom Management
117 Managing classroom: Climate, Task and Learning
118 Guidelines and Strategies for Effective Classroom Management
119 Need and Importance of professional development
120 Continuing Professional Development
121 Continuing Professional Development through ICT
122 Academic Integrity
123 Assessment, Measurement & Evaluation in Teaching –Learning Process
124 Evaluation Techniques
125 Essential Criteria of a Good Tool
126 Importance of ICT in Assessment and Evaluation
127 Use of ICT in Various Types of Assessment and Evaluation
128 Role of Teacher in Technology Enabled Assessment and Evaluation
129 Students’ E-portfolio and E-rubrics
130 Recent trends in assessment and evaluation
131 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation
132 Assessing scholastic and co-scholastic aspects
133 Assessment strategy for OBE
134 Assessment and Evaluation: Use of Rubrics to enhance objectivity
135 Improving structure and Quality Assessment
136 Assessing Higher Order Abilities & Professional Skills
137 Importance of three major categories of Skills-Learning, Literacy and Life skills
138 Learning Skills-Critical thinking , creativity, collaboration, communication
139 Literacy Skills—Information, Media, Technology
141 Life Skills—Flexibility, Leadership, Initiative, Productivity, Social Skills
142 The 21st Century Skills—Ways of Thinking, Ways of Working, Tools for Working, Living in the World

(H)  In case any critical areas of Professional Development & Engagement are not taken care of above, you are requested to mention those areas in the box                   given below.

S. No. Proposed/ Recommended Areas of PDE Justification/Significance

PROF.S.K.DAS (discusscontribs) 06:14, 30 August 2022 (UTC)Reply[reply]