User:Guy vandegrift/Quizbank/Archive1/How things work/Sample exam 4

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HTW T4 sample[edit]

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HTW T4 sample-v1s1[edit]

1. Which external force plays the smallest role in current efforts to model global warming?

___ a) solar luminosity (i.e. variations in energy from the sun)
___ b) volcanic eruptions
___ c) greenhouse gasses
___ d) orbital cycles


2. "External forcings" refer to effects that can increase, but not decrease, the Earth's temperature.

___ a) true
___ b) false


3. No direct method exists that permits an independent measurement of the heat content of the oceans, other than the fact that the air is warming

___ a) true
___ b) false


4. The cryosphere refers to

___ a) the upper atmosphere
___ b) the north and south poles
___ c) the highest mountains
___ d) two of these are true


5. How is the validity of a computer model typically tested?

___ a) by verifying its ability to calculate past climate conditions.
___ b) all of these are true
___ c) by verifying its ability to calculate current climate conditions.
___ d) by making predictions about future years and seeing if they come true.


6. The 2007 IPCC report stated that most global warming was likely being caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities. Among the science academies of the major industrialized nations, this finding was recognized by

___ a) all but the US academy of science
___ b) 60% of the academies of science
___ c) all of the academies of science
___ d) 90% of the academies of science


7. It is expected that carbon emissions will begin to diminish in the 21st century as fossil fuel reserves begin to dwindle.

___ a) true
___ b) false


8. Which statement is FALSE about the lede's map of the temperature anomaly (2000-2009)?

___ a) Central Europe has warmed more than the continental United States
___ b) The United States has warmed more than Australia
___ c) all portions of Antarctica have warmed
___ d) Northern Asia has warmed more than southern Asia


9. Compared with the first half of the twentieth century, the rate of earth's average temperature rise during the second (latter) half was

___ a) half as much
___ b) twice as much
___ c) about the same


10. Soot tends to warm the earth when it accumulates in atmospheric brown clouds.

___ a) true
___ b) false


11. While computer modeling indicate that the warming since 1970 is dominated by man-made greenhouse gas emissions, they are unable to conclusively ascertain whether the warming from 1910 to 1945 was anthropogenic.

___ a) true
___ b) false


12. The urban heat island effect refers to the fact that urban areas tend to be hotter than rural areas. The urban heat island effect is estimated to account for approximately _____ of the temperature rise over the past century.

___ a) 0%
___ b) 3%
___ c) 0.3%
___ d) 30%


13. Changes in ice-albedo refers to changes in

___ a) how much CO2 is absorbed by the sun
___ b) how much the Earth's surface absorbs or reflects incoming sunlight
___ c) how much ice is melted during the summer months


14. Ocean temperatures are increasing more slowly than land temperatures because the oceans are absorbing less heat energy from the sun

___ a) true
___ b) false


15. The Keeling curve shows that carbon dioxide concentrations

___ a) show a steady rise in CO2 levels, at constant slope, and irregular fluctuations due associated with El Ninos and La Ninas.
___ b) show a steady rise in CO2 levels, with increasing slope, and regular and predictable annual fluctuations
___ c) show a steady rise in CO2 levels, at constant slope, and regular and predictable annual fluctuations


16. Depleting the ozone layer cools the stratosphere because ozone absorbs UV energy from the sun that heats the stratosphere.

___ a) true
___ b) false


17. The lede's graph of the "Global Land Ocean Temperature Index (1880-2013)" shows that since 1920, there has never been a decade of overall cooling

___ a) true
___ b) false


18. In climate science, mitigation refers to:

___ a) adaptation to the effects of global warming
___ b) reduction of green house emissions
___ c) building systems resilient to the effects of global warming
___ d) climate engineering


19. Emissions scenarios are

___ a) estimates of changes in future emission levels of greenhouse gases
___ b) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by the world's oceans
___ c) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by nature
___ d) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by agriculture


20. The carbon cycle

___ a) is an effort to store carbon in underground caves.
___ b) describes how carbon is absorbed and emitted by the oceans, soil, plants, etc.
___ c) is a proposal to trade carbon credits.


21. The Stefan-Boltzmann law plays a central role in establishing a planets temperature as the sun heats the planet with thermal (infra-red) radiation adding to the other solar radiation onto the planet

___ a) true
___ b) false


22. Stefan-Boltzmann radiation is called a negative feedback mechanism because if the sun's radiation increases, the Stefan-Boltzmann law ensures that this heat is retained by the planet.

___ a) true
___ b) false


23. Proxy temperatures measurements are defined as indirect inferences gathered from ice cores, tree rings, and so forth

___ a) true
___ b)false


24. The Reconstructed Temperature (0-2000 AD) plot in "Observed Temperature Changes" shows temperature measurements, as well as what curious feature? (See also Divergence problem)

___ a) a divergence between the tree and pollen proxy measurements
___ b) the Little Ice Age being less prominent than the Medieval Warming period
___ c) the fact that the different proxy measurements deviate considerably from the average of all proxy measurements
___ d) a tiny gap at the end of the proxy measurements


25. Approximately what percent of global warming can be attributed to a long-term trend (since 1978) in the sun's energy?

