User:Guy vandegrift/Quizbank/Archive1/How things work/Study guide 4

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HTW T4_Study[edit]

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HTW T4_Study-v1s1[edit]

1. The lede's graph of the "Global Land Ocean Temperature Index (1880-2013)" shows little or no temperature rise over the last ____ years

___ a) 100
___ b) 10
___ c) 3
___ d) 300
___ e) 30


2. The lede's "CO2 Emissions per Year" graph (1990-2010) shows solid straight lines that represent

___ a) estimates of the impact on land temperatures
___ b) estimates of the contributions from fossil fuels alone
___ c) estimates made in the year 2000 of what would happen in the future
___ d) estimates of the contributions from everything except fossil fuels


3. In climate science, mitigation refers to:

___ a) building systems resilient to the effects of global warming
___ b) adaptation to the effects of global warming
___ c) reduction of green house emissions
___ d) climate engineering


4. Anthropogenic means something that

___ a) humans cannot repair
___ b) human caused
___ c) will hurt humans
___ d) humans can repair


5. Since 1971, 90% of earth's increased energy caused by global warming has been stored in the _____________, mostly _____________

___ a) land; near the equators
___ b) air; in the water vapor
___ c) sea; in the top kilometer
___ d) sea; in the bottom kilometer
___ e) land; near the poles


6. The lede's graph of the "Global Land Ocean Temperature Index (1880-2013)" shows that since 1920, there has never been a decade of overall cooling

___ a) true
___ b) false


7. The largest temperature increases (from 2000-2009) have occurred

___ a) in the western hemisphere
___ b) near the equator
___ c) on the ocean surface
___ d) near the poles


8. The 2007 IPCC report stated that most global warming was likely being caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities. Among the science academies of the major industrialized nations, this finding was recognized by

___ a) 60% of the academies of science
___ b) all of the academies of science
___ c) all but the US academy of science
___ d) 90% of the academies of science


9. in 2013, the IPCC stated that the largest driver of global warming is carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Other important sources of CO2 are

___ a) population growth
___ b) cement production and land use changes
___ c) population growth and waste disposal
___ d) cement production and waste disposal


10. The lede's graphs of the "Global Land Ocean Temperature Index (1880-2013)" indicates that from 1960 to 2012 the average temperature increased by approximately

___ a) 1.6° Celsius
___ b) 16° Celsius
___ c) 0.06° Celsius
___ d) 0.16° Celsius
___ e) 0.6° Celsius


11. Which statement is FALSE about the lede's map of the temperature anomaly (2000-2009)?

___ a) The United States has warmed more than Australia
___ b) Central Europe has warmed more than the continental United States
___ c) all portions of Antarctica have warmed
___ d) Northern Asia has warmed more than southern Asia


12. The lede's "CO2 Emissions per Year" graph (1990-2010) shows dips and rises that are caused by changes in

___ a) the earth's distance from the sun
___ b) the sun's energy output
___ c) worldwide efforts to curtail emissions
___ d) the world economy


13. The Earth's average surface temperature rose by approximately _______ per decade over the period 1906–2005.}

___ a) 7.0°C
___ b) 0.7°C
___ c) 0.07°C


14. A rise in the sea level is associated with global warming because

___ a) water tends to expand as it warms
___ b) both of these are true
___ c) ice and snow melts


15. What happens when water is heated?

___ a) it expands at temperatures below 3.98°C and contracts above 3.98°C
___ b) it expands at temperatures above 3.98°C and contracts below 3.98°C
___ c) it absorbs CO2


16. No direct method exists that permits an independent measurement of the heat content of the oceans, other than the fact that the air is warming

___ a) true
___ b) false


17. Ocean temperatures are increasing more slowly than land temperatures because oceans have more heat capacity and because evaporation cools the water.

___ a) true
___ b) false


18. Ocean temperatures are increasing more slowly than land temperatures because the oceans are absorbing less heat energy from the sun

___ a) true
___ b) false


19. In the twentieth century, the rate of earth's average temperature rise was closest to

___ a) 0.7 °C per decade
___ b) 0.7 °C per year
___ c) 0.7 °C per century


20. Compared with the first half of the twentieth century, the rate of earth's average temperature rise during the second (latter) half was

___ a) half as much
___ b) about the same
___ c) twice as much


21. Compared with the second half of the twentieth century, the rate of earth's average temperature rise during the first half was

___ a) half as much
___ b) about the same
___ c) twice as much


22. The urban heat island effect refers to the fact that urban areas tend to be hotter than rural areas. The urban heat island effect is estimated to account for approximately _____ of the temperature rise over the past century.

