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Crystal Clear app kfm home.png This user is a participant in the Motivation and emotion unit, 2010.
See also: Textbook
Writer1.gif This page is an e-portfolio. Also see other participants' pages.

Tutorial 1[edit]

Well here I am, yet another new learning experience. Yet another set of computer jargon I need to familiarise myself with! Hopefully this all works as I am the sort of person that "flies by the seat of my pants!"

I am here as part of my unit on Motivation and Emotion and even though doing this is not an extremely emotional experience for me, (in terms of the computer stuff - not the unit itself) the emotional part is challenging in terms of expressing my personal learning journey in a public forum.

So this is my hello and I will be back later to add more, this was just a test to see how I went! hi Cyber buddies!!

Well here I am back again. I am having a very frustrating time with this whole wikiversity thing - just a huge learning curve in terms of trying to navigate around totally unfamiliar territory. Maybe someone can give me some clues on how to easily access my book chapter so I can contribute, then find my way back here easily....I'm so used to menu driven things, user friendly things....

In the meantime I will post my contributions on tutorial 1. As always in a new class, there is difficulty in getting to know new people very quickly. We had a welcome and an overview of how the tutorials would run. Then we were broken up into groups according to thumb size, how long at UC, favorite fast food, who we voted for and how we had felt emotionally that day.

The first threee questions were OK, but the voting one I felt awkward as voting is a very personal thing, and I am one of those people that doesn't necessarily like to disclose such information. As for how we felt emotionally that day, I was not very happy as I had attended a funeral that day, however I knew I would feel better after interacting with other people which would take my mind off things.

Once we got into small groups, we had an interesting discussion about motivation and self sabotage. Why do people who have potential and talent self sabotage? Are they afraid they will be too good? Afraid of success? We were asked to define motivation and emotion and came up with some great definitions.

We came up with: motivation is: directed energy (to do something important), to desire, want or need something. to accomplish/achieve something, to feel a certain way,it can be intrinsic or extrinsic. Also can vary in strength according to priorities.

Emotion is: A state of mind, thoughts that affect feelings, extrinsic forces and events affect how you feel, also is in different strengths and can have a physiological effect.

Both emotion and motivation are interchangeable, change in intensity, the effect of one can change the other. sorry, gotta get used to signing off...Mixie 03:51, 9 September 2010 (UTC)

Tutorial 2[edit]

We had a discussion about Maslow and the needs heirarchy. Our discussion was around what happens if the most important needs are taken away, are all the others forgotten? Organisations of needs What conceptualisations or organisations of needs are there? e.g., Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Maslow's hierarchy of needs.png

What are the weaknesses of such "hierarchical models"?

At the top of Maslow's list (or the bottom of the triangle) are the physiological needs. the things all organisms needs purely to function in it's most basic form. We all need food, water, shelter, air, sleep and I would add here freedom from pain.

Then, this is where I think Maslow has it right,but in my opinion we need companionship, love and safety before we need money and employment. Money can buy material things, but without some companionship or close relations, it would end up being pretty lonely as humans are social creatures. If one has someone to share the wealth with, it makes it much more worthwhile. I think humans are very motivated by material things (or money) and praise and recognition.

Another example of this is how important does family become when everything else is taken away, say in a natural disaster like the Victorian bushfires, or Hurricane Katrina? The Katrina victims huddled in a huge football dome as it was the only place where they could shelter while they waited to be rescued. As events unfolded, their safety and the safety of their families took priority, especially when there was no police to control looters and rapists. The innocent were at the mercy of the gangs and those who thought it was their right to take everything, including other people's dignity - no one was spared, even children.

Ways of creating hyperlinks in Wikiversity:

It seems incredible to me how a city so modern can fall apart very quickly when everything is thrown into chaos. it really did become survival of the fittest. Mixie 01:05, 14 September 2010 (UTC) What are needs?