___ a) 30%
___ b) 10%
___ c) 0%
___ d) 50%


26. Water vapor contributes more to the greenhouse effect than does carbon dioxide.

___ a) true
___ b) false


27. The largest temperature increases (from 2000-2009) have occurred

___ a) on the ocean surface
___ b) near the equator
___ c) near the poles
___ d) in the western hemisphere


28. Since 1971, 90% of earth's increased energy caused by global warming has been stored in the _____________, mostly _____________

___ a) land; near the equators
___ b) land; near the poles
___ c) sea; in the bottom kilometer
___ d) air; in the water vapor
___ e) sea; in the top kilometer


29. Compared with the second half of the twentieth century, the rate of earth's average temperature rise during the first half was

___ a) half as much
___ b) twice as much
___ c) about the same


30. In the arctic, soot tends to cool the earth.

___ a) true
___ b) false


Key to HTW T4 sample-v1s1[edit]

1. Which external force plays the smallest role in current efforts to model global warming?

- a) solar luminosity (i.e. variations in energy from the sun)
- b) volcanic eruptions
- c) greenhouse gasses
+ d) orbital cycles


2. "External forcings" refer to effects that can increase, but not decrease, the Earth's temperature.

- a) true
+ b) false


3. No direct method exists that permits an independent measurement of the heat content of the oceans, other than the fact that the air is warming

- a) true
+ b) false


4. The cryosphere refers to

- a) the upper atmosphere
- b) the north and south poles
- c) the highest mountains
+ d) two of these are true


5. How is the validity of a computer model typically tested?

- a) by verifying its ability to calculate past climate conditions.
+ b) all of these are true
- c) by verifying its ability to calculate current climate conditions.
- d) by making predictions about future years and seeing if they come true.


6. The 2007 IPCC report stated that most global warming was likely being caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities. Among the science academies of the major industrialized nations, this finding was recognized by

- a) all but the US academy of science
- b) 60% of the academies of science
+ c) all of the academies of science
- d) 90% of the academies of science


7. It is expected that carbon emissions will begin to diminish in the 21st century as fossil fuel reserves begin to dwindle.

- a) true
+ b) false


8. Which statement is FALSE about the lede's map of the temperature anomaly (2000-2009)?

- a) Central Europe has warmed more than the continental United States
- b) The United States has warmed more than Australia
+ c) all portions of Antarctica have warmed
- d) Northern Asia has warmed more than southern Asia


9. Compared with the first half of the twentieth century, the rate of earth's average temperature rise during the second (latter) half was

- a) half as much
+ b) twice as much
- c) about the same


10. Soot tends to warm the earth when it accumulates in atmospheric brown clouds.

- a) true
+ b) false


11. While computer modeling indicate that the warming since 1970 is dominated by man-made greenhouse gas emissions, they are unable to conclusively ascertain whether the warming from 1910 to 1945 was anthropogenic.

+ a) true
- b) false


12. The urban heat island effect refers to the fact that urban areas tend to be hotter than rural areas. The urban heat island effect is estimated to account for approximately _____ of the temperature rise over the past century.

- a) 0%
+ b) 3%
- c) 0.3%
- d) 30%


13. Changes in ice-albedo refers to changes in

- a) how much CO2 is absorbed by the sun
+ b) how much the Earth's surface absorbs or reflects incoming sunlight
- c) how much ice is melted during the summer months


14. Ocean temperatures are increasing more slowly than land temperatures because the oceans are absorbing less heat energy from the sun

- a) true
+ b) false


15. The Keeling curve shows that carbon dioxide concentrations

- a) show a steady rise in CO2 levels, at constant slope, and irregular fluctuations due associated with El Ninos and La Ninas.
+ b) show a steady rise in CO2 levels, with increasing slope, and regular and predictable annual fluctuations
- c) show a steady rise in CO2 levels, at constant slope, and regular and predictable annual fluctuations


16. Depleting the ozone layer cools the stratosphere because ozone absorbs UV energy from the sun that heats the stratosphere.

+ a) true
- b) false


17. The lede's graph of the "Global Land Ocean Temperature Index (1880-2013)" shows that since 1920, there has never been a decade of overall cooling

- a) true
+ b) false


18. In climate science, mitigation refers to:

- a) adaptation to the effects of global warming
+ b) reduction of green house emissions
- c) building systems resilient to the effects of global warming
- d) climate engineering


19. Emissions scenarios are

+ a) estimates of changes in future emission levels of greenhouse gases
- b) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by the world's oceans
- c) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by nature
- d) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by agriculture


20. The carbon cycle

- a) is an effort to store carbon in underground caves.
+ b) describes how carbon is absorbed and emitted by the oceans, soil, plants, etc.
- c) is a proposal to trade carbon credits.


21. The Stefan-Boltzmann law plays a central role in establishing a planets temperature as the sun heats the planet with thermal (infra-red) radiation adding to the other solar radiation onto the planet

- a) true
+ b) false


22. Stefan-Boltzmann radiation is called a negative feedback mechanism because if the sun's radiation increases, the Stefan-Boltzmann law ensures that this heat is retained by the planet.

- a) true
+ b) false


23. Proxy temperatures measurements are defined as indirect inferences gathered from ice cores, tree rings, and so forth

+ a) true
- b)false


24. The Reconstructed Temperature (0-2000 AD) plot in "Observed Temperature Changes" shows temperature measurements, as well as what curious feature? (See also Divergence problem)

- a) a divergence between the tree and pollen proxy measurements
- b) the Little Ice Age being less prominent than the Medieval Warming period
- c) the fact that the different proxy measurements deviate considerably from the average of all proxy measurements
+ d) a tiny gap at the end of the proxy measurements


25. Approximately what percent of global warming can be attributed to a long-term trend (since 1978) in the sun's energy?

