User:Lilly15/The Impact Poor Role Models have on Sport

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Presentation Supporting Essay

Presentation, The Impact Poor Role Models Have on Sport

Sporting stars are held up as role models. Children look up to, and aspire to be like them, but are continually let down through their inexcusable behaviour on and off the field. A sportstar misbehaving draws a lot of media attention, which results in a negative impact for the club, a tarnished image for the athlete and affects the reputation of the sport code more widely. So are sport stars becoming less admirable as the years go by?

There are a range of indiscretions that have come about in recent times including athletes using performance enhancing drugs, intoxicated incidents and even sexual assaults. Indiscretions like these create a bad reputation for the sport and are unacceptable in society. In this essay I will be highlighting the significance and effect that player indiscretions have on the sporting business, including the impact on sponsorship deals, player contracts and grassroots sport. I will ask questions like, how much of a role does the media have on these indiscretions. I will also look at cases where this behaviour has occurred and what politics are involved with sanctioning players, through the club they are involved with or the sporting body tribunals/ judiciaries. Finally I will also consider the impact that a positive role model has on a club, and look at examples of successful role models and the influence they have.

Tiger Woods in 2009 image by Tim Hipps

INTRODUCTION[edit]

The term role model is generally defined as ‘a person who serves as an example, who’s behaviour is emulated by others’ [1]. A role model is someone who posses unique qualities that inspire and motivate people to seek out accomplishment and become a better person[2]. Do sporting stars fit this definition or are they becoming less admirable as years go by?

People are beginning to think the worst of athletes with indiscretions frequently occurring in recent times, a number of athletes are creating a bad reputation for sport which results in them being labelled as poor role models. Young children look up to these athletes and aspire to be like them [3], but continue to be let down through their unacceptable behaviour on and off the field [4].

During this essay I will be highlighting the impact that poor role models have on sport, particularly focusing on the business and politics aspects. I will look at the impact on sponsorship deals, player contracts and grassroots sport. I will also look at how much affect the media have on player indiscretions. I will use cases where indiscretions have occurred in the past and highlight what politics were involved with sanctioning the players. Finally I will highlight the impact a positive role model has on a club, looking at an example of a role model and influence they have on sport.

Business[edit]

Sport is used by people to obtain profit and status, over time sport has transferred into a large business [5]. Televising sporting events, player contracts, owning sports teams all involve a rich amount of money.

Player imprudence has significant effects on the sporting business and also moral and ethical issues arise, from national sport to local sport. This includes sponsorship deals, player contracts and grassroots sports.

Sponsorship[edit]

Sponsorship is pivotal to a successful club or organisation; it is a business relationship between a provider of funds and an individual or an organisation which in return offers the provider of funds commercial advantage, through advertising their brand and creating awareness [6].

Without sponsors, sport would struggle financially and not be as dominant as it is today. Sport relies on sponsors to help them financially [7] they also save on expenditure and add value to the sporting experience. A sponsorship deal is made if both parties believe that it will benefit them in some way, sponsors do not want to be involved with a club that has frequent incidents that obtain plenty of negative media attention[8]. This looks bad for both the club and the sponsors involved at the club, in the past this has resulted in sponsors withdrawing their funds from the deal[9], which results in the club or athlete being financially uncertain, with a tarnished image and struggling to obtain a new sponsorship deal. All this because of an athlete misbehaving.

A classic example of this is professional golfer Tiger Woods. Going from the highest paid athlete in the world, with the number one golf ranking and having the world at he’s feet, to losing most of he’s sponsors which resulted in millions of dollars, also losing he’s number one ranking and being labelled as poor role model to young children after years of being regarded the most inspirational athlete in the world[10]. All this came about because he did not set the right example in society and was unfaithful to his wife, which has had a large impact on his life.

Contracts[edit]

When an athlete misbehaves, the club or sports national body has the option of terminating their contract and stopping them having a part in the club or the sport itself [11]. A contract is an agreement between two parties which involves an exchange of promises and creates a legal obligation. In sport, the contract would generally be between the club and the athlete. Clubs no longer tolerate unacceptable behaviour by their players, one alcohol fuelled or drug related indiscretion, could result in the player’s contract being torn up [12].

