User:I.REID

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Crystal Clear app kfm home.png This user is a participant in the Motivation and emotion unit, 2010.
See also: Textbook
Writer1.gif This page is an e-portfolio. Also see other participants' pages.
Week 1 - Introduction to Motivation


What was learnt


Here is an alarm clock.
Page Title 1
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Page title 2[edit]

Sub head
Description
My Experience

See here.

Week 2 - Assessment task skills


What was learnt
My Experience

See here.

Week 3 - Brain and Physiological Needs


What was learnt
My Experience

See here.


Week 4 - Psychological & social needs


What was learnt
My Experience

See here.


Week 5 - Intrinsic-extrinsic motivation & goal-setting


What was learnt
My Experience

See here.


Week 6 - Personal control beliefs, the self & its strivings


What was learnt
Drugs, Alcohol & Violence

See here.

Week 9 - Nature of Emotion


What was learnt
My Experience

See here.

Week 10 - Aspects of Emotion


What was learnt
My Experience

See here.


Week 11 -


What was learnt

I've spent the past few hours reading about Self-efficacy, and how it relates to motivation, and have come to the conclusion that a lot of our happiness comes from maintaining control over our environment, allowing us to seek out satisfactory outcomes. Not being able to do this leads learnt helplessness. A feeling of total despair and an inability to focus and push forward to achieve goals. This element of control over our environment I believe is at the core of motivation.


My Experience

See here.


Week 12 -



What was learnt
Death and the 5 stages of grief

See here.


Week 13 -


What was learnt
Positive Psychology

See here.


Week 14 - Postive Psychology - Tutorial

During this week we covered the fundamentals of positive psychology and how it relates to motivation and emotion. In the tutorials we dicussed the importance of postivity and self development. In particular we related this discussion to Maslows Hiearchy of needs and his final stage of the pyramid known as self-actualisation.

Mazlow's Hierarchy of Needs

During this tutorial we had a group discussion regarding people we would like to study based on the notion of self-actualisation

Questions: What is self actualisation? Is it thinking beyond? Linked with spirituality etc.


What was learnt

In week 13 we finished off on a more positive note, covering the fundamentals of positive psychology and how it related to motivation. The subject of positive psychology is a relatively new one, as traditionally abnormal psychology, that is the focus of mental illness, has overshadowed the psychology field.

This exciting new approach to motivation and behaviour, although just in its infancy has led to some surprising discoveries in regards to optimism and its potential health benefits.

A good example of this is an archival study conducted in 2000 by the University of Kentucky. In this study data was taken from 180 nuns that had written short autobiographies after taking their vows in 1932.

The purpose of this study was to measure the positive emotional content found within the autobiographies and see if any significant correlation could be found between the level of positive emotion within the autobiographies and the health of the nuns between the ages of 75 to 95. Statistically significant results were found indicating that higher levels of positive emotion were strongly correlated with a lessened risk of mortality in the later life.

The results found that 54% of the more cheerful nuns were still alive at the age of 94 when compared to just 11% of the less cheerful quarter.

Seligman uses this study as an example of the emotional health benefits of optimism in his book authentic happiness. However why optimism in general can lead to longer life and better health is not completely known, as other complex factors such as diet, family history of illness can also come into it.
One theory for why optimistic people tend to live longer than less optimistic people is based on autonomic nervous system (ANS) response that occurs when one experiences negative emotions. It is thought that when experiencing a heightened sense of arousal triggered by negative emotion or suppression of positive ones can increase the heart rate and blood pressure of an individual, causing the body to work at a harder rate more periodically, which over time is thought to lead to increased wear and tear (Krantz & Munuck, 1984).
How does optimism directly relate to motivation? One model looked at in the lecture and also found in the Reeves textbook (Reeves, p.449-450) lists a number of factors that can affect our motivation. As covered by Reeves, a number of factors including environment, intrapsychic, interpersonal and physiological factors are all potential variables affecting motivation.
Taking into account a physiological model known as the BIS (Behavioural Inhibition System) an important factor of motivation might be explained by the effects of anxiety. High anxiety can cause someone to focus on a task whereas lower anxiety can cause someone to avoid a behaviour, which in turn can lead to depression (Gray, 1985). Although some anxiety is good, this relationship with motivation and anxiety seems to curve off when anxiety levels get to a really high level (Mogg & Bradley, 1998). Although anxiety has some plausible interaction effects with depression.
A much more obvious environmental factor recently theorised in the positive psychology field is the notion of learnt helplessness.
Seligman also credited for coining the term, observed an interesting phenomenon when looking at the behaviour of dogs in response to electric shocks. Briefly summarised, in a study where he paired some dogs two another set of dogs receiving electric shocks, one set of dogs were unable to stop the shocks whereas the others only had to push a lever.
Those dogs that seemed unable to stop the shocks where then compared to those that could in a follow up experiment.
In this experiment both set of dogs could escape the shocks by jumping over a wall partition from within the box the shocks were occurring. It was observed that those previously unable to control the electric shocks for the most would not do this, instead they lay down and whined. However later, after much effort (usually hundreds of attempts), the helpless dogs could learn to jump over the barrier.
The results of Seligman’s experiments have many implications in regards to learnt behaviour and motivation, suggesting that learnt motivational disturbances such as learnt helplessness can be overcome. It might also be interesting to test possible genetic factors contributing to this behaviour.

References
  1. Seligman, M.E.P. and Maier, S.F. (1967). Failure to escape traumatic shock. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 74, 1–9.
  2. Krantz, D. S., & Manuck, S. B. (1984). Acute psychophysiologic reactivity and risk of cardiovascular disease: A review and methodologic critique.Psychological Bulletin, 96, 435-464.
  3. Gray, J. A. (1985) Issues in the neuropsychology of anxiety: In A.H Tuma & J.D. Maser (Eds.). Anxiety and the anxiety disorders. New Jersey: Erlbaum.