- a) 30%
- b) 10%
+ c) 0%
- d) 50%


26. Water vapor contributes more to the greenhouse effect than does carbon dioxide.

+ a) true
- b) false


27. The largest temperature increases (from 2000-2009) have occurred

- a) on the ocean surface
- b) near the equator
+ c) near the poles
- d) in the western hemisphere


28. Since 1971, 90% of earth's increased energy caused by global warming has been stored in the _____________, mostly _____________

- a) land; near the equators
- b) land; near the poles
- c) sea; in the bottom kilometer
- d) air; in the water vapor
+ e) sea; in the top kilometer


29. Compared with the second half of the twentieth century, the rate of earth's average temperature rise during the first half was

+ a) half as much
- b) twice as much
- c) about the same


30. In the arctic, soot tends to cool the earth.

- a) true
+ b) false


HTW T4 sample-v2s1[edit]

1. Emissions scenarios are

___ a) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by nature
___ b) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by agriculture
___ c) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by the world's oceans
___ d) estimates of changes in future emission levels of greenhouse gases


2. The Stefan-Boltzmann law plays a central role in establishing a planets temperature as the sun heats the planet with thermal (infra-red) radiation adding to the other solar radiation onto the planet

___ a) true
___ b) false


3. While computer modeling indicate that the warming since 1970 is dominated by man-made greenhouse gas emissions, they are unable to conclusively ascertain whether the warming from 1910 to 1945 was anthropogenic.

___ a) true
___ b) false


4. How is the validity of a computer model typically tested?

___ a) all of these are true
___ b) by verifying its ability to calculate current climate conditions.
___ c) by verifying its ability to calculate past climate conditions.
___ d) by making predictions about future years and seeing if they come true.


5. The 2007 IPCC report stated that most global warming was likely being caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities. Among the science academies of the major industrialized nations, this finding was recognized by

___ a) 60% of the academies of science
___ b) all of the academies of science
___ c) 90% of the academies of science
___ d) all but the US academy of science


6. "External forcings" refer to effects that can increase, but not decrease, the Earth's temperature.

___ a) true
___ b) false


7. No direct method exists that permits an independent measurement of the heat content of the oceans, other than the fact that the air is warming

___ a) true
___ b) false


8. Ocean temperatures are increasing more slowly than land temperatures because the oceans are absorbing less heat energy from the sun

___ a) true
___ b) false


9. The cryosphere refers to

___ a) the upper atmosphere
___ b) the north and south poles
___ c) the highest mountains
___ d) two of these are true


10. Since 1971, 90% of earth's increased energy caused by global warming has been stored in the _____________, mostly _____________

___ a) sea; in the bottom kilometer
___ b) land; near the poles
___ c) land; near the equators
___ d) air; in the water vapor
___ e) sea; in the top kilometer


11. The urban heat island effect refers to the fact that urban areas tend to be hotter than rural areas. The urban heat island effect is estimated to account for approximately _____ of the temperature rise over the past century.

___ a) 3%
___ b) 30%
___ c) 0%
___ d) 0.3%


12. The Keeling curve shows that carbon dioxide concentrations

___ a) show a steady rise in CO2 levels, with increasing slope, and regular and predictable annual fluctuations
___ b) show a steady rise in CO2 levels, at constant slope, and irregular fluctuations due associated with El Ninos and La Ninas.
___ c) show a steady rise in CO2 levels, at constant slope, and regular and predictable annual fluctuations


13. Compared with the first half of the twentieth century, the rate of earth's average temperature rise during the second (latter) half was

___ a) twice as much
___ b) half as much
___ c) about the same


14. Depleting the ozone layer cools the stratosphere because ozone absorbs UV energy from the sun that heats the stratosphere.

___ a) true
___ b) false


15. The lede's graph of the "Global Land Ocean Temperature Index (1880-2013)" shows that since 1920, there has never been a decade of overall cooling

___ a) true
___ b) false


16. Changes in ice-albedo refers to changes in

___ a) how much ice is melted during the summer months
___ b) how much the Earth's surface absorbs or reflects incoming sunlight
___ c) how much CO2 is absorbed by the sun


17. Proxy temperatures measurements are defined as indirect inferences gathered from ice cores, tree rings, and so forth

___ a) true
___ b)false


18. The carbon cycle

___ a) is an effort to store carbon in underground caves.
___ b) describes how carbon is absorbed and emitted by the oceans, soil, plants, etc.
___ c) is a proposal to trade carbon credits.


19. Water vapor contributes more to the greenhouse effect than does carbon dioxide.

___ a) true
___ b) false


20. In the arctic, soot tends to cool the earth.

___ a) true
___ b) false


21. Which external force plays the smallest role in current efforts to model global warming?

___ a) orbital cycles
___ b) volcanic eruptions
___ c) greenhouse gasses
___ d) solar luminosity (i.e. variations in energy from the sun)


22. It is expected that carbon emissions will begin to diminish in the 21st century as fossil fuel reserves begin to dwindle.

___ a) true
___ b) false


23. Which statement is FALSE about the lede's map of the temperature anomaly (2000-2009)?

___ a) Northern Asia has warmed more than southern Asia
___ b) all portions of Antarctica have warmed
___ c) Central Europe has warmed more than the continental United States
___ d) The United States has warmed more than Australia


24. Stefan-Boltzmann radiation is called a negative feedback mechanism because if the sun's radiation increases, the Stefan-Boltzmann law ensures that this heat is retained by the planet.

___ a) true
___ b) false


25. Compared with the second half of the twentieth century, the rate of earth's average temperature rise during the first half was

___ a) twice as much
___ b) half as much
___ c) about the same


26. Approximately what percent of global warming can be attributed to a long-term trend (since 1978) in the sun's energy?

