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Vortex Science: Topic Intent[edit]

For any new user who reads this page, it should be noted that this is a hypothesis undergoing initial research and looking for reasoned review by both scientists as well as the smart layman. It is the hope of the author that this resource is both informational and thought provoking. It should also be noted that many of the constructive criticisms made of this work will likely be incorporated into the end result and be reflected in the physical experiments done to verify the claims made in this topic.

This is not a mainstream or standard viewpoint, and as such the author asks for your understanding and the input of any reader in the talk page, in order to both assist in the edification of the reader and of the author.

38254-new folder-12.svg Resource type: this resource is an essay.

This resource is an essay by Wikiversity user Derenek

A Paradigm without Paradox[edit]

The world is full of mystery. Throughout history whenever someone opened their eyes something new and explainable assaulted their consciousness. Since the late 1700's humans decided to finally put an end to the mystery. Instead of invoking supernatural forces as explanations for any misfortune, a new paradigm was created. Instead, reason and the observation of empirical phenomena would serve as a guide to understanding the universe. This new approach was called Science. Using science human progress increased in speed and quality at an exponential rate even unto the present day.

Vortex Science is a new proposed theoretical framework whose intent is to replace uncertainty with causality. One in which both the velocity and location of any particle can be determined with exact certainty. That the mathematical and logical paradox of singularity do not exist, as well as explain the apparent behavior of photons as both particles and waves as an easily understood and calculable phenomenon.

The primacy of causality[edit]

The universe is not random or capricious, it is only the limitations of humans and their technology that lead to the necessity of calculating odds (i.e. probability) rather than absolute vectors. It is possible, by knowing the exact location, force, velocity, and vector of every piece of expanding space-time, across multiple dimensions, each interacting along prime axes (see section 8) that then give birth to innumerable universes (each with its own internal temporal rate), for an educated individual to know with exact certainty the both the position and velocity for any particle.

Of course even for a sophisticated thinker, certain agreed upon epistemological agreements must be made between myself and the reader. In order to facilitate understanding, certain axiomatic truths need to be assumed.

  1. There is no such thing as nothing. Insofar as modern physicists such as Laurence Krausse claim that all the matter and energy in the universe spring whole cloth from nothing, the word "nothing" used is not at all what the word nothing means in english.

  • Nothing: Pronoun An absence of anything, including empty space, brightness, darkness, matter, or a vacuum.[1]

  • The definition of nothing precludes that concept from being anything but imaginary.

  1. All things made of matter and which contain energy are real and not imaginary.

    1. For an object to be real it must have substance.

    2. For an object to have substance requires that it possess volume.

    3. Volume requires, minimally, three dimensions.

    4. Real objects, possessing volume, can not be infinitely small.

  1. Infinity is also an imaginary concept. Both things that are infinitely large and infinitely small exist only as imaginary or conceptual ideas.

    1. Objects which are infinitely small do not have enough exterior surface area to possess the quality of volume, thus become imaginary constructs.

    2. Things which are infinitely large result in the paradox of infinite energy. Due to the nature of infinity, once the number infinity is invoked for the entire system, each component of that system by definition will also possess infinite energy. This can be clearly discounted by observation of any system in the universe. All are finite in size or energy, thus the energy content of the universe is not infinite. If there is not infinite energy in the universe, then nothing within it can be infinitely large.


  2. To explain the complex and varied behavior of matter and energy in the universe, certain conditional truths apply.

    1. In the entirety of the cosmos, there are more than three spatial dimensions. [2]

    2. Space-time is itself a form of matter. In fact it is the material from which all things are made. The difference in relative velocity and concentration between different regions of space-time results in what is known as energy.(see section 5)

    3. Currently, chemical paradigm posits there are four states of matter; Solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. However, this can be simplified even more into two states of matter. Core matter, which consists of the central core of expanding space-time, and diffuse matter, which refers to space-time after it leaves the compressed and high energy region close to solid matter.(section 5)

    4. So what makes a thing matter? Einstein stated with his elegant equation E=mC2 that matter is equivalent to energy.

      1. So the first test of whether a thing is matter is: “does this thing contain energy?” In the case of space-time, this answer is certainly yes. There are several papers proving the existence of what is known as “vacuum energy”[3] This can be mathematically represented as [e/a>0]=E . This equation simply states that as long as the energy in an area is greater than zero, then that area can be considered as possessing energy.

      2. Simply stated, in any region of supposedly empty space, there is energy just outside of our current technological reach. [3]

      3. The second test of whether a thing is matter or not is “conversion”. Each type of matter can be converted by electromagnetic, kinetic, or gravitational means into the other types of matter. (i.e. Solids melting into liquids, liquids evaporating into gases, etc…).