Define and discuss Organisations of needs

What conceptualisations or organisations of needs are there? e.g., Maslow's hierarchy of needs Maslow's hierarchy of needs.png

Brain structure and motivation

Gehirn, medial - beschriftet lat.svg
  1. Handout: Diagram of the brain showing the anatomic position of key brain structures involved in motivation and emotion (mid-saggital) [1]
  2. Identify specific neural structures and their motivational function - in order to explain the neural bases of as many motivational states as you can. Do this individually, discuss as a small group, and then share key points with class (see answers):
    1. Reticular formation
    2. Medial forebrain bundle
    3. Hypothalamus
    4. Amygdala
    5. Septal area
    6. Hippocampus
    7. Cerebral cortex (Frontal lobes)

Neurotransmitters and motivation Identify the motivational role of key hormones.

  1. Dopamine: Generates good feelings associated with reward
    1. Dopamine is released when anticipating future pleasant events.
    2. Dopamine release decreases when events unfold worse than they were expected to.
    3. Dopamine release continues if things go well.
    4. Dopamine release increases when things go better than expected.
  2. Serotonin: Influences mood and emotion
  3. Norepinephrine: Regulates arousal and alertness
  4. Endorphin: Inhibits pain, anxiety and fear by generating good feelings to counter these negative feelings (Reeve, 2009, p. 63)

We did a puzzle to match the correct areas of the brain in the appropriate spot.

Hormones and motivation Identify the motivational role of key hormones.

  1. Cortisol: “Stress hormone”: Associated with poor intellectual functioning, negative affect, and poor health outcomes
  2. Testosterone: Associated with high sexual motivation: Underlies the mating effort
  3. Oxytocin: Motivates seeking the counsel, support, and nurturance of others during times of stress: Bonding hormone “Tend and befriend stress response”

Physiological needs

  1. Review and discuss key points from the "Physiological needs" chapter and lecture
    1. Need
      1. Need Structure
    2. Fundamentals of Regulation
      1. Physiological Need
      2. Psychological Drive
      3. Homeostasis
      4. Negative Feedback
      5. Multiple Inputs/Multiple Outputs
      6. Intra-Organismic Mechanisms
      7. Extra-Organismic Mechanisms
      8. The Homeostatic Mechanism: The Wisdom of the Body
    3. Thirst
      1. Physiological Regulation
      2. Environmental Influences
    4. Hunger
      1. Short-Term Appetite
      2. Long-Term Energy Balance
      3. Comprehensive Model of Hunger Regulation
      4. Environmental Influences
      5. Set Point or Settling Points?
    5. Sex
      1. Physiological Regulation
      2. Facial Metrics
      3. Sexual Scripts
      4. Sexual Orientation
      5. Evolutionary Basis of Sexual Motivation
    6. Failures to Self-Regulate Physiological Needs

Psychological needs

  1. Review and discuss key points from the "Psychological needs" chapter and lecture
    1. Psychological Needs
      1. Organismic Approach to Motivation
      2. Person-Environment Dialectic
      3. Organismic Psychological Needs
    2. Autonomy
      1. The Conundrum of Choice
      2. Supporting Autonomy
      3. Benefits from Autonomy Support
      4. Two Illustrations
    3. Competence
      1. Involving Competence
      2. Supporting Competence
    4. Relatedness
      1. Involving Relatedness: Interaction with Others
      2. Satisfying Relatedness: Perception of a Social Bond
      3. Communal and Exchange Relationships
      4. Internalization
    5. Putting It All Together: Social Contexts that Support Psychological Needs
      1. Engagement
      2. What Makes for a Good Day?
      3. Vitality
  2. Discussion: What are your favourite "flow" experience activities? What are the subjective qualities (e.g., emotions, cognitions) of your flow states? Discuss with your group, identifying the skill level and challenge level for these activities? Do you think your experience is consistence with the "flow theory" (optimal balancing of skill and challenge).

Social needs

  1. Review and discuss key points from the "Social needs" chapter and lecture
    1. Acquired Needs
      1. Quasi-Needs
      2. Social Needs
      3. How Social Needs Motivate Behavior
    2. Achievement
      1. Origins of the Need for Achievement
      2. Atkinson's Model
      3. Dynamics-of-Action Model
      4. Conditions that Involve and Satisfy the Need for Achievement
      5. Achievement Goals
      6. Integrating Classic and Contemporary Approaches to Achievement Motivation
      7. Avoidance Motivation and Well Being
      8. Implicit Theories
      9. Different Implicit Theories Mean Different Achievement Goals
      10. Meaning of Effort
    3. Affiliation and Intimacy
      1. Conditions that Involve the Affiliation and Intimacy Needs
      2. Conditions that Satisfy the Affiliation and Intimacy Needs
    4. Power
      1. Conditions that Involve and Satisfy the Need for Power
      2. Power and Goal Pursuit
      3. Leadership Motive Pattern