___ a) 50%
___ b) 10%
___ c) 0%
___ d) 30%


27. Soot tends to warm the earth when it accumulates in atmospheric brown clouds.

___ a) true
___ b) false


28. The largest temperature increases (from 2000-2009) have occurred

___ a) on the ocean surface
___ b) near the equator
___ c) in the western hemisphere
___ d) near the poles


29. The Reconstructed Temperature (0-2000 AD) plot in "Observed Temperature Changes" shows temperature measurements, as well as what curious feature? (See also Divergence problem)

___ a) a divergence between the tree and pollen proxy measurements
___ b) the Little Ice Age being less prominent than the Medieval Warming period
___ c) a tiny gap at the end of the proxy measurements
___ d) the fact that the different proxy measurements deviate considerably from the average of all proxy measurements


30. In climate science, mitigation refers to:

___ a) climate engineering
___ b) reduction of green house emissions
___ c) adaptation to the effects of global warming
___ d) building systems resilient to the effects of global warming


Key to HTW T4 sample-v2s1[edit]

1. Emissions scenarios are

- a) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by nature
- b) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by agriculture
- c) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by the world's oceans
+ d) estimates of changes in future emission levels of greenhouse gases


2. The Stefan-Boltzmann law plays a central role in establishing a planets temperature as the sun heats the planet with thermal (infra-red) radiation adding to the other solar radiation onto the planet

- a) true
+ b) false


3. While computer modeling indicate that the warming since 1970 is dominated by man-made greenhouse gas emissions, they are unable to conclusively ascertain whether the warming from 1910 to 1945 was anthropogenic.

+ a) true
- b) false


4. How is the validity of a computer model typically tested?

+ a) all of these are true
- b) by verifying its ability to calculate current climate conditions.
- c) by verifying its ability to calculate past climate conditions.
- d) by making predictions about future years and seeing if they come true.


5. The 2007 IPCC report stated that most global warming was likely being caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities. Among the science academies of the major industrialized nations, this finding was recognized by

- a) 60% of the academies of science
+ b) all of the academies of science
- c) 90% of the academies of science
- d) all but the US academy of science


6. "External forcings" refer to effects that can increase, but not decrease, the Earth's temperature.

- a) true
+ b) false


7. No direct method exists that permits an independent measurement of the heat content of the oceans, other than the fact that the air is warming

- a) true
+ b) false


8. Ocean temperatures are increasing more slowly than land temperatures because the oceans are absorbing less heat energy from the sun

- a) true
+ b) false


9. The cryosphere refers to

- a) the upper atmosphere
- b) the north and south poles
- c) the highest mountains
+ d) two of these are true


10. Since 1971, 90% of earth's increased energy caused by global warming has been stored in the _____________, mostly _____________

- a) sea; in the bottom kilometer
- b) land; near the poles
- c) land; near the equators
- d) air; in the water vapor
+ e) sea; in the top kilometer


11. The urban heat island effect refers to the fact that urban areas tend to be hotter than rural areas. The urban heat island effect is estimated to account for approximately _____ of the temperature rise over the past century.

+ a) 3%
- b) 30%
- c) 0%
- d) 0.3%


12. The Keeling curve shows that carbon dioxide concentrations

+ a) show a steady rise in CO2 levels, with increasing slope, and regular and predictable annual fluctuations
- b) show a steady rise in CO2 levels, at constant slope, and irregular fluctuations due associated with El Ninos and La Ninas.
- c) show a steady rise in CO2 levels, at constant slope, and regular and predictable annual fluctuations


13. Compared with the first half of the twentieth century, the rate of earth's average temperature rise during the second (latter) half was

+ a) twice as much
- b) half as much
- c) about the same


14. Depleting the ozone layer cools the stratosphere because ozone absorbs UV energy from the sun that heats the stratosphere.

+ a) true
- b) false


15. The lede's graph of the "Global Land Ocean Temperature Index (1880-2013)" shows that since 1920, there has never been a decade of overall cooling

- a) true
+ b) false


16. Changes in ice-albedo refers to changes in

- a) how much ice is melted during the summer months
+ b) how much the Earth's surface absorbs or reflects incoming sunlight
- c) how much CO2 is absorbed by the sun


17. Proxy temperatures measurements are defined as indirect inferences gathered from ice cores, tree rings, and so forth

+ a) true
- b)false


18. The carbon cycle

- a) is an effort to store carbon in underground caves.
+ b) describes how carbon is absorbed and emitted by the oceans, soil, plants, etc.
- c) is a proposal to trade carbon credits.


19. Water vapor contributes more to the greenhouse effect than does carbon dioxide.

+ a) true
- b) false


20. In the arctic, soot tends to cool the earth.

- a) true
+ b) false


21. Which external force plays the smallest role in current efforts to model global warming?

+ a) orbital cycles
- b) volcanic eruptions
- c) greenhouse gasses
- d) solar luminosity (i.e. variations in energy from the sun)


22. It is expected that carbon emissions will begin to diminish in the 21st century as fossil fuel reserves begin to dwindle.

- a) true
+ b) false


23. Which statement is FALSE about the lede's map of the temperature anomaly (2000-2009)?

- a) Northern Asia has warmed more than southern Asia
+ b) all portions of Antarctica have warmed
- c) Central Europe has warmed more than the continental United States
- d) The United States has warmed more than Australia


24. Stefan-Boltzmann radiation is called a negative feedback mechanism because if the sun's radiation increases, the Stefan-Boltzmann law ensures that this heat is retained by the planet.

- a) true
+ b) false


25. Compared with the second half of the twentieth century, the rate of earth's average temperature rise during the first half was

- a) twice as much
+ b) half as much
- c) about the same


26. Approximately what percent of global warming can be attributed to a long-term trend (since 1978) in the sun's energy?

