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  1. Philosophy (of free culture)
    1. Switches default attitude and behaviour to open
    2. e.g., Stallman's reasons in why schools should use exclusively free software
  2. Components of openness in academia:
    1. open access - e.g., all public or granular access
    2. open licensing - e.g., public domain, creative commons
    3. open formats - e.g., odt, ods, odp, ogg
    4. free and open source software - largely synonymous with free software, open source software, FLOSS but distinct from freeware, shareware
    5. open management - managerial and administrative transparency
  3. open educational resources