I have copied and pasted the format of our tutorials and will put my reflections in amongst it all.....Mixie 02:55, 21 September 2010 (UTC)

Well after a bit of a break - well, not really, I just got overwhelmed with other stuff, including other assignments, I am now back and ready to go. Even though I am enjoying this unit, at times like this I find it extremely difficult to get motivated - especially when I feel I haven't got a clue what I am doing! Help!

Am I supposed to make new pages as I put this whole textbook chapter together or do I just keep on adding on to the end of the last section I edited? Mixie 03:09, 5 October 2010 (UTC)

Commons category with Charles Darwin book images

This tutorial was a discussion about needs. I was thinking in that moment what my needs were - the need to know how I was going to climb the mountain in front of me (the textbook chapter) without even being able to navigate around Wiki!!!!My amygdala was working overtime..... We discussed our chapter outlines and I already had some ideas on what I wanted to do. the groups we were put in quickly disintegrated, people just didn't turn up so the idea of small learning groups didn't really work. Anyway, I was not deterred and proceeded to work on what I needed to get done. The biggest needs I have aside from the ones discussed in the tutorial is being able to organise everything in order to get through this (and my other) unit(s).

I have to prioritize everything in order of importance, otherwise I would not get through. So I addressed my immediate needs which were to get as much information as possible about what I needed to do. I have found in the past the key to success was good time management and this semester was the biggest time management test of all, due to doing other units and having a multitude of other responsibilities at home. These factors all cause considerable stress, but I just press forward.

So I picked my topic for the chapter which I was really looking forward to doing and then I hit my first hurdle - the dreaded Wiki formatting! I admit, the formatting itself is not complicated (now that I know what to do) but I found I had to find shortcuts where I could. It is a different operating system to the old WORD, doesn't have spell check, lots of other little things I found I couldn't do which amounted to a great deal of frustration! Not to mention trying to keep up with the reading! the whole exercise was a valuable learning experience but very time intensive and if you can't put the necessary time in, it becomes extremely difficult. Anyway, I got my chapter outline sorted and asked lots of questions - at least I got some feedback from other students that were too scared to ask....they got the benefit of the answers!

We also did the GCOS questionnaire. It asked for responses in hypothetical situations.* The General Causality Orientations Scale (GCOS)Mixie 08:00, 15 November 2010 (UTC)

Oh, forgot to add we discussed self determination theory, we discussed the pre-programmed - innate- self growth, social development and psychological well being. We talked about te hassumption tht we are always in some sort of goal directed activity. If we have autonomy (a feeling of control over your environment) ,competence and relatedness (the need to bond), if all threee are satisfied we should be happy and experience psychological growth.

The concept of failure tolerance is one that resonates with me (that we make mistakes to optimize learning) because all too often we are penalised for making mistakes, but it is exactly that process that teaches us. We drew up a chart which showed how high engagement (skill level) showed we had flow, high challenge level caused anxiety, low challenge causes apathy (challenge level axis) due to lack of engagement (how I feel in my current job) and low engagement (skill level axis) causes relaxation.

I know when I perform at my best when I am doing what I love doing, then I experience what could be described as flow, and at that point in time I am at my happiest.Mixie 00:17, 16 November 2010 (UTC)


This week the handouts were

  1. Tutorial notes
  2. Student motivation
    1. 1 double-sided page
    2. 1 single-sided page
  3. Learned Optimism Test (from Seligman, 1990)
  4. LEQ-H and outdoor education results
  5. 2 double-sided pages

We did another questionnaire:

University student motivation

  1. Relates more broadly to intrinsic-extrinsic motivation which is a textbook chapter and a lecture topic.
  2. Although the intrinsic-extrinsic motivational dimensional is widely recognised and accepted, it risks being an overly simplistic notion (i.e., that motivations can be cleanly divided between internal and external, when motivations behind behaviour are often more multiple, nuanced, and complex).
  3. For example, consider the motivations behind going to university: "Why are you at university?" - or more generally - “Why do students go to uni?”
  4. Develop a class map of the main underlying motivation for attending university. Respond honestly - why are students really at university? Answers are likely to cover a wide range of human motives, but will probably fall within:
    1. Career/Qualifications - for the degree, so I can get a better job etc.
    2. Self-Exploration/Learning - for the learning, curiousity, knowledge-seeking etc.
    3. Social Opportunities - to meet people, make and explore friendships, enjoy social enviroment
    4. Altruism - to become better able to help people, help society, help the planet etc.
    5. Social Pressure - expectations of family, friends, society etc.
    6. Rejection of Alternatives - better option than doing nothing, working etc. (Note: Factor analytic research by Neill (2008) has not found psychometric support for this factor, but it has for the other five factors).
  5. Complete the University Student Motivation survey (handout) and the University Student Outcomes survey (handout)
  6. Plot your motivation responses against the average results for University of Canberra students (as collected by the third year Survey research and design in psychology in 2008) - see handout (this also includes on overall satisfaction item).
  7. Plot your outcome responses using a different colour.
  8. Note and discuss:
    1. Where do you differ notably in your motivational profile from the university average? Who has a notable discrepancy that they would like to share?

We plotted our answers against the average and I fell way above average on Q1 about qualification, career, acquire skills, etc. Q2 I was also way above average on improve myself, love learning etc. Q3 average on the social opportunities question, this is because i don't really spend a lot of time at UNI except at class and I only interact/make friends with a few people tha tare doing the same units as me. Socializing is not a big motivator for me, if I was much younger then it probably would be, but I am here to study not to socialize. I acknowledge though, that others love the interpersonal interactions with other students - I find it difficult sometimes because I am only here part time, so the mix of students I meet is quite broad. Q4 I got higher than average on the contribute to society question, Q8 I got way below average because I am not here to please others. More soonMixie 08:19, 15 November 2010 (UTC)

  1. Related to the Personal control textbook chapter and lecture topic
  2. Whilst the lecture and reading content for personal control focused on learned helplessness, here we turn our attention to learned optimism. The development of both these areas was by Martin Seligman, University of Pennsylvania.
  3. Define learned helplessness vs. learned optimism
  4. Complete and score Learned Optimism test (Seligman, 1991)
  5. The dimensions and scoring are:
    1. Permanence: e.g., for pessimism - bad events are permanent and good events are temporary (opposite for optimism)
      1. PmB (Permanent Bad - 5, 13, 20, 21, 29, 33, 42, 46) - low scores = optimistic, high scores = pessimistic
      2. PmG (Permanent Good - 2, 10, 14, 15, 24, 26, 38, 40) - low scores = pessimistic, high scores = optimistic
    2. Pervasiveness (Specific vs. Universal - across time and space (situation)):
      1. PvB (Pervasive Bad - 8, 16, 17, 18, 22, 32, 44, 48) - low scores = optimistic, high scores = pessimistic
      2. PvG (Pervasive Good - 6, 7, 28, 31, 34, 35, 37, 43) - low scores = pessimistic, high scores = optimistic
    3. Hope (HoB) = PvB + PmB (Hope for Bad Events - low (0, 1, or 2) is hopeful - high (12, 13, 14, 15 or 16) is hopeless (This is the single most important score)
    4. Personalisation (Internal vs. External - locus of causality)
      1. PsB (Personalisation Bad - 3, 9, 19, 25, 30, 39, 41, 47) - low scores = high self-esteem, high scores = low self-esteem
      2. PsG (Personalisation Good - 1, 4, 11, 12, 23, 27, 36, 45) - low scores = pessimistic, high scores = optimistic
    5. Total B (Bad) = PmB + PvB + PsB
      1. 3 to 6 = Marvellously optimistic
      2. 6 to 9 = Moderately optimistic
      3. 10 to 11 = Average
      4. 12 to 14 = Moderately pessimistic
      5. 14 + = Cries out for change
    6. Total G (Good) = PmG + PvG + PsG
      1. 19 + = Very optimistic
      2. 17 to 18 = Moderately optimistic
      3. 14 to 16 = Average
      4. 11 to 13 = Quite pessimistic
      5. 10 or less = Greatly pessimistic
    7. Overall Optimism = G - B
      1. 8 + = Very optimistic
      2. 6 to 7 = Moderately optimistic
      3. 3 to 5 = Average
      4. 1 or 2 = Moderately pessimistic
      5. 0 or below = Very pessimistic
  6. Discuss Seligman's ABCDE solution (Adversity, Beliefs, Consequences, Disputation, Energisation):
    • A is for adversity: When we encounter adversity, we react by thinking about it.
    • B is for beliefs. Our thoughts rapidly congeal into beliefs.
    • C is for consequences. These beliefs .... have consequences.
    • D is for disputation. We find evidence against the negative beliefs, alternatives to our negative reasoning, and limit the implication of the beliefs. Seligman writes that "Much of the skill of dealing with setbacks ... consists of learning how to dispute your own first thoughts in reaction to a setback."
    • E is for energisation. We feel energised after we've disputed our false, negative beliefs. [2]
  7. Note: Almost all students completing the LOT in tutorials indicate that their score suggests that they are much more pessimistic than they believe themselves to be. There seems to be a problem with the calibration of the interpretation scale - and an apparent lack of normative data.

