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Crystal Clear app kfm home.png This user is a participant in the Motivation and emotion unit, 2010.
See also: Textbook
Writer1.gif This page is an e-portfolio. Also see other participants' pages.
Motivation and Emotion Scrabble.jpg

About me[edit]

My name is Charlotte Bower, I am 21 years old and I live in Sydney. I am a fourth year student undertaking the bachelor of management/bachelor of science in psychology degrees.i enjoy management a lot (I major in human resources and government and policy) but i sometimes find psychology difficult. However i have found many of the subjects to be very interesting. This wiki page is an online journal of the things I learn as i undertake the unit Motivation and Emotion. It is meant to help me undrstand the concepts and theories involved in motivation and emotion, as well as speak about some of my personal motoivations and emotions throughout the seester. I have never used wikiversity before so its slightly daunting, but hopefull all goes to plan.

Week One: Introduction[edit]

Initgial Thoughts

When I first read the unit outline I started to panic. The style of this unit is somewhat unfamiliar to me. The concept of riting a diary or journal is something which i hve never successfully done before. Ive tried, espacially when ive been overseas as a way to keep a record of my holiday bbut its never lasted more than a couple of days. Im not really ur eexactly what im supposed to say on here, but I suppose that I'll get the hang of it. I can see how writing this e-portfolio will help myself and all the participants in Motivation and Emotion to gain a better understanding of the subject overall. However, using wikiversity is a first for me and im rubbish with computers so it could be a bit of a challenge in terms of adding pictures and links and other fancy things to make the pages look good. Something which worries me a lot is the multimedia element of the assesment. Im not really sure what is expected of me here, but im sure it will all become a lot clearer as the weeks go by. The textbook chapter is quite and interesting assesment. I like the idea that it will be online for anybody to see,and that the students are creating a book as a collective. Very exciting!

Textbook Chapter 1-Introduction Chapter one of the text book is the introduction which aims to introduce us new-bies to the concepts of motivation and emotion. Two questions are posed on the first page- What is Motivation? and What is emotion? Here are my answers after reading chapter one although I’m sure these will change by the end of the semester.

What is motivation? Motivation is the drive we feel as humans which enables us to do things we want and sometimes need to do.

What is emotion? Emotion is the state of feeling which we feel in reaction to certain situations of events. However I’m curious here as to whether or not we are actually constantly feeling some varied degrees of emotion or do we just feel emotions in certain situations, for example when we are sad or happy?

The different expressions of motivation are interesting. The fact that there are seven aspects of behaviour (effort, latency, persistence, choice, probability of response, facial expression, and bodily gestures) which can lead an observer to determine how motivated you are to perform a certain task really makes sense and makes things a lot clearer. I’ve thought about it in terms of doing an assignment for uni which I really don’t want to do. I probably wouldn’t put in the proper effort, I would delay the starting of the assignment, I would have sort persistence and I’d definitely rather be doing something else. I’m not sure about probability of response?? (Perhaps because as a uni assessment it would be compulsory then this would be irrelevant?) And I’m also unsure as to my facial expressions and bodily gestures; I am sure I’m not sat at the computer typing and smiling though.

Eight Themes of motivation study highlighted by Reeve (2005) 1. Motivation benefits adaptation 2. Motives affect behaviour by directing attention 3. Motive strengths vary over time and influence the stream of behaviour 4. Types of motivation exist 5. Motivation includes both approach and avoidance tendencies 6. Motivation study reveals what people want 7. Motivation needs supportive conditions to flourish 8. There is nothing so practical as a good theory

Textbook Chapter 2- Motivation in Historical and Contemporary Perspectives I found Chapter 2 a little less interesting than chapter one, I think simply because it was a historical view of motivation explaining all of the different theories which have been developed. However, reading chapter 2 made me realise that my initial definition of motivation is already wrong and its still week one… I could be in trouble here. I’ve realised that motivation is not just something which humans experience. It is something which all creatures experience, for example in their search for food or for a mate. My new definition of motivation is:

Motivation is the drive people and animals feel which enables them to do things they want and often need to do.