If an athletes contract was torn up, this would impact on the sporting business, the club would lose a player and if this certain player was high performing and exciting to watch, crowd numbers may drop and affect the club's income. The player would have to go into negotiations with other clubs but may struggle to obtain a new contract because they have done the wrong thing elsewhere, they would also be renowned as a poor role model and their career in the sport could be over. An example of this is Todd Carney a terrific Rugby League talent, but continues to misbehave and let everyone down. Carney first lost his contract at the Canberra Raiders after a drunken rampage in his hometown of Goulburn which he also recieved a 12 month suspended sentence[13]. The Sydney Roosters offered Carney a lifeline in 2010 but recently has been involved in more indiscretions which resulted in Carney loosing his second contract in 4 years[14]. This is strong evidence to suggest that sport stars are becoming less admirable as years pass and not good role models which has a large impact on sport.

Grassroots Sport[edit]

Indiscretions that occur in a particular sport results in parents not wanting their children to be involved with a sport that has poor role models that do not set the right example for their children. This could have a large impact on the sport industry in the future which may result in grassroots player numbers dropping, finding it hard to field teams and run competitions for the younger generations.

In contrast positive role models in sport impact on individuals and the community. Well known and successful sportspeople have been asked to promote programs that are being initiated to increase sport participation. There is evidence to suggest that these programs do increase participation in sport and provide an enjoyable environment for young kids [15]. Different programs include Auskick, Kanga cricket, Netta netball and hot shots tennis just to name a few[16]. This shows the importance of having good role models in the community and the positive impact they have on sport.

Politics[edit]

Sanctioning Athletes[edit]

Contracts are used to determine the rights and obligations of players and their governing body. Players also have a code of conduct which they must follow which outlines their expected behaviour and what sanctions can be enforced on the players who break the code [17]. Sanctions can range from a fine to a suspension and even a life ban depending on the circumstances of the case.

Sports organisations have legal responsibilities in concern with sanctioning their players for wrongdoing on and off the field. These organisations also have moral obligations to establish high standards of behaviour and provide a safe, respectful and inviting sporting environment for everyone who is involved. Tribunals deal with the organisations complaints procedure and will assist sporting organisations in managing issue which arise [18].

Fair Playing Field?[edit]

An example of a political debate in sport involved Shane Warne’s drug scandal, former Australian cricket player who in 2003 tested positive for a banned diuretic[19]. Warne received a one year ban from the sport in which put the Australian Cricket Board under extreme pressure to explain why he only received a one year ban which was only half the penalty recommended by the sports anti-doping code.This caused conflict between the two parties, why was Warne only punished half his recommended sentence? Was it because he was at his peak of his career, dominating the sport and the Australian Cricket Board felt that they needed him to win games? What would the punishment of been if it was a less high profile player who committed the incident?. This case signifies the politics involved with sanctioning players and how fair the system really is.

Court of Abitration[edit]

The Court of Arbitration for sport is an international body which settles disputes that are related to sport and politics[20]. Disgraced Australian Olympic swimmer Nick D’Arcy was the subject of a bringing the sport into disrepute when he was involved with in an altercation with swimming teammate Simon Cowley who suffered serious facial injuries. D’Arcy was charged by police and Australian Olympic Committee president John Coates decided to terminate his membership of the Olympic team. D’Arcy appealed this decision to the Court of Arbitration on the grounds that proper procedure was not followed. The AOC resolved that D’Arcy membership should be terminated [21]. It was stated that D’Arcy’s conduct was ‘serious misconduct’ which also consisted of criminal misbehaviour. This highlights the politics involved and the seriousness of penalties handed out to athletes. Nick D’Arcy young talented swimmer about to participate in the Olympics but one mistake which was due to alcohol has impacted on his life significantly.

Media[edit]

Media Influence[edit]

‘Sport and the media are two of the most powerful influences that affect how society works’[22]. Media coverage can benefit the sporting business in a variety of different ways. Media can help create sponsorship deals, gain more spectators to the sport and create a positive profile for sport. But the media can also have a large negative impact on a sport, club or athlete. If you are a sporting athlete, incidents that happen off the field are bound to become public, not just through the traditional media outlets like the newspaper and television but through people making it available on the internet for the whole world to see.

Dog Act[edit]

Joel Monagham, Canberra Raiders star was involved in a crude, alcohol fuelled prank which involved a sex act with a dog that was published on the internet and went viral through social networking sites [23]. It resulted in Monagham being labelled as an appalling and disgusting person which prompted him leaving the Raiders to pursue a career overseas away from the media limelight. This example highlights just how powerful media can be.

Media Impact[edit]

Sport stars are often placed on a pedestal and feel that normal rules do not apply to them but when a small minority go too far and commit very extreme incidents the media instantly gathers their findings and publishes it for everyone to view[24] . The responsibility of the athlete is to act in a manner that will not bring the game into disrepute not to be highlighted as a poor role model who gains a large amount of negative media attention with their mug on the front page of every paper and being the top story on the national news. The media is a large business and has the ability to shatter a sport stars career.