We did the learned optimism test. The interesting thing about my results were that I was way lower on the optimism scale than I expected -I always thought myself a reasonably optimistic type of person. It all was tied into self esteem and learned helplessness.

Since my textbook chapter was on animals, this was of particular interest to me since Seligman discovered the phenomenon. the concept that someone (or an animal) can become so defeated or broken spirited that they feel they have no control over their environment is actually very sad. It is reassuring to know that therapy can help (both humans and animals) who feel there are no options, that they have no control over what happens to them.

I love the whole idea of positive psychology, how we can take control of our lives by doing small things and addressing the big ones that are our personal barriers to where we really want to be in life. I know where I want to be and I know I have many barriers to cross, but my ticket to where I want to be begins with finishing my degree, which I'm hoping will goive me a lot more scope in better employment so I can enjoy what I really want to be doing a lot more. In my opinion it's no good just thinking about whewre your goals are then not taking action - action is probably the scariest thing to do, especially when you have many responsibilities and other people will affect.

However, I also feel that in denying one's true purpose that we back ourselves into a corner and never self actualize, how can we when we don't allow ourselves to reach our full potential? I guess a lot of decision we make are based on fear or guilt, because of the social pressures we place on ourselves - we don't wanbt to be selfish and do our own thing, yet deep down we know that it is exactly what we want to do!

So my philosophy on getting what I want out of life is that it is a mountain, but even a mountain can be moved shovel by shovel....I just gotta start.....Mixie 00:50, 16 November 2010 (UTC)

Self (life effectiveness)

  1. Self-constructs: Brainstorm, discuss and distinguish amongst self-constructs, including self-esteem, self-concept, self-worth, self-efficacy etc.
  2. Present and discuss notion of life effectiveness - handout - for more info, see
    1. Related concepts: Practical intelligence, self-concept etc.
    2. Definitions of generic life effectiveness skills
    3. Describe the eight life effectiveness (LEQ-H) dimensions
  3. Present and discuss outdoor education results from
  4. Highlight the general trend of a small drop between pre-program and first day (due to situational threat), the substantial increase during the program (probably inflated by post-group euphoria at program end), and the partial loss of gains during the follow-up period (typical of interventions). Of potential concern is that the 1st day to last day snapshot (typical of many evaluations) may over-estimate the amount of change during the program due to the initial depression and end-of-program euphoria. Thus, longitudinal research with a control group is preferable.

we did the life effectiveness questionnaire (LEQ_H) and all my scores were at the extreme upper end of the scale. I am not sure how this relates to my life effectiveness but I think i work effectively in most situations - at least I try to make the best of any situation - even if it isn't ideal.

What I found interesting was the questionnaire for youth at risk. I am very interested in this field as I would like to use equine therapy on youth at risk as it has been shown in the USA and some other places that the interactions between humans (prisoners) and wild horses make huge chanhges in the prisoners. The prisoners are given a horse (they know nothing about horses to begin with) and they have to try to build a relationship with that horse and get to a point where they can ride it so it cn be rehomed. There is already a similar scheme in the US where prisoners train dogs, which has been shown to be effective as well.