      4. As matter is actually just a form of space-time to convert space-time into matter requires (Λ<rXPx)=mP1 to be true. Or more specifically; {Λ [Null Space pressure=Cosmological constant][4]greater than the Rate of expansion of space-time across a prime axis} results in the generation of matter along another prime axis. (section 12)

The rationale for space-time expansion[edit]

It is one thing to claim that space-time is matter, but how can something as empty and vacuous as space-time turn into something solid, like matter? The method that generates matter from empty space-time in our universe involves ancient supermassive black holes. Section 12) As the black hole gains mass, it collects and compresses regions of solid matter and diffuse space-time at its core. As matter is compressed it reaches a critical inertial state. [5]

Since space-time itself is also unable to escape the gravitation energy of a black hole, all that space-time is then compacted closer together, which has the end result of decreasing the capability of that space-time to move along any of the vectors associated with the three euclidean dimensions of our universe. As this occurs, core matter objects in the center of a black hole have their inertia/inherent space-time expansion along the prime axis (see section 8 for definition of prime axis) deflected onto a vector that possesses the lowest energy energy state.

This deflection results in that matter traveling along a set of vectors which are removed from the three dimensions of the observable universe. The increased ratio of velocity and energy onto a non prime axis vector transforms that matter into a weakly interactive object such as neutrinos and dark matter. This massive conversion of matter and space-time into dark matter generates a large region of gravitational interaction which accelerates matter within the Prime axis range of its gravitation into a rapidly spinning disc.(section 13)

As time passes, the black hole grows larger. This can be clearly observed through telescopes on the earth. Unlike the prediction made by Einsteinian relativity [4], singularity does not occur. The black hole does not shrink to infinitely small. The empirical evidence indicates that the event horizon grows wider, and the mass of the black hole steadily increases over time.[5] The fact that the black hole grows in physical size proves conclusively that singularity does not occur.

The steady growth of black holes is the prime factor for the generation of solid matter. For solid matter to be created from diffuse space-time requires an immense gravitational force to be exerted on space-time in a black hole. In most cases a singular black hole does not generate enough gravitational force to completely overcome the resistance of the Cosmological constant along P2 or P3 vectors. What normally occurs is that matter and space-time is only partially deflected onto a set of P2,3 vectors. Which increases the gravitational range of the black hole due to increased dark matter conversion.

It is possible however for two or more supermassive black holes to intersect each other. The titanic forces generated by such a collision can possibly have the effect of being able to completely overcome Λ on P2 or P3.

Assuming that these intersecting black holes exist on separate prime axes (i.e. P2,P3P3):

  1. As long as those black holes generate an explosive pressure such that

    GP1>ΛP2 or P3

    Gravity in the P1 axis is greater than the total force of the cosmological constant on either the P2,3 axes. The compressed matter inside the black hole is able to explode into form along vectors in P2,3 with enough sustained energy that a stable vortex can form. Those stable vortexes are the most basic form of matter.

  2. This act of space-time exploding into form along the P2,3 axis is called cosmogenesis.(section 12)

  3. As space-time expands into a new Prime axis, a universe is formed from minuscule points of relative weakness space all across that Prime axis zone. These matter vortexes then can stabilize forming matter and energy resulting in formation of matter.

Types of matter[edit]

Core matter (protons and neutrons)

These are particles that are generated either directly or by secondary effects of space-time vortexes. In our universe, each of the stable types of core matter particle consists of three space-time vortices held in a metastable configuration. In one case, two vortices stem from one origin event and the third from a second origin event. In the second the opposite is true. This causes a slight imbalance between the vortexes to form. This imbalance in conjunction with null space pressure causes a 3 vortex configuration to be the standard for all core matter in our universe.

  1. Nullspace pressure is the kinetic energy that is applied across all vectors to any object or region of space-time in all universes.

  2. The exact value of Nullspace pressure is unique across all dimensions for each universe.

  3. There is also an aggregate Nullspace pressure between all prime axes and universes, this is what drives the entire cosmos.

  4. With nine vector space dimensions, no matter what an object’s actual coordinates are in any universe, there is a semi independent 3 dimensional vector space, and 3 dimensional vector space that can give rise to space-time internally within that prime axes' dimensions. This results in constant dynamic inequality between all systems without the need for constant input of additional energy.

  5. When referring to Nullspace as a zone for expansion or as a location it refers to zones along a prime axis in which a weakening, small gap, or diffusion effect has occurred into which space-time can expand from another prime axis.

Core matter consists of expanding vortices of space-time known as quarks. The reason quarks create a vortex is due to the difference in energy between P2,3 and P1. As space-time expands into P1, the relative difference between the spin and repulsive pressure along each prime axis leads to kinetic energy being added to the expanding space-time along the vectors which possess the lowest energy state. This causes the object to rotate or spin at an incredible speed in three dimensions forming a spherical object. As the forces exerted are not isotropic, that spin will stabilize in one direction relative to the vector of lowest energy.

  1. Where null space pressure being exerted along P1 meets the edge of that piece of core matter’s space-time expansion zone, that force is then transmitted towards the center of that system compressing it into a singular spinning point. As the space-time expanding from that point will have nearly matching spin and energy as the main core, there arises a thin shell of hardened moving space-time around the core of each event.