Positive Role Model Influence[edit]

A true role model is someone who sets the right example on the field and inspires people off the field. Nathan Hindmarsh, Parramatta backrower is a perfect example and regarded as one of the most influential and inspiring role models in the NRL and Australian sport[25]. Not only is he a great rugby league player he also spends hours a week working with charity’s, visiting young children in hospital, doing work overseas to help the less fortunate and working with grassroots sport promoting the game of rugby league. Hindmarsh has won a number of awards for his generosity, for example the NRL club’s player’s player which he has won seven times was also named the Women in League ‘favourite son’ in 2010 for his ongoing support for charities [26]. Nathan Hindmarsh deserves every accolade that comes his way, but he just feel’s its part of his job and works hard to be the best role model in the community and creates a positive image for the sport.

CONCLUSION[edit]

In conclusion, poor role models are having a negative impact on sport. Not only are they putting their careers at risk when they commit indiscretions they also have an overall affect on the club they are involved with, their sponsors and the whole sport in general. The likes of Tiger Woods, Todd Carney and Joel Monagham are impacting on the reputation and image of sporting athletes and making society believe that sport stars are not regarded as role models. There is evidence to suggest that it does not impact on the athletes fandom[27] , that they become more popular if they are involved in a scandal. But is this the way that children should be taught to act and replicate this behaviour when their older? There are sport stars that are wonderful role models in the community but they are overshadowed by the frequent alcohol fuelled or drug related indiscretions that dominate the media across the country. So do you think sport stars are becoming less admirable as years go by?

REFERENCES[edit]

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Australian Government, Australian Sports Commision, Media, ausport, viewed 19 October 2011, http://www.ausport.gov.au/participating/women/resources/issues/media

Boock, R 2011, Role models of dishonour, Sunday Star Times, Stuff, viewed 13 October 2011, http://www.stuff.co.nz/sunday-star-times/sport/5642678/Role-models-of-dishonour

Davies C, 2011, The International World of Sport and the Liability for Off-Field Indiscretions, Bond Law Review, Volume 23, Issue 1, viewed 20 October 2011, http://epublications.bond.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1414&context=blr&sei-redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com.au%2Furl%3Fsa%3Dt%26rct%3Dj%26q%3Dmedia%2520impact%2520on%2520sport%2520indiscretions%2520tiger%2520woods%26source%3Dweb%26cd%3D1%26ved%3D0CB4QFjAA%26url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fepublications.bond.edu.au%252Fcgi%252Fviewcontent.cgi%253Farticle%253D1414%2526context%253Dblr%26ei%3Dk7mgTtubHOWpiAenvNzSCQ%26usg%3DAFQjCNHXkfP1898ypyOoix0DwzsCTSz1mg#search=%22media%20impact%20sport%20indiscretions%20tiger%20woods%22

Dell S, 2003, Shane Warne Suspended at Anti Doping Hearing, abcofcricket, viewed 22 October 2011, http://www.abcofcricket.com/Article_Library/news220203/news220203.htm

Donohue P, Australian Government, Australian Sports Commission, Sporting tribunal operations- what you need to know, volume 4, issue 2, viewed 18 October 2011, http://www.ausport.gov.au/sportsofficialmag/roles_and_responsibilities/sporting_tribunal_operations__what_you_need_to_know

Focus Area C- Sport and physical activity in Australian society, Chapter 10- Structural influences on equity and sports participation, OUP, viewed 19 October 2011, http://www.oup.com.au/titles/secondary/health__and__physical_education/physical_education/queensland/9780195573862/10_RUS_QSPE_3pp.pdf

Ford S, 2004, Out of bounds: The influence of sporting heroes, Australian Psychological Society, viewed 22 October 2011, http://www.psychology.org.au/publications/inpsych/popular/sporting/

Goldman L, 2011, Tiger Woods Loses ANOTHER sponsor, Business Insider, viewed 20 October 2011, http://articles.businessinsider.com/2011-08-08/sports/30035839_1_tiger-woods-tag-heuer-golf-digest

Hale L, 2010, How will the Nick Reiwoldt controversy play out?, Ozzie Sport, viewed 18 October 2011,http://ozziesport.com/2010/12/how-will-the-nick-riewoldt-controversy-play-out/


Honeysett S, 2008, League ban for sacked Reni Maitua as Bulldogs contract torn up, The Australian, viewed 26 October 2011, http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/league-ban-for-sacked-maitua/story-e6frg7mo-1111118217673