Week Two: How to Use Wikiversity[edit]

What I've Learnt About Wiki Wikiversity is still very daunting but I feel a lot better about it having heard the lecture this week. The actual Wikiversity site is helpfull too because it gives you help pages which tell you how to do things (for example how to upload a photo onto wiki and then put this onto a page). I like the idea of Wikiversity, its great that people can get online and put information out their, and edit other peoples information. However i feel a little unsure about it too, in the sense that for nearly four years ive had the words 'dont use wikipedia!!' drummed into my head so i suppose in a way im a little sceptical. (I wonder.. is being sceptical a feeling??)

Here are a list of things ive learnt to do on wikiversity this week both through the lecture, the wikiversity cheat sheat and through trial and error on the wikiversity site itself:

How to do bold text

How to do italics

How to insert a link -

To read my Textbook chapter Cognitive theories of Emotion see this link available on wikiversity.

How to insert a picture -


How to put a coloured box around text

How to do my wikiversity signature - U3017048

Week Three: Brain and Physiological Needs[edit]

Textbook Chapter 3- The Motivated and Emotonal Brain Chapter 3 covers the motivated and emotional brain. Three key principals are highlighted in this chapter. These are: 1. Specific brain structures generate specific motivational and emotional states. 2. Biochemical agents stimulate brain structures. 3. Day-to-day events stir biochemical agents into action (Reeve, 2005). When I first read these statements I panicked because I really didn’t understand what it was trying to say and I really hate biology as a subject. However upon further reading things became more clear. I realised that basically what it’s trying to say is that we have specific reactions which occur within our bodies when we experience particular events or stimuluses. These reactions are specific to each motivational state, and so when the reactions occur, our brains interpret them as the motivational state and we feel the motivation (for example hunger).

Textbook Chapter 4- Physiological Needs Chapter 4 is part one of the topic needs. It covers physiological needs. A need is something which we cannot live without or as the text book says something that is essential and necessary for life, growth and well being (Reeve, 2005, pp. 73). The needs listed in this chapter are hunger thirst and sex, which I find quite strange. I understand that we cannot survive without water and food, but I do not understand how sex is a need. If you look at people who don’t have sex, say catholic priests or nuns, then its clear that sex isn’t necessary for the life growth and well being of individuals. If you look at it in terms of reproduction then sex is necessary (even then we have artificial insemination??) but for individuals is it a need or a desire? I’m not sure.

Tutorial Exercises

The tutorial exercises in tutorial one focused on developing definitions of bothe motivation and emotion. Here are my own very simple definitions of them.

Motivation - Motivation is the drive people and animals feel which enables them to do things they need to do.

Emotion - Emotion is the state of feeling which we feel in reaction to certain situations of events.

Emotions - 2.png

The tutorial excersises this week suggest answering these three questions inour e-portfolios. So here we go...

1.What are the main motivators/motivations in your life? (i.e., the ones which engage most of your time and energy?) University, My relationships (particularly my boyfriend), my family, my pets and my job.

2.What are the main emotions in your life? (i.e., the ones which engage most of your time and energy?) I think the main emotions in my life at the moment are happiness and contentment.

3.What are your personal goals for this unit? I really really want to pass this unit (i struggle with psychology and am slightly anxious about using wikkiversity for the assesments). Id like to do well in my assesments, and to learn and fully understand the concepts behind motivation and emotion.

Week Four: Psychological and Social Needs[edit]

Textbook Chapter 6- Intrinsic Motivation and Types of Extrinsic Motivation Chapter 6 covers intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. To start of with I have no idea what this means, but after having read the chapter I have a far greater understanding. My definitions of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are: Intrinsic motivation- Motivation which is developed within oneself which enables us to do the things we wish to do, to follow are dreams and achieve are goals. Extrinsic motivation- Personal motivation which is developed or formed because of other people (for example teachers or doctors) in order to get us to do things. I see extrinsic motivation as a form of manipulation in a way, like when kids don’t want to eat their vegetables and parents say well then you can’t have desert. I suppose then the child is motivated for the dessert and is therefore motivated to eat their veggies.

The example at the begging of the chapter regarding seat belt usage and the university sweepstakes is interesting (reeve, 2005). I always wear a seat belt, its just habit for me. I wonder if people who don’t wear one consciously choose not to (does it annoy them or irritate their neck?) or do they just not remember to put it on. Its strange that offering people money to do something which could save their lives doubles the instance of that thing occurring. Wouldn’t you think that people would just be motivated to stay alive?