    Every process occurring in nature proceeds in the sense in which the sum of the entropies of all bodies taking part in the process is increased. In the limit, i.e. for reversible processes, the sum of the entropies remains unchanged.[1][2][3]

  2. As that spinning vortex accumulates enough compressed space-time into that shell, the pressure being exerted on P2,3 increases as P1 null space pressure remains constant. Due to the second law of thermodynamics, equilibrium must be reached. To reach equilibrium, space-time is then ejected from the core matter events into space.

  3. Each piece of core matter has an aggregate spin which is the sum of the spin of all its component vortices. Core matter is held together by the primary force of null space interaction. Matter vortexes such as protons and neutrons are three vortices held together by a secondary shell of space-time which has a prime axis spin equal to the sum of the component vortices.

Protons and neutrons always have the same mass as other protons and neutrons. [6]

  1. The relative difference in physical characteristics of Protons and Neutrons is likely due to a combination of different originating events creating each type of particle. The different relative spin states of those particles are due to different levels of kinetic inertia along different dimensions relative to P1.

  2. Protons and neutrons consist of three space-time vortexes, two created by P2 and one by P3 and vice versa for the second particle. This interaction between space-time vortexes with slightly different rates of motion along P1 results in stable matter vortexes such as protons and neutrons. These vortexes have been detected in numerous experiments [7] These vortices are referred to commonly as quarks.

  3. The standard model claims a large number of different types of quarks. [7] This however is mathematically impossible. To arrive at this conclusion simple logic and an understanding of he basic combination calculation is necessary.

    1. It is known that quarks exist as triplets within protons and neutrons. If there are only two types of major subatomic nuclear particles, the maximum number of types of quark vortices within them to create only two baryons is two. Any greater number of types of quarks would result inevitably in more than two types of nuclear particle. As only two stable types of nuclear particle exist naturally, it becomes clear that the standard constants in this region of the prime axis will allow for no more than two types of quarks while retaining phase cohesion.[7]

Diffuse matter.

This refers to space-time itself after it leaves the radiant centers of core matter particles. Electrons are made of pure space-time. They carry spin and energy relative to the core matter that created them. This is often referred to as wavelength.[8] Wavelength refers to the relative percentage of time during an electron’s travel along the prime axis in which that electron can have prime axis interaction. Thus a particle with a 2 inch wavelength really refers to a particle that on average has a rate of interaction along the prime axis at a rate of once every two inches of travel along P1.

The remainder of that electrons travel happens along a P2 or P3 dimension. Every moment of time, core matter ejects space-time in discrete paths along the prime axis (P1). Diffuse particles do not contain their own fountain of expanding space-time, so any variation between null space pressure and the forces caused by expanding space-time along P1 will cause that piece of space-time to bounce in and out of P1 at a higher rate as distance increases. This results in what would appear to be a weakening of force as distance increases, while the sphere of influence of that particle increases.

As an electron moves off of P1 in relation to its wavelength, it can penetrate and bypass physical objects along P11 as though they weren’t there. This is literally true. The electron, when it engages in tunneling behavior, is simply traveling along a vector off of P1. As distance between locations along P1,2,3 do not correlate on a 1:1 ratio (due to differences in prime axis nullspace pressure), interaction with core matter along a P2,3 axis results in the total energy of that matter increasing. That increase in energy can then be detected by our machines along P1 at a location far removed from the expected interception point.

The Star Model

Is an attempt to move away from the Bohr model of the solar system in an atom [9], and replace it with the star model. The reason to use this model for comparison is due to the fact that it more closely mirrors the actual physical state of an atom. As a spinning high energy region of compressed space-time ,this object constantly radiates large amounts of energy, possesses high kinetic and linear motion values, and is affected omnidirectionally by a force that pushes against the radiating energy across all vectors. The only known macroscopic example of that system is a star. [10]

Internal structures of main sequence stars, convection zones with arrowed cycles and radiative zones with red flashes. To the left a low-mass red dwarf, in the center a mid-sized yellow dwarf and at the right a massive blue-white main sequence star.
  1. The core of protons and neutrons can be compared to the fusion effects in a star’s core. The force of gravity and fusion cause several convection layers to form within stars. Although each layer consists of the same material (hydrogen), relative differences in concentration and energy caused by the force of gravity interacting with the radiant energy of fusion causes each layer to form a shell that acts as a nearly impenetrable barrier for most particles moving within the star. (convection shells) Similarly in an atom the omnidirectional null space pressure and the internal radiant space-time expansion along with the kinetic/linear motion of the core results in several compressed layers of space-time to form around the core, each separated by a tough shell.(valence shells)

  2. As space-time emerges from the core of an atom, it builds layer upon layer of compressed space-time starting from lowest energy (close to the core), to highest energy. Just as in a star, atomic stability is affected by the surface area of an atom in relation to the null space force applied to it. As the number of core particles increases in an atom, the total surface area exposed to P1 null space force decreases. This results in the decrease of P2,3 pressure. As P2,3 pressure decreases, linear motion along those vectors increases. As P2,3 linear motion increases, incidence of electromagnetic interaction between that atom and other atoms increases. (these atoms are able to transmit more of their electromagnetic energy in the form of energized space-time shell extrusion along P2,3 axes resulting in what appears to be a stronger force over short to medium distances.) while simultaneously direct kinetic interaction rates will decrease.