Jean D, Stockman D, 2009, Carney run out of town, The Canberra Times, viewed 27 October 2011, http://www.canberratimes.com.au/news/local/news/general/carney-run-out-of-town/1455694.aspx

Leeds M, Von Allmen P, The Economics of Sport, The Business of Sports, pp 361, Google Books, viewed 23 October 2011, http://books.google.com.au/books?hl=en&lr=&id=0QrLjDDESawC&oi=fnd&pg=PA361&dq=sport+as+a+business+peter+von+allmen&ots=E7kUUU8mIJ&sig=bJzfrzrT6LUaA4DnEbIh_FVNZ1c#v=onepage&q&f=false

McCullough I, 2011, Sydney Roosters confirm that Todd Carney will be released from final year of NRL contract, Foxsports NRL, viewed 27 October 2011, http://www.foxsports.com.au/league/nrl-premiership/sydney-roosters-confirm-todd-carney-will-be-released-from-final-year-of-nrl-contract/story-fn2mcuj6-1226132407102

Nash W, 2011, Have Misbehaving Sport Stars Been Offered Too Many Yellow Cards?, viewed 26 October 2011, http://www.mondaq.com/x/141740/Sport/Have+Misbehaving+Sports+Stars+Been+Offered+Too+Many+Yellow+Cards

NRL, 2010, Nathan Hindmarsh named WIL 'Favourite Son', NRL, viewed 24 October 2011, http://www.google.com.au/#sclient=psy-ab&hl=en&rlz=1R2TSAU_en&source=hp&q=nathan+hindmarsh+role+model&rlz=1R2TSAU_en&pbx=1&oq=nathan+hindmarsh+role+model&aq=f&aqi=q-n1&aql=1&gs_sm=s&gs_upl=14407l19728l1l21197l25l8l14l0l0l2l389l1551l2-2.3l18l0&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.,cf.osb&fp=dbbd39dca6fa9a9f&biw=1366&bih=441

Payne W, Reynold M, Brown S, Fleming A, Sport Role Models And Their Impact On Participation In Physical Activity: A Literature Review, Vichealth, Ausport, viewed 19 October 2011, http://fulltext.ausport.gov.au/fulltext/2002/vic/Role_Model.pdf

Proszenko A, Walter B 2010, NRL star confirms sex act with dog, Sydney Morning Herald, viewed 20 October 2011, http://www.smh.com.au/rugby-league/league-news/nrl-star-confirms-sex-act-with-dog-20101104-17f99.html

Quick S, Sink, Swim or Sell: A Contribution to the Debate Surrounding the Sponsorship of Sport, pp 15-16, viewed 14 October 2011, http://www.la84foundation.org/SportsLibrary/ASSH%20Bulletins/No%2021/ASSHBulletin21e.pdf

Role Models and Online Mentoring, Who is a Role Model, tech up, viewed 11 October 2011, http://www.techup.org/mentor/mn_rolemd.html

Rothfield P, 2009, 10 Players that can save our game, Daily Telegraph, Buzzwods Blog, viewed 24 October 2011, http://www.google.com.au/#sclient=psy-ab&hl=en&rlz=1R2TSAU_en&source=hp&q=nathan+hindmarsh+role+model&rlz=1R2TSAU_en&pbx=1&oq=&aq=&aqi=&aql=&gs_sm=&gs_upl=&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.,cf.osb&fp=dbbd39dca6fa9a9f&biw=1366&bih=441

Sample codes of conduct, NSW sport and recreation, dsr, viewed 22 October 2011, http://www.dsr.nsw.gov.au/assets/pubs/sportrage/sample_codes_of_conduct.pdf

Sponsorship, GC SE Revision, Teach PE, viewed 14 October 2011, http://www.teachpe.com/gcse_society/sponsorship.php

Sydney Morning Herald, 2005, Knights Lose Sponsor, Sport, League, viewed 20 October 2011, http://www.smh.com.au/news/League/Knights-lose-sponsor/2005/03/09/1110316089003.html

Vescio J, Wilde K, Crosswhite J 2005, Profiling sport role models to enhance initiatives for adolescent girls in physical education and sport, European Physical Education Review, Sagepub, viewed 11 October 2011, http://epe.sagepub.com/content/11/2/153.full.pdf+html

Wikipedia, Court of Abitration for Sport, viewed 25 October 2011, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Court_of_Arbitration_for_Sport

Wikipedia, Role Model, viewed 10 October 2011, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Role_model

Wikipedia, Sponsor, viewed 14 October 2011, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sponsor_(commercial)