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Textbook Chapter 7- Social Needs Chapter 7 focuses on social needs. An interesting concept here is quasi needs. These are needs which aren’t true needs but they do affect how we think feel and act. Examples of quasi needs in my life are money, a job, finishing my degree, getting a house. Social needs are broadly achievement, affiliation and intimacy. I know that in my life my need for achievement varies greatly with what I’m doing. On a very basic level, if im doing something like playing a video game, I don’t care if I win or lose. My boyfriend however has to win no matter what. However if I’m having a debate and arguing a point there’s no backing down. Am I just stubborn or is that a need for achievement? im not entirely sure where the line for the need for achievement is, is everything we strive to do part of our need for achievement, or is it just the big things like finishing university and being top of the class?

Affiliation and intimacy are also social needs. Affiliation is seen as the need for approval and as the need for intimacy. I think these needs cross with the physiological need for sex and the psychological need for relevance.

My Textbook Chapter My topic for the text book chapters is the theories of emotion. Im not sure about this topis in the sense that i dont really know how to approach it. Ive had a look on the internet and come up with 20+ different theories of emotion, ranging from cognitive to biological to social. Im going tohave to think hard about how i do this. Perhaps it would be best if i picked the four most highly regarded theories and discussed those. I dont think that talking about any more than four theories would be effective, their wouldnt be enough detail about them. Or perhaps i could talk about many theories and just give a very brief overview? im not sure if that would be very helpfull too many people though if they were reading the text book in the future. today im feeling confused!! But atleast im feeling motivated :)

Week Five: Motivation and Goal Setting[edit]

Textbook Chapter 5- Psychological Needs Chapter 5 looks at psychological needs. These are needs which are inherent in the strivings of human nature and healthy development. The three psychological needs highlighted in this chapter are autonomy, competence and relatedness. As I read these three words I stopped to think what they mean and I realise that I’m not really sure. I think that autonomy means being able to do things by yourself, that competence means the need to be capable of doing certain things, and that relatedness means that need to do things which are relevant to you. Its strange to think that these are needs. The book definitions of the three psychological needs are:

Autonomy- choice and decision making ability when deciding what we want to do.

Competence- the ability to interact effectively with our surroundings and the desire to be competent in all aspects of our lives.

Relatedness- the need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people.

I was on the right track with autonomy and competence, but way of with relatedness. but now that I think about it, it makes sense. I can’t imagine my life without my friends and family, so I can see how they are definitely a need.

Textbook Chapter 8- Goals Chapter 8 is the first chapter of the cognitions section of the text book. It looks at goals. The first page of the chapter talks about weight loss and having a specific goal to achieve and a specific way to do it. I think this makes sense in my life, if I have something which I know I need to do or achieve, I do it much better if I set out a plan and outline what I need to do each day in order to achieve that specific goal. Rather than ythinking ‘okay I need to write a 3000 word essay in two weeks’ ill set out a plan and have my research for one week, essay plan development for a day, writing for 4 days, and proof reading for a day, all set out so that I know what I have to achieve each day in order to achieve the final goal. I suppose it’s a case of achieving small goals to achieve the end goal. However, just because I develop a plan as to how to achieve my goal, doesn’t mean I always achieve it

Lightning 02.jpg

Tutorial Exercises

The tutorial exercises ask what a series of questions regarding "flow Theory".

Flow Theory - the idea that when people use their skills to overcome a challenge they enter their flow stage, which is a state of concentration which involves a holistic absorbtion in the activity. Flow is such a pleasureable experience that the person often repeats the activity with the hopes of experiencing flow again and again.

1.What are your favourite "flow" experience activities? I love playing basketball and I enjoy cooking.

2.What are the subjective qualities (e.g., emotions, cognitions) of your flow states? I feel happy, exhilerated and feel like im on some sort of high when im playing basketball. It's all about the game and trying to beat the other team. When I'm cooking im happy and content, and determined to get the recipe right and cook a nice meal.

3.Do you think your experience is consistence with the "flow theory" (optimal balancing of skill and challenge). I think so. I play in a competition which challenges me but which is not so challenging that I dont enjoy it.

My Textbook Chapter Im still unsure as what to do in regards to which theories to choose. Im feeling overwhelmed by this assesment at this point in time. I find that when i get overwhelmed I ignore things and the text book chapter is being ignored. Ill have to get on top of it and get my head around it. I think an email to James is in order.