  3. Also as the core density increases, just as in a star, the shell of non-radiant material also increases in size. For atoms the force of Null space pressure across P1 decreases as mass increases, due to differences between surface areas along P1. This allows larger and more numerous compressed space-time layers and shells to form before equilibrium is reached across all three prime axes.

  4. At a certain size, stars become unstable, this is a characteristic that is mirrored in the atomic world. An unstable star can go Nova, shoot out massive CME’s, collapse into a black hole, or blow up in a supernova.[6] An unstable atom is very similar. It can slough off its compressed space-time shell as a burst of EM radiation, completely destabilize into core particles, or undergo fission effects, or be pushed out of this universe altogether by P1 null space rebound pressure and become dark matter. Therefore, atoms and stars are a very close analog to each other.

Are electrons particles or waves?

They are neither. A particle is a piece of core matter. As has been described, core matter has expanding space-time at its core. [9]

  1. As space-time expands outwards from core matter, it tends to expand omni-directionally at an equivalent energy along all vectors of P1. Occasionally the emitting matter will be at a high energy state. This creates an expanding space-time shell tied to that moment in space-time

  2. This shell is not actually a shell at all. Space-time expands omni-directionally, yet due to other omnidirectional forces such as null space pressure it can contain greater energy along certain vectors compared to other vectors. This increased energy along a specific P1 vector is what physicists call a photon.

  3. That photon, because it is basically the dead skin of an atom, contains stored within it energy and information which is referred to as spin. Once this shell of space-time leaves the core matter, non-energized vectors are absorbed into the ambient expanding space-time as it possesses the same energy state, phase coherence, as other expanding space-time in the same region.

  4. Thus detecting the non-energized portion of space-time is nearly impossible as it possesses the same or nearly the same energy and spin state as the space-time being exuded by the measuring device itself.

  5. As a result, to our detection devices, the expanding space-time is always detected at a specific coordinate along P1. As the expanding space-time shell/electron/photon travels linearly along a P1 vector, it is affected by the interaction with every other force and object it encounters along the way. Without an internal stabilizing force like the matter vortex in protons and neutrons, as it travels it begins to be bound less and less to P1 vectors. This results in an ever enlarging partial sphere in relation to the origin point compared to the edge of space-time

The standard model's explanation is that the electron stops being a real object and turns into a conceptual thing, a “probability wave”. [4]Vortex science instead claims what is actually occurring is that increased linear travel along P2,3 increases the area across P1 in which that electron’s interaction with core matter can occur. This is due to decreased null space pressure along P1 as compared to P2,3. in our universe Matter can travel further across P1 using the same amount of energy than it can along P2,3.

As the relative amounts of energy fluctuate over time between universes and also within a universe itself, matter spread all over this universe (P1) is in fact still clustered close together along P2,3. Therefore that electron can travel a short distance along a P2,3 vector, as it does so it can encounter another piece of core matter. It then transfers its energy into the affected particle. This increases the detector particle’s energy state along P2,3 and it gains kinetic energy along P1. However, due to the energy difference between linear travel in P1 vs P2,3 it could seem as though that particle went neyond the speed of light. However, the particle never went faster than c, this is just an artifact of the difference in nullspace pressure between P1 and P2,3

However as the interaction occurred in a vector off of P1, the detecting particle need not be in a straight line vector along P1 from the emitting object to the detecting object. Objects can in fact physically block that object’s travel along the P1 vector. This is irrelevant, as at the time of interaction, the location of that electron was outside of P1 or had enough energy along P2,3 to make P1 interaction too negligible to detect. (Relative Phase decoherence) So at all times the electron retains its inherent structure and continues to exist as a real object.

Occasionally the electron will encounter multiple objects simultaneously while traveling on a P2,3 vector. This results in the detector simultaneously showing impact on three separate particles at a lower individual energy per detecting particle. Which results in a smeared out or wavelike detection. Current dogma attributes this behavior to wavelike behavior. However a wave will create a line as it impacts an object. Electrons do not always do that, they always set off detectors as a singular object (occasionally with multiple simultaneous hits).

Occasionally, although rare, one electron will cause a wavelike detection which would be three detector particles in a row or column to be set off at once. In fact, it is only after many photons are fired at a detector that the famous interference pattern begins to show.

Why does observation seem to affect a particle’s behavior? [6]

Vortex Science claims this observed phenomenon is an artifact of the technology used to detect photons.

  1. To detect a photon one has to use either one of two methods. Both methods result in the same phenomena.

  2. Shoot a separate beam of photons into the emitter stream. when a photon bounces back to the detector, a single particle is detected.

  3. Or Change the electromagnetic gradient of a space into a stable voltage that is the same across all vectors. Then, as a photon travels through that space a path can be extrapolated from the energy change the observer tracks through the device.