- a) 50%
- b) 10%
+ c) 0%
- d) 30%


27. Soot tends to warm the earth when it accumulates in atmospheric brown clouds.

- a) true
+ b) false


28. The largest temperature increases (from 2000-2009) have occurred

- a) on the ocean surface
- b) near the equator
- c) in the western hemisphere
+ d) near the poles


29. The Reconstructed Temperature (0-2000 AD) plot in "Observed Temperature Changes" shows temperature measurements, as well as what curious feature? (See also Divergence problem)

- a) a divergence between the tree and pollen proxy measurements
- b) the Little Ice Age being less prominent than the Medieval Warming period
+ c) a tiny gap at the end of the proxy measurements
- d) the fact that the different proxy measurements deviate considerably from the average of all proxy measurements


30. In climate science, mitigation refers to:

- a) climate engineering
+ b) reduction of green house emissions
- c) adaptation to the effects of global warming
- d) building systems resilient to the effects of global warming


HTW T4 sample-v1s2[edit]

1. Changes in ice-albedo refers to changes in

___ a) how much CO2 is absorbed by the sun
___ b) how much the Earth's surface absorbs or reflects incoming sunlight
___ c) how much ice is melted during the summer months


2. No direct method exists that permits an independent measurement of the heat content of the oceans, other than the fact that the air is warming

___ a) true
___ b) false


3. The lede's "CO2 Emissions per Year" graph (1990-2010) shows solid straight lines that represent

___ a) estimates made in the year 2000 of what would happen in the future
___ b) estimates of the impact on land temperatures
___ c) estimates of the contributions from everything except fossil fuels
___ d) estimates of the contributions from fossil fuels alone


4. The cryosphere refers to

___ a) the upper atmosphere
___ b) the north and south poles
___ c) the highest mountains
___ d) two of these are true


5. Compared with the first half of the twentieth century, the rate of earth's average temperature rise during the second (latter) half was

___ a) half as much
___ b) about the same
___ c) twice as much


6. The Reconstructed Temperature (0-2000 AD) plot in "Observed Temperature Changes" shows temperature measurements. The solid black line represents

___ a) the Little Ice Age
___ b) a 10 year average
___ c) tree proxy measurements
___ d) the Medieval Warming Period
___ e) thermometer measurements


7. Carbon dioxide contributes more to the greenhouse effect than does water vapor.

___ a) true
___ b) false


8. Emissions scenarios are

___ a) estimates of changes in future emission levels of greenhouse gases
___ b) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by nature
___ c) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by the world's oceans
___ d) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by agriculture


9. The largest temperature increases (from 2000-2009) have occurred

___ a) near the poles
___ b) on the ocean surface
___ c) in the western hemisphere
___ d) near the equator


10. Computer modeling has conclusively established that anthropogenic warming has occurred since 1910.

___ a) true
___ b) false


11. It is expected that carbon emissions will begin to diminish in the 21st century as fossil fuel reserves begin to dwindle.

___ a) true
___ b) false


12. Anthropogenic means something that

___ a) humans cannot repair
___ b) will hurt humans
___ c) humans can repair
___ d) human caused


13. Analysis of the uncertainties associated with feedback suggests that the "worst-case" scenario is easier to model.

___ a) true
___ b) false


14. The climate change community is divided between those who believe the goal should be to eliminate the earth's greenhouse effect altogether, and those who argue that we should attempt to minimize earth's greenhouse effect.

___ a) true
___ b) false


15. Depleting the ozone layer cools the stratosphere because ozone absorbs UV energy from the sun that heats the stratosphere.

___ a) true
___ b) false


16. Greenhouse warming acts to cool the stratosphere

___ a) true
___ b) false


17. Stefan-Boltzmann radiation is called a negative feedback mechanism because if the sun's radiation increases, the Stefan-Boltzmann law ensures that more heat is lost from the planet to compensate.

___ a) true
___ b) false


18. The "Greenhouse effect schematic" in the section on "Temperature changes..." indicates that most of the energy from the Sun is absorbed by the earth's atmosphere.

___ a) true
___ b) false


19. Computer models accurately model feedback mechanisms associated with the role of clouds as a feedback mechanism.}

___ a) true
___ b) false


20. Compared with the second half of the twentieth century, the rate of earth's average temperature rise during the first half was

___ a) half as much
___ b) twice as much
___ c) about the same


21. In the twentieth century, the rate of earth's average temperature rise was closest to

___ a) 0.7 °C per year
___ b) 0.7 °C per century
___ c) 0.7 °C per decade


22. What happens when water is heated?

___ a) it expands at temperatures above 3.98°C and contracts below 3.98°C
___ b) it expands at temperatures below 3.98°C and contracts above 3.98°C
___ c) it absorbs CO2


23. The distinction between the urban heat island effect and land use changes is that the latter involves the earth's average temperature while the former involves only the temperature near weather stations where the measurements are made

___ a) true
___ b) false


24. Which external force plays the smallest role in current efforts to model global warming?

___ a) volcanic eruptions
___ b) orbital cycles
___ c) solar luminosity (i.e. variations in energy from the sun)
___ d) greenhouse gasses


25. Global dimming, caused by air-born particulates produced by volcanoes and human made pollutants

___ a) exerts a heating effect by absorbing infra-red radiation from earth's surface
___ b) is more related to the ozone problem than to global warming
___ c) exerts a cooling effect by increasing the reflection of incoming sunlight


26. in 2013, the IPCC stated that the largest driver of global warming is carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Other important sources of CO2 are

___ a) cement production and waste disposal
___ b) population growth and waste disposal
___ c) cement production and land use changes
___ d) population growth


27. A rise in the sea level is associated with global warming because

___ a) both of these are true
___ b) ice and snow melts
___ c) water tends to expand as it warms


28. Since 1971, 90% of earth's increased energy caused by global warming has been stored in the _____________, mostly _____________

___ a) sea; in the top kilometer
___ b) air; in the water vapor
___ c) sea; in the bottom kilometer
___ d) land; near the poles
___ e) land; near the equators