Considering the prisoners are used to doing things a certain way, they need to change their strategy with horses because equines are bigger, stronger and faster, and will defend themselves if they have to. The results (Strimple, 2003) are that they learn self control, patience and they become empowered in a skill they never thought possible. Here is a website that also does similar therapy....[[3]] Mixie 01:08, 16 November 2010 (UTC)


Strimple, E. O. (2003). A history of prison inmate-animal interaction programs. American Behavioral Scientist, 47(1), 70.

Tutorial 4[edit]

  1. Hand-out the List of specific emotions (per group) with scissors - cut up the emotion words - need lots of table space
  2. Conduct an emotion Q sort - in small groups, sort, discuss and agree on an organised model of the emotions (into underlying clusters or families). Try not to be restricted or overly-guided by previous theory.
  3. Share and discuss each groups' model with the rest of the class
  4. Colour-code/label each major grouping - photograph and upload the results

So we sorted our emotions into groups and found that we felt some of them weren't emotions (such as greedy or obnoxiousness) which is more of a attitude) so we had a separate group for that. We also had some emotions that were related to others so we tried to demonstrate how they crossed over. We also felt there was a cognitive aspect to most emotions - sometimes the cognitive affected the emotion, other times the emotion affected the cognitive.

We filled out another questionnaire:

Wikipedia-logo.png Search for Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule on Wikipedia.
  1. Complete and score the 20-item PANAS
  2. Compare with SMU undergraduate norms
  3. Discuss forms and psychometrics

My scores on the PANAS scale were average so nothing I felt stood out here.Mixie 01:31, 16 November 2010 (UTC)

Tutorial 5[edit]

  • Handout
  • Happiness and Personality - Happiness/Unhappiness - Extraversion/Neuroticism - BAS/BIS
  • Arousal: Arousal, Optimal Arousal and Sensation Seeking
  • Control: Perceived control and Desire for control
  • Sensation seeking is a personality trait which has been identified and described by Marvin Zuckerman (1971). Zuckerman was a student participant in sensory deprivation experiments who became intrigued by people who were least able to tolerate a lack of stimulation.
  • Sensation seeking scale (Wikipedia)
  • Online versions: BBC, RTA
  • Other versions: SSS with scoring instructions

Sensation seeking scale

There are four factors:

  1. Thrill and adventure seeking (10 items) - desire to engage in sports or activities involving some physical danger or risk such as mountain climbing, parachute jumping, scuba diving, speeding in a car, etc.
  2. Experience seeking (10 items) - desire to seek new experiences through the mind and senses by living in a nonconforming life style with unconventional friends, and through travel.
  3. Disinhibition (10 items) - need to disinhibit behaviour in the social sphere by drinking, partying and seeking variety in sexual partners.
  4. Boredom susceptibility (10 items) - aversion for repetitive experience of any kind, routine work, or even dull or predictable people. Other items indicate a restless reaction when things are unchanging.

Complete the SSS (online or from handout), score your total and factor scores, and then contribute your data to the class graph and data sheet (if willing).

Discuss the constructs and distributions.

We did the scale and discussed the outcomes of our scores. My scores surprised me since I thought I was extremely intolerant of boring activites and I found the opposite to be true. The overall sensation seeking scale was interesting since those in the class who scored high were all in their 20's. I also observed that if I was asked the identical questions when I was 20 or so, then my answers would have also been different. I never used to be nervous about thrill seeking activites, but now I am much more reserved and I feel it relates to my age and the fact that I have caring responsibilities. Mixie 01:39, 16 November 2010 (UTC)

Tutorial 6[edit]

Problems for discussion

  1. Do you know a self-actualised and/or fully functioning individual? What gives you this impression?

Yes, I believe I do...this person is living the life she dreamed of and is also financially free, her job is her life's passion and she married the right man who has the same passion. She has it made.Mixie 02:33, 17 November 2010 (UTC)

  1. Do you know someone in whom the actualisation tendency is particularly weak? (e.g., someone who consistently pursue external validation and adopts a facade when interacting with others?) What gives you this impression?