  4. In both instances particles are detected. Also the interference pattern does not arise no matter the number of electrons shot from the emitter. [12]

What is actually occurring is this: in either an electron beam or increased electrical gradient, the area being observed is at a high energy state compared to the surrounding space-time This results in a higher null space pressure across P,2,3 than is normal to encounter in empty or diffuse space. As null space pressure increases, the ability to travel along vectors correlating to P2,3 decreases. This forces all linear travel of the electron along a P1 vector.

Falsifiable claims and experiments:
Experiment 1:
Step 1. By firing an electron gun at a receiver/detector panel determine the percentage of fired electrons detected by the panel.
Step 2. Place a standard barrier between the electron gun and the detector. Fire the electron gun, determine the number of hits.
Step 3. Place a second detector between the electron gun and the barrier. Fire the gun, determine the number of hits.
Step 4. Increase the distance between the electron gun and detector by a factor of 100.
Step 5. Repeat steps 1-3


Quantum tunnelling through a barrier. At the origin (x=0), there is a very high, but narrow potential barrier. A significant tunnelling effect can be seen.

1. Nearly all electrons will hit detector

2. The barrier will block most electrons but some will still hit the detector due to P2,3 travel of some electrons when reaching the barrier.

3. The detector will increase the electron's P1 interaction, number of hits will dramatically decrease.

5.1.Nearly all will hit the detector

5.2. There will be a greater incidence of electron hits as the electron moves further onto a non prime axis vector.

5.3. The number of hits will decrease relative to 5.2., however the ratio will be measurably higher than 3.

The nature of time[edit]

The perception of time is in fact an observer's experience of the relative state between two or more regions of space-time expanding along a prime axis. As all objects generate their own expanding regions of space-time, all objects experience time at the same rate in relation to that itself. However in the presence of another expanding region of space-time, there occurs a repulsive force between those two regions that causes space-time to be deflected along a tangential axis. This deflection causes space-time to be warped in relation to the second object. Positive velocity between two objects results in a compression of expanding spacetime causing a blue shift effect, while negative velocity will result in a weaker interaction or red shift.

Mathematically, time is equivalent to the rate of space-time expansion into the P1 axis minus that object's velocity.


1. The result of which is, as velocity increases the rate of time decreases. This is verified also by Einsteinian Relativity.[11] As the speed of light is equal to the rate of space-time expansion into P1,



2. As velocity increases to c, t approaches zero. This mathematical relationship is an additional proof as to the validity of vortex theory. It is very well known that as velocity increases to the speed of light time slows to zero.

Another result of this force is an unequal experience of the expansion of space-time of two objects in relation to each other. However both objects experience the expansion of space-time along the prime axis at the same rate in their own frame of reference.

  1. Reactive pressure from null space into the expanding region of space-time negates further acceleration without added input of energy. Thus as an object approaches the speed of light it simultaneously draws closer to the edge of its own expanding space-time region.

  2. As long as the pressure of null space remains constant on the object in question, as it approaches c, it could have all of its kinetic inertia deflected along a tangential dimensional axis a full vector separated from the prime axis. This results in transforming the object into a neutrino or dark matter like object (only weakly electromagnetically or gravitationally linked to other objects along the prime axis. WIMP)

  3. Without technology to assist in phase shifting or spatial destabilization the object in question would simply encounter so much null space pressure the elemental particles would destabilize and it would disintegrate.

So, while accelerating to lightspeed is in itself highly unlikely, traveling at velocities at a large percentage of that speed should allow an object to encounter enough null space repulsive force to be able to phase shift a small amount off of the prime axis. However it must be noted, it is unknown what the correlation is in distance traveled along a non-prime axis vector to distance along the prime axis. Experiments observing entanglement [12]show conclusively that non-prime axis linear travel does not correlate on a one to one basis to linear travel along the prime axis. This conclusion can be reached by assuming that superluminal transmission of energy is impossible and observing instantaneous communication between entangled particles

Null Space[edit]

Is Null space pressure constant and universal?

Null space pressure is a net aggregate effect created by the total energy/spin of an entirely different universe/s across each the nine dimensions of the cosmos. This aggregate force causes one universe to have a rotational vector and velocity that is incredibly high relative to any other universe on either the same prime axis or a separate prime axis. This difference in rotational velocity and energy results in an impenetrable barrier being formed.

Even though all universes are formed of the same thing (raw space-time), differences in relative motion and energy can result in differences in concentration and interaction. As an analogy to understand, take a look at water in its different phases. As steam, water is easily penetrable, as liquid, it becomes a bit more difficult, and as a solid it becomes an impenetrable solid. The primary differences between these states are relative velocity and energy. As water is formed of space-time, it is reasonable to assume that the laws governing the behavior of water are derived from the behavior of the material that created it.