29. The lede's graphs of the "Global Land Ocean Temperature Index (1880-2013)" indicates that from 1960 to 2012 the average temperature increased by approximately

___ a) 1.6° Celsius
___ b) 16° Celsius
___ c) 0.06° Celsius
___ d) 0.16° Celsius
___ e) 0.6° Celsius


30. Soot tends to warm the earth when it accumulates in atmospheric brown clouds.

___ a) true
___ b) false


Key to HTW T4 sample-v1s2[edit]

1. Changes in ice-albedo refers to changes in

- a) how much CO2 is absorbed by the sun
+ b) how much the Earth's surface absorbs or reflects incoming sunlight
- c) how much ice is melted during the summer months


2. No direct method exists that permits an independent measurement of the heat content of the oceans, other than the fact that the air is warming

- a) true
+ b) false


3. The lede's "CO2 Emissions per Year" graph (1990-2010) shows solid straight lines that represent

+ a) estimates made in the year 2000 of what would happen in the future
- b) estimates of the impact on land temperatures
- c) estimates of the contributions from everything except fossil fuels
- d) estimates of the contributions from fossil fuels alone


4. The cryosphere refers to

- a) the upper atmosphere
- b) the north and south poles
- c) the highest mountains
+ d) two of these are true


5. Compared with the first half of the twentieth century, the rate of earth's average temperature rise during the second (latter) half was

- a) half as much
- b) about the same
+ c) twice as much


6. The Reconstructed Temperature (0-2000 AD) plot in "Observed Temperature Changes" shows temperature measurements. The solid black line represents

- a) the Little Ice Age
- b) a 10 year average
- c) tree proxy measurements
- d) the Medieval Warming Period
+ e) thermometer measurements


7. Carbon dioxide contributes more to the greenhouse effect than does water vapor.

- a) true
+ b) false


8. Emissions scenarios are

+ a) estimates of changes in future emission levels of greenhouse gases
- b) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by nature
- c) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by the world's oceans
- d) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by agriculture


9. The largest temperature increases (from 2000-2009) have occurred

+ a) near the poles
- b) on the ocean surface
- c) in the western hemisphere
- d) near the equator


10. Computer modeling has conclusively established that anthropogenic warming has occurred since 1910.

- a) true
+ b) false


11. It is expected that carbon emissions will begin to diminish in the 21st century as fossil fuel reserves begin to dwindle.

- a) true
+ b) false


12. Anthropogenic means something that

- a) humans cannot repair
- b) will hurt humans
- c) humans can repair
+ d) human caused


13. Analysis of the uncertainties associated with feedback suggests that the "worst-case" scenario is easier to model.

- a) true
+ b) false


14. The climate change community is divided between those who believe the goal should be to eliminate the earth's greenhouse effect altogether, and those who argue that we should attempt to minimize earth's greenhouse effect.

- a) true
+ b) false


15. Depleting the ozone layer cools the stratosphere because ozone absorbs UV energy from the sun that heats the stratosphere.

+ a) true
- b) false


16. Greenhouse warming acts to cool the stratosphere

+ a) true
- b) false


17. Stefan-Boltzmann radiation is called a negative feedback mechanism because if the sun's radiation increases, the Stefan-Boltzmann law ensures that more heat is lost from the planet to compensate.

+ a) true
- b) false


18. The "Greenhouse effect schematic" in the section on "Temperature changes..." indicates that most of the energy from the Sun is absorbed by the earth's atmosphere.

- a) true
+ b) false


19. Computer models accurately model feedback mechanisms associated with the role of clouds as a feedback mechanism.}

- a) true
+ b) false


20. Compared with the second half of the twentieth century, the rate of earth's average temperature rise during the first half was

+ a) half as much
- b) twice as much
- c) about the same


21. In the twentieth century, the rate of earth's average temperature rise was closest to

- a) 0.7 °C per year
+ b) 0.7 °C per century
- c) 0.7 °C per decade


22. What happens when water is heated?

+ a) it expands at temperatures above 3.98°C and contracts below 3.98°C
- b) it expands at temperatures below 3.98°C and contracts above 3.98°C
- c) it absorbs CO2


23. The distinction between the urban heat island effect and land use changes is that the latter involves the earth's average temperature while the former involves only the temperature near weather stations where the measurements are made

+ a) true
- b) false


24. Which external force plays the smallest role in current efforts to model global warming?

- a) volcanic eruptions
+ b) orbital cycles
- c) solar luminosity (i.e. variations in energy from the sun)
- d) greenhouse gasses


25. Global dimming, caused by air-born particulates produced by volcanoes and human made pollutants

- a) exerts a heating effect by absorbing infra-red radiation from earth's surface
- b) is more related to the ozone problem than to global warming
+ c) exerts a cooling effect by increasing the reflection of incoming sunlight


26. in 2013, the IPCC stated that the largest driver of global warming is carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Other important sources of CO2 are

- a) cement production and waste disposal
- b) population growth and waste disposal
+ c) cement production and land use changes
- d) population growth


27. A rise in the sea level is associated with global warming because

+ a) both of these are true
- b) ice and snow melts
- c) water tends to expand as it warms


28. Since 1971, 90% of earth's increased energy caused by global warming has been stored in the _____________, mostly _____________

+ a) sea; in the top kilometer
- b) air; in the water vapor
- c) sea; in the bottom kilometer
- d) land; near the poles
- e) land; near the equators


29. The lede's graphs of the "Global Land Ocean Temperature Index (1880-2013)" indicates that from 1960 to 2012 the average temperature increased by approximately

- a) 1.6° Celsius
- b) 16° Celsius
- c) 0.06° Celsius
- d) 0.16° Celsius
+ e) 0.6° Celsius