  1. In general, does evil reside in human nature or is it a product of a sick culture?

I believe evil has potential to be everywhere but is more a product of environment.Mixie 02:33, 17 November 2010 (UTC)

100% evil = ___ % human nature + ___ % environmental engineering
  1. As a parent raising a child who expresses a somewhat socially undesirable temperament, which option would you recommend - Explain/defend your answer:
    1. raise the child in his or her natural temperament or
    2. raise the child to conform to the more socially-desirable temperament?

I believe children have their innate characteristics which should be nurtured, howver I do not believe any child is born evil, but evil is a product of their environment. That said, I believe that certain traits make them more prediposed to evil, but if the environment is right, they should never fall into the "evil" trap. So they should be raised in their natural temperament but in a positive, nurturong environment, and they should learn to conform to live in a socially desirable way, otherwise they will always be outcast. They can learn appropriate coping skills if they have problematic traits, given the right approach.

  1. Do you mostly agree or mostly disagree with the following statement by Rogers: Learning does not follow from teaching. Rather, learning follows having one’s interests identified, facilitated, and supported.
  2. Explain the following concepts:
    1. growth-seeking and validation-seeking.
    2. Maslow’s distinction between growth and deficiency needs.
    3. Rogers’ distinction between congruence and incongruence.
    4. Autonomy and control causality orientations.
  3. Disuss what types of social interactions
    1. support growth-seeking, growth needs, congruence, and an autonomy causality orientation?
    2. lead to validation-seeking, deficiency needs, facades, and a control causality orientation.

Discuss self actualization

  1. Complete and discuss - Characteristics of a self-actualizing person or rate yourself on each characteristic below from 1 (Not like you) to 10 (Very much like you). The highest total you can receive is 160 points. How close are you? What is it that has given you a higher score? What might you do to make your score higher on any given characteristic?


  1. Acceptance of self, of others, of nature--"not complaining about water because it is wet." Stoic style of calmly accepting even the worst.
  2. Identification with the human species--identification with all of humanity versus just their own family, friends, culture, or nation.
  3. Emphasis on higher level values--self-actualizing persons seem to spend less of their time concentrating on the lower values (safety, belongingness, etc. listed above) and more of their time being concerned primarily with higher values or metavalues.
  4. Perception of reality--greater perceptual accuracy of reality. Superior ability to reason and perceive the truth and understand people at a deeper level.
  5. Discrimination between means and ends, between good and evil--Clearer and more focused upon ends than most people; though they view their experiences and activities more as ends in themselves than most people.
  6. Resolution of dichotomies (conflicts). Resolved conflicts that plague most people, because of their highly developed, accepting philosophy of life.


  1. Autonomy and resistance to enculturation.
  2. Detachment and desire for privacy--high enjoyment of privacy and solitude. Calm and at peace with themselves.
  3. Spontaneity, simplicity, naturalness--reflects integration of values and habits. Open, integrated values and habits.


  1. Problem-centering--easily forget self and easily absorbed in tasks they love and/or feel are extremely important.
  2. Creativeness--retain an almost childlike fresh, naive, and direct way of looking at life. May be partly a result of other factors such as problem-centering.
  3. Freshness of appreciation and richness of emotional reactions--ability to intensely focus on the present and highly involved in it. Very accepting of emotions.
  4. High frequency of peak experiences.


  1. (Intimate) Interpersonal relations--"deeper and more profound interpersonal relations than any other adults." However, these very close relationships are often limited to a very few people. They tend to be kind, patient, affectionate, friendly, and unpretentious; but can be direct and assertive when needed.
  2. Democratic character structure--a person's status is unimportant to them. They do respond to differences in values and character.
  3. Philosophical, unhostile sense of humor.