___ a) 0%
___ b) 0.3%
___ c) 3%
___ d) 30%


23. Proxy temperatures measurements are defined as indirect inferences gathered from ice cores, tree rings, and so forth

___ a) true
___ b)false


24. Proxy temperatures measurements are defined as measurements made using measurements from space.

___ a) true
___ b) false


25. The Reconstructed Temperature (0-2000 AD) plot in "Observed Temperature Changes" shows temperature measurements. The solid black line represents

___ a) thermometer measurements
___ b) the Little Ice Age
___ c) a 10 year average
___ d) tree proxy measurements
___ e) the Medieval Warming Period


26. The Reconstructed Temperature (0-2000 AD) plot in "Observed Temperature Changes" shows temperature measurements, as well as what curious feature? (See also Divergence problem)

___ a) a tiny gap at the end of the proxy measurements
___ b) the fact that the different proxy measurements deviate considerably from the average of all proxy measurements
___ c) a divergence between the tree and pollen proxy measurements
___ d) the Little Ice Age being less prominent than the Medieval Warming period


27. The "Greenhouse effect schematic" in the section on "Temperature changes..." indicates that most of the energy from the Sun is absorbed by the earth's atmosphere.

___ a) true
___ b) false


28. Emissions scenarios are

___ a) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by the world's oceans
___ b) estimates of changes in future emission levels of greenhouse gases
___ c) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by agriculture
___ d) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by nature


29. It is expected that carbon emissions will begin to diminish in the 21st century as fossil fuel reserves begin to dwindle.

___ a) true
___ b) false


30. The carbon cycle

___ a) is a proposal to trade carbon credits.
___ b) is an effort to store carbon in underground caves.
___ c) describes how carbon is absorbed and emitted by the oceans, soil, plants, etc.


31. Global dimming, caused by air-born particulates produced by volcanoes and human made pollutants

___ a) is more related to the ozone problem than to global warming
___ b) exerts a cooling effect by increasing the reflection of incoming sunlight
___ c) exerts a heating effect by absorbing infra-red radiation from earth's surface


32. Soot tends to warm the earth when it accumulates in atmospheric brown clouds.

___ a) true
___ b) false


33. Soot tends to cool the earth when it accumulates in atmospheric brown clouds.

___ a) true
___ b) false


34. In the arctic, soot tends to cool the earth.

___ a) true
___ b) false


35. In the arctic, soot tends to warm the earth.

___ a) true
___ b) false


36. Approximately what percent of global warming can be attributed to a long-term trend (since 1978) in the sun's energy?

___ a) 10%
___ b) 30%
___ c) 0%
___ d) 50%


37. Greenhouse warming acts to cool the stratosphere

___ a) true
___ b) false


38. The "Greenhouse effect schematic" in the section on "Temperature changes..." indicates that most of the energy from the Sun is absorbed at the earth's surface.

___ a) true
___ b) false


39. Greenhouse warming acts to warm the stratosphere

___ a) true
___ b) false


40. The distinction between the urban heat island effect and land use changes is that the latter involves the earth's average temperature while the former involves only the temperature near weather stations where the measurements are made

___ a) true
___ b) false


41. Depleting the ozone layer cools the stratosphere because ozone allows UV radiation to penetrate.

___ a) true
___ b) false


42. Depleting the ozone layer cools the stratosphere because ozone absorbs UV energy from the sun that heats the stratosphere.

___ a) true
___ b) false


43. Which external force plays the smallest role in current efforts to model global warming?

___ a) solar luminosity (i.e. variations in energy from the sun)
___ b) volcanic eruptions
___ c) orbital cycles
___ d) greenhouse gasses


44. "External forcings" refer to effects that can increase, but not decrease, the Earth's temperature.

___ a) true
___ b) false


45. "External forcings" refer to effects that can either increase or decrease, the Earth's temperature.

___ a) true
___ b) false


46. Water vapor contributes more to the greenhouse effect than does carbon dioxide.

___ a) true
___ b) false


47. Carbon dioxide contributes more to the greenhouse effect than does water vapor.

___ a) true
___ b) false


48. The Keeling curve shows that carbon dioxide concentrations

___ a) show a steady rise in CO2 levels, at constant slope, and irregular fluctuations due associated with El Ninos and La Ninas.
___ b) show a steady rise in CO2 levels, at constant slope, and regular and predictable annual fluctuations
___ c) show a steady rise in CO2 levels, with increasing slope, and regular and predictable annual fluctuations


49. The climate change community is divided between those who believe the goal should be to eliminate the earth's greenhouse effect altogether, and those who argue that we should attempt to minimize earth's greenhouse effect.