Week Six: Control Beliefs and The Self[edit]

Textbook Chapter 9- Personal Control Beliefs Chapter 9 talks about personnel control beliefs. I like this chapter, I like the idea that we are in control of our own lives. Self- efficacy is interesting. It’s a persons judgement of how well or poorly they will be able to cope with a situation given the skills they possess and the circumstances they face. I suppose that if you consider all possible situations before and event and determine what to do in that situation then you are far more prepared and likely to succeed. But is this really possible? Does self efficacy play a role in events which are completely out of are control? Maybe it’s the belief at the exact time of the event that ‘yes okay I can do this’. Learned helplessness is also an interesting concept. The idea that life’s outcomes are uncontrollable is something which I don’t fully understand. I appreciate that there are many things in life which we cannot directly control but there are also many aspects of our lives which we can control. Just writing that made me think about slaves. That’s a bit drastic I know but I was thinking maybe some people don’t have the control over their lives that I or we do. perhaps learned helplessness is not just the belief that we cant control our own lives, but maybe it’s the lack of control or ability that we have to control our own lives (For example if someone else has taken control of our lives.) On a side note I don’t like the dog experiment in this chapter, it bothers me. It did make me think though whether or not the dogs in the inescapable shock group carried on this concept of learned helplessness in other situations. Would the dogs fight back if they were attacked by another dog or because they had been in a situation which they could not control in the past would they just submit to the other dog and give in?

Textbook Chapter 10- The Self and Its Strivings Chapter 10 looks at the self. The problem with self esteem is an interesting section of this chapter. We are always led to believe as we are growing up that low self esteem is a negative trait and we are always encouraged to think highly of ourselves and increase our self esteem in order to do better and be better. This chapter, however, suggests that high self esteem does not affect our success or failures, or our achievements in life, but that our successes and failures affect our self esteem. Basically increased achievement increases our self esteem but increased self esteem does not increase our achievement. I wonder then, if self esteem goes up and down with each and every success and failure in life. I suppose it does in a small way.

Three basic problems are raised concerning the self. The first is defining and creating the self (self concept). Here what we perceive and believe about ourselves affects how we portray ourselves and how we feel within ourselves. I suppose if I think about myself I’m stubborn, confident, outgoing and bossy. I wonder how much of a role physical attractiveness plays in the concept of the self? Does believing were attractive effect our views on our personality traits?

The second problem of the self is relating the self to society (identity). I suppose that im Australian because I live by the morals and beliefs of Australia (does that mean that you’re not Australian if you don’t? I’m unsure here as to how we identify ourselves with a nation. I wasn’t born in Australia, but I have lived here since I was 11, im a citizen and I see my self as Australian. Perhaps that’s all that matters, how we see ourselves in relation to national identity? Maybe national identity doesn’t even play a role in the concept of self identity?). here are the five broad parameters of identity and the roles which I believe I fill.

Relationships: Girlfriend, Friend, Daughter, Sister, Cousin, Granddaughter. Vocations: Salesperson, Student. Political Affiliations: Liberal. Stigma Groups: Immigrant?? (I’m not sure if this applies here because being from the UK I don’t feel stigmatised) Ethnic Groups: English, Australian, Atheist (Is lack of religion an ethnic group?? I don’t know).

The third element of the self is discovering and developing its potential (agency). I’m still not particularly clear on this concept. further reading is in order I think.

Week Seven[edit]

My Textbook Chapter Ive come up with a rough draft for my text book chapter and decided the best plan for action is to email James and ask him what he thinks. He did suggest in the past to split the chapter up into either cognition, Biology or social aspects. I havent done that as yet but I will see what he says. Im still slightly anxious about this assesment item, and the multimedia presentation which we have to create. I keep trying to think of ways to create a mini movie which is interesting and which is an overview of my topic. Im not sure I haven't really developed any ideas thus far, but i do have a web cam and microphone, and I also thought I could use my iphone if I wanted to and then upload it so I suppose I have the resurces I need, I just dont have a plan.

Week Nine: Nature of Emotion[edit]

Textbook Chapter 11- Nature of Emotion Chapter 11 is the first chapter which discusses emotion. Five key questions are raised which I’m going to try and Answer.

1. What is an emotion? Emotion is a combination of feelings, bodily arousal, social expressiveness and a sense of purpose (ability to deal with stimulus) all which are created or developed in reaction to a certain stimulus or event.

2. What causes and emotion? I think this question is too hard to answer seeing as there are so many different points of view. I suppose basically emotion is caused by an event or stimulus which causes the body and the brain to react in ways which lead us to display and feel emotion.