To illustrate this point in a physical experiment, imagine you and a friend are each holding a long wet cooked noodle. While the noodle is just hanging from your hands, they seem easy to push and pull. The solidity of the noodle seems questionable. Now imagine each of you spins the noodle in opposite directions at a very high rate of speed. Then have the noodles hit each other, their relative differences in velocity and angular momentum alone have the end result of those noodles impacting each other like solid objects as opposed to limp noodles. This is much the same as what happens with space-time itself.

While space-time seems nebulous and void, that is only because we share phase coherence with that space-time. Drop out of phase coherence, what once seemed nebulous will have the end effect of becoming an impenetrable barrier.

  1. Null space pressure in our prime axis is the result of contact of expanding space-time against the spinning impenetrable barrier along axes P2,3. Null space pressure has immense force as it is the composed of the total of forces of an entire universe being applied to a zone of expanding space-time across a finite space. However, null space pressure has different values across different vectors.

  2. With three dimensions the number of directions is 3!, or six. With nine spatial dimensions the number of vectors in which an object can travel is 9! The number of vectors or directions in which null space pressure is higher than along vectors in P1 is calculated as :

    9!-3! Or ND !- NP1! .

  1. It is safe to assume the null space pressure along P1 is much lower than along P2 or P3. This is because we can see space-time expanding into our universe. Applying thermodynamics can lead to the inferred assumption that space-time is moving from a zone of higher pressure to a zone of lower pressure. (specifically the second law of thermodynamics) There is no evidence to show any natural occurring event that violates the basic laws of entropy.

  2. some conclusions can be drawn by observing the physical properties of matter itself. Vortex science claims basic particles such as protons and neutrons consist of only two types of base particle.[9] As each of these two types of particle are in fact the interaction between space-time expanding into the prime axis and the resultant opposing force across all nine dimensions, we can make some logical leaps.

    1. Assuming the physical properties of each of these two types of “quarks” are the same as their other partners: The only way every single one of those particles can have the exact same physical properties is if they derive from the same event.

    2. Every planet, star, black hole, galaxy etc… all have different velocities and relative energy states. Thus any effect generated by any of those objects will have characteristics linked to the originating event. If quarks were created by many different events they would all have different properties relative to universal forces like null space pressure, or even during relative interactions with other particles along the prime axis.

    3. However there are only two types of stable core nuclear particles according to measurements made by many physicists over many years.[9] In contrast to the standard model, vortex science posits there are only two types of stable quarks in our universe. The remainder of the detected types are what are known as transitional energy states. As quarks are constantly moving up and down an energy scale due to their metastable configuration, a type up or down quark can seem to look like a different type of quark depending on the time and angle of deflection of the particle accelerator's proton gun's impact simply because that quark was caught transitioning from one energy state to another as it was maintaining its metastable vortex.

    4. Quarks form triplets with each other on a 2:1 ratio. Neutrons form one protons the other. So by extension it can be pretty clearly seen that this universe’s core matter particles are derived from two separate events.

  1. As the relative null space pressure affecting neutrons and protons is different. It is also important to observe that there is pressure being exerted to the expansion of space-time not just by null space pressure in P2,3 but also pressure being exerted along P1. Therefore any object that shares the same three dimensions with us will also share causality, this results in an arrow of time being generated as space-time expands towards an area of lower concentration away from an area of higher concentration.

  2. Even though these universes are traveling along the same prime axis, the aggregate rotational velocity of each universe in relation to the other creates an impenetrable barrier. So the expanding space-time cannot just merge into those other universes, making each a unique event.

  3. Space-time can only ever travel along one temporal vector along a prime axis. Due to the spin barrier formed by other barriers and the relative difference between the strength of opposition pressures being exerted against space-time in our universe in both the past and the future, temporal motion is perceived as moving only in one direction.

  1. The second reason for the arrow of time is that every action is accompanied by the universal forces of space-time being forced into P1 from core matter particles. To reverse time is physically the same as forcing the extruded space-time to reenter the core of those particles and then be forced back into the event generating the expansion of space-time from those particles. To do this would require the energy equivalent of the force generating the expansion. Since this is likely a black hole of immeasurable size, the energy requirements to reverse time are not insignificant. This is why physical events in our universe are mono-directional in time.

  2. If there is a universe pushing on this universe in both the past and future, how far back and how far forward in time are these places? The answer may seem flippant, but the answer is: the past has passed, the future has yet to come.

    1. Forces are always applied in the present and then extend into the future. One thing to understand is that time is a perception of relative expansion of space-time into our universe along P1 minus velocity compared to the expansion of space-time into our universe of another object along P1.

    2. This means that time only exists within systems that are in dynamic equilibrium. So within this universe objects can experience time in relation to each other. However, between systems that are not in equilibrium, but possess repulsive force in relation to each other such as separate universes, the rates of time within one universe are not equivalent to rates of time in another.

    3. Yet the internal rate of time has no effect on other universes. So an object along P1 would actually have a coordinate that is 2,3,4 : P1main timestamp10:22zulu . Once it becomes 10:23zulu the spatial coordinates at 10:22zulu become empty. Space-time from the universe directly to the past of our universe then fills those spatial coordinates.