___ a) true
___ b) false


50. Changes in ice-albedo refers to changes in

___ a) how much ice is melted during the summer months
___ b) how much CO2 is absorbed by the sun
___ c) how much the Earth's surface absorbs or reflects incoming sunlight


51. The cryosphere refers to

___ a) two of these are true
___ b) the north and south poles
___ c) the upper atmosphere
___ d) the highest mountains


52. While computer modeling indicate that the warming since 1970 is dominated by man-made greenhouse gas emissions, they are unable to conclusively ascertain whether the warming from 1910 to 1945 was anthropogenic.

___ a) true
___ b) false


53. Computer modeling has conclusively established that anthropogenic warming has occurred since 1910.

___ a) true
___ b) false


54. How is the validity of a computer model typically tested?

___ a) by verifying its ability to calculate current climate conditions.
___ b) by verifying its ability to calculate past climate conditions.
___ c) by making predictions about future years and seeing if they come true.
___ d) all of these are true


55. The Stefan-Boltzmann law plays a central role in establishing a planets temperature as the sun heats the planet until the thermal (infra-red) radiation away the planet rises to match the solar radiation onto the planet

___ a) true
___ b) false


56. The Stefan-Boltzmann law plays a central role in establishing a planets temperature as the sun heats the planet with thermal (infra-red) radiation adding to the other solar radiation onto the planet

___ a) true
___ b) false


57. Stefan-Boltzmann radiation is called a negative feedback mechanism because if the sun's radiation increases, the Stefan-Boltzmann law ensures that more heat is lost from the planet to compensate.

___ a) true
___ b) false


58. Stefan-Boltzmann radiation is called a negative feedback mechanism because if the sun's radiation increases, the Stefan-Boltzmann law ensures that this heat is retained by the planet.

___ a) true
___ b) false


59. Computer models accurately model feedback mechanisms associated with the role of clouds as a feedback mechanism.}

___ a) true
___ b) false


60. Computer models accurately model feedback mechanisms associated with how the soil will retain or release CO2 as the earth warms.}

___ a) true
___ b) false


61. Analysis of the uncertainties associated with feedback suggests that the "worst-case" scenario is easier to model.

___ a) true
___ b) false


62. Analysis of the uncertainties associated with feedback suggests that the "worst-case" scenario is more difficult to model.

___ a) true
___ b) false


Key to HTW T4_Study-v1s1[edit]

1. The lede's graph of the "Global Land Ocean Temperature Index (1880-2013)" shows little or no temperature rise over the last ____ years

- a) 100
+ b) 10
- c) 3
- d) 300
- e) 30


2. The lede's "CO2 Emissions per Year" graph (1990-2010) shows solid straight lines that represent

- a) estimates of the impact on land temperatures
- b) estimates of the contributions from fossil fuels alone
+ c) estimates made in the year 2000 of what would happen in the future
- d) estimates of the contributions from everything except fossil fuels


3. In climate science, mitigation refers to:

- a) building systems resilient to the effects of global warming
- b) adaptation to the effects of global warming
+ c) reduction of green house emissions
- d) climate engineering


4. Anthropogenic means something that

- a) humans cannot repair
+ b) human caused
- c) will hurt humans
- d) humans can repair


5. Since 1971, 90% of earth's increased energy caused by global warming has been stored in the _____________, mostly _____________

- a) land; near the equators
- b) air; in the water vapor
+ c) sea; in the top kilometer
- d) sea; in the bottom kilometer
- e) land; near the poles


6. The lede's graph of the "Global Land Ocean Temperature Index (1880-2013)" shows that since 1920, there has never been a decade of overall cooling

- a) true
+ b) false


7. The largest temperature increases (from 2000-2009) have occurred

- a) in the western hemisphere
- b) near the equator
- c) on the ocean surface
+ d) near the poles


8. The 2007 IPCC report stated that most global warming was likely being caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities. Among the science academies of the major industrialized nations, this finding was recognized by

- a) 60% of the academies of science
+ b) all of the academies of science
- c) all but the US academy of science
- d) 90% of the academies of science


9. in 2013, the IPCC stated that the largest driver of global warming is carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Other important sources of CO2 are

- a) population growth
+ b) cement production and land use changes
- c) population growth and waste disposal
- d) cement production and waste disposal


10. The lede's graphs of the "Global Land Ocean Temperature Index (1880-2013)" indicates that from 1960 to 2012 the average temperature increased by approximately

- a) 1.6° Celsius
- b) 16° Celsius
- c) 0.06° Celsius
- d) 0.16° Celsius
+ e) 0.6° Celsius