30. Soot tends to warm the earth when it accumulates in atmospheric brown clouds.

- a) true
+ b) false


HTW T4 sample-v2s2[edit]

1. The lede's "CO2 Emissions per Year" graph (1990-2010) shows solid straight lines that represent

___ a) estimates of the impact on land temperatures
___ b) estimates of the contributions from fossil fuels alone
___ c) estimates made in the year 2000 of what would happen in the future
___ d) estimates of the contributions from everything except fossil fuels


2. Analysis of the uncertainties associated with feedback suggests that the "worst-case" scenario is easier to model.

___ a) true
___ b) false


3. What happens when water is heated?

___ a) it expands at temperatures below 3.98°C and contracts above 3.98°C
___ b) it absorbs CO2
___ c) it expands at temperatures above 3.98°C and contracts below 3.98°C


4. Compared with the first half of the twentieth century, the rate of earth's average temperature rise during the second (latter) half was

___ a) twice as much
___ b) about the same
___ c) half as much


5. in 2013, the IPCC stated that the largest driver of global warming is carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Other important sources of CO2 are

___ a) population growth and waste disposal
___ b) population growth
___ c) cement production and land use changes
___ d) cement production and waste disposal


6. Carbon dioxide contributes more to the greenhouse effect than does water vapor.

___ a) true
___ b) false


7. Stefan-Boltzmann radiation is called a negative feedback mechanism because if the sun's radiation increases, the Stefan-Boltzmann law ensures that more heat is lost from the planet to compensate.

___ a) true
___ b) false


8. The "Greenhouse effect schematic" in the section on "Temperature changes..." indicates that most of the energy from the Sun is absorbed by the earth's atmosphere.

___ a) true
___ b) false


9. It is expected that carbon emissions will begin to diminish in the 21st century as fossil fuel reserves begin to dwindle.

___ a) true
___ b) false


10. The cryosphere refers to

___ a) the highest mountains
___ b) two of these are true
___ c) the upper atmosphere
___ d) the north and south poles


11. The Reconstructed Temperature (0-2000 AD) plot in "Observed Temperature Changes" shows temperature measurements. The solid black line represents

___ a) tree proxy measurements
___ b) thermometer measurements
___ c) a 10 year average
___ d) the Little Ice Age
___ e) the Medieval Warming Period


12. Which external force plays the smallest role in current efforts to model global warming?

___ a) volcanic eruptions
___ b) solar luminosity (i.e. variations in energy from the sun)
___ c) orbital cycles
___ d) greenhouse gasses


13. Soot tends to warm the earth when it accumulates in atmospheric brown clouds.

___ a) true
___ b) false


14. Compared with the second half of the twentieth century, the rate of earth's average temperature rise during the first half was

___ a) twice as much
___ b) half as much
___ c) about the same


15. The lede's graphs of the "Global Land Ocean Temperature Index (1880-2013)" indicates that from 1960 to 2012 the average temperature increased by approximately

___ a) 0.16° Celsius
___ b) 1.6° Celsius
___ c) 0.06° Celsius
___ d) 16° Celsius
___ e) 0.6° Celsius


16. Computer modeling has conclusively established that anthropogenic warming has occurred since 1910.

___ a) true
___ b) false


17. Greenhouse warming acts to cool the stratosphere

___ a) true
___ b) false


18. Anthropogenic means something that

___ a) human caused
___ b) humans cannot repair
___ c) will hurt humans
___ d) humans can repair


19. Since 1971, 90% of earth's increased energy caused by global warming has been stored in the _____________, mostly _____________

___ a) land; near the equators
___ b) sea; in the top kilometer
___ c) air; in the water vapor
___ d) land; near the poles
___ e) sea; in the bottom kilometer


20. Depleting the ozone layer cools the stratosphere because ozone absorbs UV energy from the sun that heats the stratosphere.

___ a) true
___ b) false


21. Emissions scenarios are

___ a) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by nature
___ b) estimates of changes in future emission levels of greenhouse gases
___ c) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by agriculture
___ d) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by the world's oceans


22. In the twentieth century, the rate of earth's average temperature rise was closest to

___ a) 0.7 °C per century
___ b) 0.7 °C per decade
___ c) 0.7 °C per year


23. Computer models accurately model feedback mechanisms associated with the role of clouds as a feedback mechanism.}

___ a) true
___ b) false


24. The largest temperature increases (from 2000-2009) have occurred

___ a) near the poles
___ b) near the equator
___ c) in the western hemisphere
___ d) on the ocean surface


25. Changes in ice-albedo refers to changes in

___ a) how much the Earth's surface absorbs or reflects incoming sunlight
___ b) how much ice is melted during the summer months
___ c) how much CO2 is absorbed by the sun


26. The climate change community is divided between those who believe the goal should be to eliminate the earth's greenhouse effect altogether, and those who argue that we should attempt to minimize earth's greenhouse effect.