Discuss a sense of meaning

  1. Compare and contrast Maslow's characteristics of self-actualization with Carl Rogers' The fully functioning person (Wikipedia)
  1. Viktor Frankl, sense of meaning and logotherapy

I read this book a few years ago and it moved me deeply, I never forgot it. I do believe that everyone needs a purpose or needs to feel they have a purpose on this earth to be really complete. That life is never as bad as it seems for there is always someone better or worse off than you. Gratitude for what we have is important, this includes family or friends, since you don't realise what you have until it's gone....especially if they are taken from you before their time....... Mixie 02:33, 17 November 2010 (UTC)

  1. Antonovsky, salutogenesis and sense of coherence (SOC).
    1. SOC is “The extent to which one has a pervasive, enduring though dynamic, feeling of confidence that one’s environment is predictable and that things will work out as well as can reasonably be expected.” It has three components – comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness.[5]
      1. A sense of comprehensibility:
        1. Do you feel that you can understand things, that things make sense and are not confusing?
        2. Do you feel that things are predictable or can be expected? In other words, do you feel like you know what’s going to happen next, or that you know what’s coming?
      2. A sense of manageability:
        1. Do you feel that things are manageable or within your control, that things can be handled or taken care of?
        2. Do you feel you have the skills or ability, the support, the help, or the resources necessary to take care of things?
      3. A sense of meaningfulness:
        1. Do you feel that things are interesting or fascinating, a source of pleasure or satisfaction?
        2. Do you feel that things are really worth it, that there is good reason or purpose to care about what happens?[6]
  2. Complete the SOC13 and compare with UC student item means (SOC29, Abou-Abou-Hamdan, 2008, N = 355):
  Scale                M       SD      Skew     Kurtosis
  Overall SOC	        4.19	0.78	-0.36	 0.29
  Comprehensibility	3.96	0.90	-0.02	-0.19
  Manageability	        4.71	0.94	-0.38	-0.10
  Meaningfulness	5.01	1.06	-0.62	 0.22

Practical exercises Choose one of the following out-of-classroom "happiness exercises" from positive psychology therapy to try and report about your experience and the results in your e-portfolio:

  1. Gratitude visit. Write a letter or visit and share about your gratitude to someone who has been especially kind to you but never really thanked.
  2. Three good things in life. Each day, write down three things that go well and identify the cause of each.
  3. You at your best. Write about a time when you functioned at your best. Reflect on the personal resources that made that functioning possible.
  4. Identify signature strengths. Identify up to five personal signature strengths (from a list such as the one in Reeve, 2009, Table 15.3) and find a way to use each in a new way.

We discussed mostly about the concept of evil in children and the conversation turned to rehabilitation of children who commit adult crimes (the Jamie Bulger story) and how as adults, how we thought the two murderers could never be rehabilitated. One was recently reported to have been found with porn material as an example. The scary thing is, could it have been prevented, were these two as children exposed to such a terrible upbringing that caused them to have no empathy for a weaker, smaller individual? Did they plan it or did they just snap in the moment and regret it later? What scares me is the number of children these days committing such horrendous crimes and that I believe for the most part, that they can be prevented by being brought up in the right environment. Prevention is always better than cure!

The happiness exercises were interesting, I liked number three as I can think of a time when I was at my best an now I so want to get back to that "happy place". I had plenty of family support at the time, no financial worries, everything was looking up. Boy how life changes!!Mixie 02:30, 17 November 2010 (UTC)

In conclusion,

Looking back over the earlier material, one that struck a chord with me was motivating others. I am thinking about what I learned from this unit that can help me help them. When I look at the senstion seeking scale and think of someone very close to me, they exhibit all of the thrill seeking behaviours (I'm sure it is all age related) and I am thinking about ways to motivate them to become more autonomous and do less self destructive behaviours. I am gettig them involved in something they love and encouraging them to stop being self destructive because they will never achieve their goals if they continue on the path they are on. A part of achieving goals is being in good health and being fit. They feel a state of learned helplessness at the moment so I am helping them build autonomy and the ability to make their own decisions in a supportive environment. The concepts and theories I learned about in the unit (such as learned helplessness) I found fascinating and fun to learn.

Being self motivated to engage in the book chapter was he best part abut this unit, I really enjoyed it because it is a topic of great interest to me. I also love the idea of using animals in therapy, I feel it is a very powerful tool. I also like the idea that I can use the strategies I have learned throughout the unit and apply them to raising my own children without an authoritarian apporach but a collaborative one, where they have a say in what they want to do in their lives.

Even though it was a steep learning curve, I enjoyed learning how to use WIKI as a resource and a learning tool - also Screenr for presentations...even though 5 minutes is not very long! Mixie 04:47, 18 November 2010 (UTC)