    4. However the rate of time in the universe filling that point along P1 could have that expansion event perceived as a moment or an eternity so its spatial coordinates could be translated as 2,3,4 P1Past time stamp 12:34Alpha. (Note that even the standard time stamp designator has changed reflecting the completely unrelated properties of each individual timeline.)

    5. So even if one did manage to jump to the spot along the prime axis that corresponded to the temporal-spatial location that was once filled by objects in our universe during the past, they would arrive to find it occupied by an entirely different universe.

    6. The past no longer exists except as a memory. So along each prime axis there are only regions of greater and lower space-time expansion in relation to other zones along the same prime axis. The flow of time in different universes could, as an outside observer, seem to be completely opposite to the other, yet within those universes the observer would always experience time as moving forward. This is due to the internal equilibrium experienced by objects within that stable expanding system.

Despite all things being made of the same material, differences in physical constants give rise to near infinite variety of possible base and end states for that expanding space-time. As such, those physical constants that determine the physical properties and energy states of particles are unique for each universe. So this means that a person could experience locally the feeling of a reversal of time by entering a universe in which P1 pressure is greater than Null space pressure of the observer along P2,3.

This will force space-time back into the nuclei of core matter and over time in that universe. Which could imaginably cause the physical effects that rely on the expansion of time into P1 will seem to be in reverse for the trans universal tourist. If a person could maintain atomic cohesion while this is occurring they could rejuvenate to what would appear to be an earlier physical state. (cosmic fountain of youth.) It is more likely, that the person would just be deflected into another prime axis or disintegrate...possibly both and not necessarily in that order

Why is there a null space force?

From the bottom to the top, physical momentum along P1 is conserved. IF the expansion of space was truly isotropic (which is impossible due to the large and varied internal and external forces applied on a universe across all prime axes.) there wouldn’t be a null space force. However, the expansion of space-time isn’t isotropic, it in fact causes nearly all material objects to spin in the absence of other forces.

  1. This three dimensional spin which is then acted upon omnidirectionally by nullspace pressure causes the whole of the expanding space-time region to generate a spherical vortex shell. Rapidly spinning space-time when coming into contact with a large aggregate object with a slightly different spin causes deflection and repulsion.

  2. The force of deflection is not equal.

  3. Cosmic spin+rXP1 (Universe 1 step past)>Cosmic spin+rXP1 our universe (present)> Cosmic Spin plus rXP1 (future)= The arrow of time.

  4. The relative difference between the spin velocities/tangential vectors of different universes along the same prime axis causes a repulsive/deflective force between those regions of space-time

  5. The force of expansion of different universes both along the same and separate prime axes forces universes and all objects within them to expand into the prime axis in a single direction and with a unique physical spin state in relation to other universes along the same prime axis.

  6. It also results in atomic spin, the strong and weak nuclear forces, electromagnetism and gravity.

How many dimensions are there?[edit]

Vortex Science claims that there are more than three spatial dimensions. [13] The theory posits that dark matter and WIMPs are matter/space-time traveling in an out of phase state. This out of phase state has now been explained as space-time expanding along vectors off of the prime axis.

In mathematics, the dimension of a vector space V is the cardinality (i.e. the number of vectors, in this case 2) of a basis of V over its base field.[4][lower-alpha 1]

For every vector space there exists a basis,[lower-alpha 2] and all bases of a vector space have equal cardinality;[lower-alpha 3] as a result, the dimension of a vector space is uniquely defined.

Three connected perpendicular dimensions create a Prime Axis. A prime axis also has the property of possessing no vectors in common with another Prime axis. This then creates a condition in which each prime axis becomes an semi-independant three dimensional vector space.

The number of dimensions can be calculated by simple logic test. As space-time is a real and not an imaginary thing and assuming all space-time is linked, we can draw some simple conclusions. As an object must exist in at least three dimensions to be a real and not imaginary, then each dimension along P1 must have two corresponding dimensions into which space-time can expand and still be linked to P1 in order to generate dark matter. This is a conclusion that is a result of both observed data as well as axiomatic truth. By observing black holes, dark matter, neutrinos..etc... It can be concluded that matter and space time can possess linear momentum along vectors on a non P1 axis, while still retaining enough inertia on P1 to impart gravitational or weak electromagnetic effects to matter and energy that is still fully in or universe. This conclusion is reached by applying newtonian laws of motion which require physical contact between objects to transfer energy, denying that there is a possibility for superluminal travel, then assuming there must be subluminal energy transfer along a vector that is a dimension that is not part of P1

  1. Thus 3 dimensions in P2 added to 3 dimensions in P3 equals 6. Added to the dimensions in P1, equates to 9 spatial dimensions. The number could be five, but then there arises the logical paradox of universes containing 2 dimensions only. At 7, there is a one dimensional universe. 8 leads to another 2 dimensional universe. 9 is the minimum number of dimensions in which dark matter effects can occur and space-time continues to be a real object across all prime axes.