11. Which statement is FALSE about the lede's map of the temperature anomaly (2000-2009)?

- a) The United States has warmed more than Australia
- b) Central Europe has warmed more than the continental United States
+ c) all portions of Antarctica have warmed
- d) Northern Asia has warmed more than southern Asia


12. The lede's "CO2 Emissions per Year" graph (1990-2010) shows dips and rises that are caused by changes in

- a) the earth's distance from the sun
- b) the sun's energy output
- c) worldwide efforts to curtail emissions
+ d) the world economy


13. The Earth's average surface temperature rose by approximately _______ per decade over the period 1906–2005.}

- a) 7.0°C
- b) 0.7°C
+ c) 0.07°C


14. A rise in the sea level is associated with global warming because

- a) water tends to expand as it warms
+ b) both of these are true
- c) ice and snow melts


15. What happens when water is heated?

- a) it expands at temperatures below 3.98°C and contracts above 3.98°C
+ b) it expands at temperatures above 3.98°C and contracts below 3.98°C
- c) it absorbs CO2


16. No direct method exists that permits an independent measurement of the heat content of the oceans, other than the fact that the air is warming

- a) true
+ b) false


17. Ocean temperatures are increasing more slowly than land temperatures because oceans have more heat capacity and because evaporation cools the water.

+ a) true
- b) false


18. Ocean temperatures are increasing more slowly than land temperatures because the oceans are absorbing less heat energy from the sun

- a) true
+ b) false


19. In the twentieth century, the rate of earth's average temperature rise was closest to

- a) 0.7 °C per decade
- b) 0.7 °C per year
+ c) 0.7 °C per century


20. Compared with the first half of the twentieth century, the rate of earth's average temperature rise during the second (latter) half was

- a) half as much
- b) about the same
+ c) twice as much


21. Compared with the second half of the twentieth century, the rate of earth's average temperature rise during the first half was

+ a) half as much
- b) about the same
- c) twice as much


22. The urban heat island effect refers to the fact that urban areas tend to be hotter than rural areas. The urban heat island effect is estimated to account for approximately _____ of the temperature rise over the past century.

- a) 0%
- b) 0.3%
+ c) 3%
- d) 30%


23. Proxy temperatures measurements are defined as indirect inferences gathered from ice cores, tree rings, and so forth

+ a) true
- b)false


24. Proxy temperatures measurements are defined as measurements made using measurements from space.

- a) true
+ b) false


25. The Reconstructed Temperature (0-2000 AD) plot in "Observed Temperature Changes" shows temperature measurements. The solid black line represents

+ a) thermometer measurements
- b) the Little Ice Age
- c) a 10 year average
- d) tree proxy measurements
- e) the Medieval Warming Period


26. The Reconstructed Temperature (0-2000 AD) plot in "Observed Temperature Changes" shows temperature measurements, as well as what curious feature? (See also Divergence problem)

+ a) a tiny gap at the end of the proxy measurements
- b) the fact that the different proxy measurements deviate considerably from the average of all proxy measurements
- c) a divergence between the tree and pollen proxy measurements
- d) the Little Ice Age being less prominent than the Medieval Warming period


27. The "Greenhouse effect schematic" in the section on "Temperature changes..." indicates that most of the energy from the Sun is absorbed by the earth's atmosphere.

- a) true
+ b) false


28. Emissions scenarios are

- a) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by the world's oceans
+ b) estimates of changes in future emission levels of greenhouse gases
- c) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by agriculture
- d) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by nature


29. It is expected that carbon emissions will begin to diminish in the 21st century as fossil fuel reserves begin to dwindle.

- a) true
+ b) false


30. The carbon cycle

- a) is a proposal to trade carbon credits.
- b) is an effort to store carbon in underground caves.
+ c) describes how carbon is absorbed and emitted by the oceans, soil, plants, etc.


31. Global dimming, caused by air-born particulates produced by volcanoes and human made pollutants

- a) is more related to the ozone problem than to global warming
+ b) exerts a cooling effect by increasing the reflection of incoming sunlight
- c) exerts a heating effect by absorbing infra-red radiation from earth's surface


32. Soot tends to warm the earth when it accumulates in atmospheric brown clouds.

- a) true
+ b) false


33. Soot tends to cool the earth when it accumulates in atmospheric brown clouds.

+ a) true
- b) false


34. In the arctic, soot tends to cool the earth.

- a) true
+ b) false


35. In the arctic, soot tends to warm the earth.

+ a) true
- b) false


36. Approximately what percent of global warming can be attributed to a long-term trend (since 1978) in the sun's energy?