3. How many emotions are their? Personally I think there are hundreds of emotions. However some scholars believe that there are a few central emotions (ie. happy, sad, angry, scared), and some scholars believe there are numerous emotions. Is this questions ever going to have a definite answer? No way.

4. What good are the emotions? Emotions help us to cope with specific situations, the allow us to communicate our feelings to others, help us to create, maintain and dissolve relationships, and they make us who we are.

5. What is the difference between Emotions and mood? Emotions arise form significant life situations where as moods arise from often unknown causes, emotions influence behaviour and moods often only influence cognition and emotions are short lived in response to events but moods can last for hours or days.


My Textbook Chapter I Emailed James with my chapter plan. Here it is so far:

1. -Intoduction th the theories of emotion -(300words)

2. -James-Lange Theory of Emotion- (700words)

-Dotpoint summary of theory-(100 words)

-5 question mini quiz- (100words)

3. -Opponent Process Theory of Emotion- (700words)

-Dotpoint summary of theory-(100 words)

-5 question mini quiz- (100words)

4. -Two factor Theory of Emotion- (700words)

-Dotpoint summary of theory-(100 words)

-5 question mini quiz- (100words)

5. -Conclusion- (300words)

Week Ten: Aspects of Emotion[edit]

Textbook Chapter 12- Aspects of Emotion Chapter 12 considers the different aspects of emotion. I found this chapter frustrating because there are no specific answers, only theories. It seems that theories which have been developed are constantly being challenged and changed, and things which we once thought were definite actually aren’t. I suppose however that this is the way science and psychology has and will always be. I’m certainly not the first person to be frustrated by the lack of definitive answers that’s for sure.

My Textbook Chapter I had a Reply from James and have decided to change my Text Book chapter and concentrate Specifically on Cognitive Theories of emotion. Im glad ive done this I feel more confident and most of the research I have dont suggests that cognitive theories of emotion are the most widely accepted. The four theories i have chosen are The Cannon-Bard Theory, The Schachter-Singer theory, Attribution Theory and Appraisal theories. Im pleased with how my chapter is developing, it feels like it has been a productive week and im finally feeling a little more relaxed about the whole thing.

Week Eleven: Personality and Emotion[edit]

Textbook Chapter 13- Personality Characteristics Chapter 13 is the first chapter in the section called individual differences. It talks about personality characteristics, specifically happiness, arousal and control. Happiness is an interesting topic. The idea that people return to similar levels of happiness after suffering a traumatic accident or after winning the lottery is a little strange. Perhaps people just adjust to their environments and situations. I wonder then if a single life event can actually make someone more unhappy forever or happier forever. Or are people either happy or unhappy, regardless of their life experiences? Its interesting to discover that insufficient stimulation and under arousal can quickly depreciate mental ability for simple things like maths problems. I also found it interesting that in Heron’s experiment, the participants hands and arms were covered in order to restrict sensory information from touch. I suppose we forget how important touching things is to our every day lives.

My Textbook Chapter My textbook chapter is developing well. Im pleased with it. Their are plenty of resources out their which are helpful however i cant seem to find that many journal articles. I wonder how many references are expected for this chapter. I suppose ill just use what I use and see how it goes.

Week Twelve: Unconscious Motivation[edit]

Textbook Chapter 14- Unconcious Motivation Psychoanalytic perspective is the idea here is that motivation is something that jus happens to us, rather than something which we choose or create. The concept behind the psychoanalytic perspective is that the ultimate cause of motivation and behaviour derives from biologically endowed and socially developed impulses that determine our thoughts, feelings and behaviours. The idea that personality changes little after puberty is raised in this section. Surely though peoples personalities do change. Certain life events would effect peoples personalities surely, and so personalities must change over time and as we get older? The unconscious is the study of unconscious motivation is fascinating. The idea that psychologists can almost ‘read our thoughts’, thoughts which we don’t even know we are having is somewhat surreal. however it is a very interesting topic. id like to be Hypnotised, like at the beginning of the chapter. I’m curious as to whether you have any memory of the event after it has happened. The idea of the unconscious also makes me question whether or not these techniques could be used to extract repressed memories or the lost memories of abuse victims or accident victims. Is the memory completely gone form their brain, or just inaccessible through normal channels? The section on drams is also interesting, and has made me think about my own dreams. I definitely don’t agree with Freud’s view that dreams are unconscious wishes (reminds me of the Cinderella song ‘A dream is a wish the heart makes’!!), I think that dreams can be anything. I have noticed in my own dreams however that if I do something all day (read a book or play computer), elements of this activity will appear in my dreams. I’m not sure why this is? I also know that when I’m worrying about something, I dream about it most nites. Perhaps, like the book says, this is a way of my brain trying to find a way to solve the problem.