___ a) true
___ b) false


27. A rise in the sea level is associated with global warming because

___ a) ice and snow melts
___ b) both of these are true
___ c) water tends to expand as it warms


28. The distinction between the urban heat island effect and land use changes is that the latter involves the earth's average temperature while the former involves only the temperature near weather stations where the measurements are made

___ a) true
___ b) false


29. No direct method exists that permits an independent measurement of the heat content of the oceans, other than the fact that the air is warming

___ a) true
___ b) false


30. Global dimming, caused by air-born particulates produced by volcanoes and human made pollutants

___ a) exerts a heating effect by absorbing infra-red radiation from earth's surface
___ b) exerts a cooling effect by increasing the reflection of incoming sunlight
___ c) is more related to the ozone problem than to global warming


Key to HTW T4 sample-v2s2[edit]

1. The lede's "CO2 Emissions per Year" graph (1990-2010) shows solid straight lines that represent

- a) estimates of the impact on land temperatures
- b) estimates of the contributions from fossil fuels alone
+ c) estimates made in the year 2000 of what would happen in the future
- d) estimates of the contributions from everything except fossil fuels


2. Analysis of the uncertainties associated with feedback suggests that the "worst-case" scenario is easier to model.

- a) true
+ b) false


3. What happens when water is heated?

- a) it expands at temperatures below 3.98°C and contracts above 3.98°C
- b) it absorbs CO2
+ c) it expands at temperatures above 3.98°C and contracts below 3.98°C


4. Compared with the first half of the twentieth century, the rate of earth's average temperature rise during the second (latter) half was

+ a) twice as much
- b) about the same
- c) half as much


5. in 2013, the IPCC stated that the largest driver of global warming is carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Other important sources of CO2 are

- a) population growth and waste disposal
- b) population growth
+ c) cement production and land use changes
- d) cement production and waste disposal


6. Carbon dioxide contributes more to the greenhouse effect than does water vapor.

- a) true
+ b) false


7. Stefan-Boltzmann radiation is called a negative feedback mechanism because if the sun's radiation increases, the Stefan-Boltzmann law ensures that more heat is lost from the planet to compensate.

+ a) true
- b) false


8. The "Greenhouse effect schematic" in the section on "Temperature changes..." indicates that most of the energy from the Sun is absorbed by the earth's atmosphere.

- a) true
+ b) false


9. It is expected that carbon emissions will begin to diminish in the 21st century as fossil fuel reserves begin to dwindle.

- a) true
+ b) false


10. The cryosphere refers to

- a) the highest mountains
+ b) two of these are true
- c) the upper atmosphere
- d) the north and south poles


11. The Reconstructed Temperature (0-2000 AD) plot in "Observed Temperature Changes" shows temperature measurements. The solid black line represents

- a) tree proxy measurements
+ b) thermometer measurements
- c) a 10 year average
- d) the Little Ice Age
- e) the Medieval Warming Period


12. Which external force plays the smallest role in current efforts to model global warming?

- a) volcanic eruptions
- b) solar luminosity (i.e. variations in energy from the sun)
+ c) orbital cycles
- d) greenhouse gasses


13. Soot tends to warm the earth when it accumulates in atmospheric brown clouds.

- a) true
+ b) false


14. Compared with the second half of the twentieth century, the rate of earth's average temperature rise during the first half was

- a) twice as much
+ b) half as much
- c) about the same


15. The lede's graphs of the "Global Land Ocean Temperature Index (1880-2013)" indicates that from 1960 to 2012 the average temperature increased by approximately

- a) 0.16° Celsius
- b) 1.6° Celsius
- c) 0.06° Celsius
- d) 16° Celsius
+ e) 0.6° Celsius


16. Computer modeling has conclusively established that anthropogenic warming has occurred since 1910.

- a) true
+ b) false


17. Greenhouse warming acts to cool the stratosphere

+ a) true
- b) false


18. Anthropogenic means something that

+ a) human caused
- b) humans cannot repair
- c) will hurt humans
- d) humans can repair


19. Since 1971, 90% of earth's increased energy caused by global warming has been stored in the _____________, mostly _____________

- a) land; near the equators
+ b) sea; in the top kilometer
- c) air; in the water vapor
- d) land; near the poles
- e) sea; in the bottom kilometer


20. Depleting the ozone layer cools the stratosphere because ozone absorbs UV energy from the sun that heats the stratosphere.

+ a) true
- b) false


21. Emissions scenarios are

- a) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by nature
+ b) estimates of changes in future emission levels of greenhouse gases
- c) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by agriculture
- d) estimates of how greenhouse gasses are absorbed and emitted by the world's oceans


22. In the twentieth century, the rate of earth's average temperature rise was closest to

+ a) 0.7 °C per century
- b) 0.7 °C per decade
- c) 0.7 °C per year


23. Computer models accurately model feedback mechanisms associated with the role of clouds as a feedback mechanism.}

- a) true
+ b) false


24. The largest temperature increases (from 2000-2009) have occurred

+ a) near the poles
- b) near the equator
- c) in the western hemisphere
- d) on the ocean surface


25. Changes in ice-albedo refers to changes in

+ a) how much the Earth's surface absorbs or reflects incoming sunlight
- b) how much ice is melted during the summer months
- c) how much CO2 is absorbed by the sun


26. The climate change community is divided between those who believe the goal should be to eliminate the earth's greenhouse effect altogether, and those who argue that we should attempt to minimize earth's greenhouse effect.

- a) true
+ b) false


27. A rise in the sea level is associated with global warming because

- a) ice and snow melts
+ b) both of these are true
- c) water tends to expand as it warms


28. The distinction between the urban heat island effect and land use changes is that the latter involves the earth's average temperature while the former involves only the temperature near weather stations where the measurements are made

+ a) true
- b) false


29. No direct method exists that permits an independent measurement of the heat content of the oceans, other than the fact that the air is warming

- a) true
+ b) false


30. Global dimming, caused by air-born particulates produced by volcanoes and human made pollutants

- a) exerts a heating effect by absorbing infra-red radiation from earth's surface
+ b) exerts a cooling effect by increasing the reflection of incoming sunlight
- c) is more related to the ozone problem than to global warming


Attribution (for quiz questions) under CC-by-SA license
http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/How_things_work_college_course/Global_warming_quizzes
http://en.wikiversity.org/w/index.php?title=How_things_work_college_course/Global_warming_quiz_1&oldid=1213651
Study guide
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Global_warming&oldid=618541358