- a) 10%
- b) 30%
+ c) 0%
- d) 50%


37. Greenhouse warming acts to cool the stratosphere

+ a) true
- b) false


38. The "Greenhouse effect schematic" in the section on "Temperature changes..." indicates that most of the energy from the Sun is absorbed at the earth's surface.

+ a) true
- b) false


39. Greenhouse warming acts to warm the stratosphere

- a) true
+ b) false


40. The distinction between the urban heat island effect and land use changes is that the latter involves the earth's average temperature while the former involves only the temperature near weather stations where the measurements are made

+ a) true
- b) false


41. Depleting the ozone layer cools the stratosphere because ozone allows UV radiation to penetrate.

- a) true
+ b) false


42. Depleting the ozone layer cools the stratosphere because ozone absorbs UV energy from the sun that heats the stratosphere.

+ a) true
- b) false


43. Which external force plays the smallest role in current efforts to model global warming?

- a) solar luminosity (i.e. variations in energy from the sun)
- b) volcanic eruptions
+ c) orbital cycles
- d) greenhouse gasses


44. "External forcings" refer to effects that can increase, but not decrease, the Earth's temperature.

- a) true
+ b) false


45. "External forcings" refer to effects that can either increase or decrease, the Earth's temperature.

- a) true
+ b) false


46. Water vapor contributes more to the greenhouse effect than does carbon dioxide.

+ a) true
- b) false


47. Carbon dioxide contributes more to the greenhouse effect than does water vapor.

- a) true
+ b) false


48. The Keeling curve shows that carbon dioxide concentrations

- a) show a steady rise in CO2 levels, at constant slope, and irregular fluctuations due associated with El Ninos and La Ninas.
- b) show a steady rise in CO2 levels, at constant slope, and regular and predictable annual fluctuations
+ c) show a steady rise in CO2 levels, with increasing slope, and regular and predictable annual fluctuations


49. The climate change community is divided between those who believe the goal should be to eliminate the earth's greenhouse effect altogether, and those who argue that we should attempt to minimize earth's greenhouse effect.

- a) true
+ b) false


50. Changes in ice-albedo refers to changes in

- a) how much ice is melted during the summer months
- b) how much CO2 is absorbed by the sun
+ c) how much the Earth's surface absorbs or reflects incoming sunlight


51. The cryosphere refers to

+ a) two of these are true
- b) the north and south poles
- c) the upper atmosphere
- d) the highest mountains


52. While computer modeling indicate that the warming since 1970 is dominated by man-made greenhouse gas emissions, they are unable to conclusively ascertain whether the warming from 1910 to 1945 was anthropogenic.

+ a) true
- b) false


53. Computer modeling has conclusively established that anthropogenic warming has occurred since 1910.

- a) true
+ b) false


54. How is the validity of a computer model typically tested?

- a) by verifying its ability to calculate current climate conditions.
- b) by verifying its ability to calculate past climate conditions.
- c) by making predictions about future years and seeing if they come true.
+ d) all of these are true


55. The Stefan-Boltzmann law plays a central role in establishing a planets temperature as the sun heats the planet until the thermal (infra-red) radiation away the planet rises to match the solar radiation onto the planet

+ a) true
- b) false


56. The Stefan-Boltzmann law plays a central role in establishing a planets temperature as the sun heats the planet with thermal (infra-red) radiation adding to the other solar radiation onto the planet

- a) true
+ b) false


57. Stefan-Boltzmann radiation is called a negative feedback mechanism because if the sun's radiation increases, the Stefan-Boltzmann law ensures that more heat is lost from the planet to compensate.

+ a) true
- b) false


58. Stefan-Boltzmann radiation is called a negative feedback mechanism because if the sun's radiation increases, the Stefan-Boltzmann law ensures that this heat is retained by the planet.

- a) true
+ b) false


59. Computer models accurately model feedback mechanisms associated with the role of clouds as a feedback mechanism.}

- a) true
+ b) false


60. Computer models accurately model feedback mechanisms associated with how the soil will retain or release CO2 as the earth warms.}

- a) true
+ b) false


61. Analysis of the uncertainties associated with feedback suggests that the "worst-case" scenario is easier to model.

- a) true
+ b) false


62. Analysis of the uncertainties associated with feedback suggests that the "worst-case" scenario is more difficult to model.

+ a) true
- b) false


Attribution (for quiz questions) under CC-by-SA license
http://en.wikiversity.org/w/index.php?title=How_things_work_college_course/Global_warming_quiz_1&oldid=1213651
http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/How_things_work_college_course/Global_warming_quizzes
Study guide
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Global_warming&oldid=618541358