Dogs in greyhound racing are motivated by the idea of catching the hare. What motivates you?

My Textbook Chapter The text book chapter is due next monday and as of yet im not finished. looks like its going to be a big push through the weekend, but im excited for it to be finally finished. Its been an inteesting assesment. i like the idea that once its finished it will be online for anyone to see and use and even edit if they like. Its a very different and interesting way of doing an assignment. I cant Wait untill Monday afternoon!!!

Week Thirteen: Growth and Positive Psychology[edit]

Textbook Chapter 15- Growth motivation and Positive Psychology Chapter 15 talks about growth motivation and positive psychology. Positive psychology (something which I hadn’t heard of up until now) is a branch of psychology which seeks to determine the vision of a good life. It uses empirical methods to determine what makes life worth living, and ‘what could be’ if everything fell into place and was the epitome of a good life. Positive psychology seeks to make people stronger and to increase the human potential in all of us. Here are a list of words and my definitions of them from this chapter which I previously did not understand in relation to psychology: Holism- The study of what is healthy or unbroken. Self-Actualization- This basically means to realise ones full potential. To move away from negative things and towards positive aspects of oneself and ones inherent possibilities. Congruence- The extent to which the individual accepts the full range of their personal characteristics, abilities and beliefs.

This chapter is interesting because it is a way of approaching psychology which I have never come across before. Normally psychology aims to solve a problem, to find the reasoning behind why people do things or why they have certain disorders, and then to solve these issues. However this concept of positive psychology seems to view everyone in society as having a problem, and fins ways to enable human beings to be the best that they can possibly be. It focuses on potential and the belief in ones self. Its very interesting.

P.S Text book chapter finally finished and submitted! Im pleased with it and very HAPPY to have finished!

Week Fourteen: Summary and Conclusion[edit]

Textbook Chapter 16- summary Chapter 16 is a summary of everything that the text book has talked about. It brings everything together and discusses the ways in which the concepts of mtivation and emotion can be applied. I found this text book interesting, and easy to read. It was easy to understand, and the examples given at the beggining of the chapters made it easy to relate to. The section of the end of each chapter with suggested further readings has been helpful. A criticism is that the book doesnt have a glossary, but this is a small issue. overall i have enjoyed doing the readings for this course, and have learnt a lot.

My Multimedia Presentation For this unit we had to create a multimeadia presentation which contained an overview of our text book chapters. At first i was thinking what on earth am I going to film which depicts the cognitive theories of emotion. I mean seriously, I couldnt think of one thing and I was panicking because I wasnt sure how i was going to do this task. Then I went on to new best friend! It was so easy I didnt know that a program like that existed. I Made a slide show which summarised my text book chapter, and then used screenr to record the slide show and my spoken overview of the chapter at the same time. I'm very glad this assesment is over, but found that all my stressing was for nothing in the end because I actually enjoyed creating the multimedia.

Final Thoughts Well Im not entirely sure how to some this unit up. I have both thoroughly enjoyed it and absolutely hated it at times. I found the assesments to be interesting and daunting, but now having nearly finished them all i feel like ive accomplished something. Its a good feeling. I was very aprehensive at the beggining when I first read the unit outline, I think it was because this unit is structured so differently than other psychology units, and I have to admit I'm not the most adaptable person when it comes to change. I enjoyed the text book, I found it easy to read and understand. I have also developed a fondness for wikiversity, and a respect for the opportunities it presents to people. I havent particularly enjoyed writing this journal, it is not something I have ever done before (I dont even keep a diary or calendar)and im not particularly fond of putting personnal feelings and emotions online for theworld to see, but I have tried my best. So this is U3017048, saying goodbye to wikiversity, to the study of motivation and emotion, to my fellow students and to James. Thanks for the journey!!!


Reeve, J. (2005) Understanding Motivation and Emotion (4th Ed.)Usa, John Wiley and Sons.