  2. There is a possibility of a 6 dimensional universe, however this seems unlikely as the gravitational effects of any object along the second prime axis will have very powerful and detectable effects on every action along P1. With 3 prime axes, there exists stable non-prime axis vectors from which space-time enters our universe and an vectors into which space-time can escape. Space-time can also be deflected off of P1 by a full 2 vectors, yet still be real and that can successfully be deflected back into P1 to create gravitational effects.

  3. More than 2 prime axes are necessary. Space-time emerging into another prime axis will have spin imparted onto it by the motion of the generating prime axis. With 2 prime axes, equilibrium will be reached between both systems almost immediately. This results in a universe that has equal null space pressure in both the past and the future. This results in a static cosmos. Thus a third prime axis is necessary to create a null space pressure inequality. This inequality is what leads to all the matter and energy in the universe.

Calculate number of prime axes.

A prime axis refers to a geometrically linked region of the cosmos in which there are three vector space dimensions. To be a prime axis, each of these dimensional axes must be separate from any axis associated with another prime axis. Arbitrarily assuming our universe is on a prime axis, (the only way to determine the true prime axis is to compare energy output/space-time expansion between universes. However it is safe to assume our universe is a prime axis universe as the prime forces motivating relative space-time expansion are observable along this axis.)

(ND/3!(nD-3)!)=number of prime axes.

This equation is explained simply. ND is the number of spatial dimensions. The minimum number of dimensions space-time can expand in and generate a non-imaginary universe is 3. As a prime axis is a 3 dimensional vector space which shares no vectors with another prime axis the number of possible prime axes is easily calculated once the number of dimensions is known.

The rate of expansion of space-time into any prime axis is determined primarily by the event that causes the space-time expansion. However, in relation to other objects that share the same space-time expansion event along that same prime axis, the rules of relativity would still apply within those systems. However, there would be key differences in prime particle interaction laws, as the exact phase coherence of particles along our prime axis are a unique occurrence.

  1. The solidity of matter is also an effect. Null space pressure on objects in our universe is always created from the boundary of expanding space-time back to the center of the generator of that space-time Thus every particle in the universe always experiences an omnidirectional force that compresses it into a small point of highly compressed energy that then radiates out thin shells of space-time towards the outer shell.

  2. No matter the vector or position it may have along P1, the forces it experiences remain constant, as the aggregate force and rate of spin of this universe respective to all the other universes that give rise to it are in dynamic equilibrium.

These statements are made in accordance with the first law of thermodynamics as adjusted for transfer of energy between isolated enclosed systems:

This problem is solved by recourse to the principle of conservation of energy. This principle allows a composite isolated system to be derived from two other component non-interacting isolated systems, in such a way that the total energy of the composite isolated system is equal to the sum of the total energies of the two component isolated systems. Two previously isolated systems can be subjected to the thermodynamic operation of placement between them of a wall permeable to matter and energy, followed by a time for establishment of a new thermodynamic state of internal equilibrium in the new single unpartitioned system.[5] The internal energies of the initial two systems and of the final new system, considered respectively as closed systems as above, can be measured.[6] Then the law of conservation of energy requires that


where ΔUs and ΔUo denote the changes in internal energy of the system and of its surroundings respectively. This is a statement of the first law of thermodynamics for a transfer between two otherwise isolated open systems,[9]

These same principles apply within individual universes despite their internal force instability, as increases along P2,3 are always matched by decreases in P1. This dynamic balance causes all objects within a universe to experience equilibrium (phase coherence) even though the actual amount of energy in the system is constantly increasing relative to outside universes.

  1. Between different universes, conservation of matter and energy must also be observed in regard to space-time transfer and interaction across different universes along the same prime axis.

  2. Between different prime axes equilibrium must be maintained between the overall space-time transfer and motion between those respective axes.

  3. So on every level conservation of energy is observed, while still allowing for eternal generation and expansion of space-time across multiple universes along all three prime axes.

Phase Coherence,

At their core, all elemental particles are composed of the same thing. A vortex caused by the expansion of space-time into our prime axis. What we perceive as separate particles are in fact separate regions of expanding space-time intersecting the prime axis at a certain point in space and time (time being the rate of space-time expansion into a prime axis from the said particle.) The tangential alignment of that particular region of space-time in relation to the alignment of other regions of space-time in relative to the prime axis generate a particle’s quantum properties, such as spin, energy state, etc, etc…

  1. Objects that are not in a matching state of phase coherence will not be able to interact with each other in any substantial way.

  2. Loss of phase coherence due to P1 kinetic energy being lost to P2,3 axes (Dark matter, neutrinos) will result in objects that only have the capacity to have gravitational and (sometimes) weak electromagnetic interaction with each other.

  3. Phase Coherence mismatch due to a large difference in spin state and angular velocity while still sharing the same prime axis results in an impenetrable barrier which generates P1 nullspace pressure.

  4. Objects which share no similar linear vector travel, that reside entirely within their own prime axis, are completely unable to interact, gravitationally or otherwise.

  5. This has one noticeable exception, which is the black hole event/s in P2,3 which generates matter and energy in our universe. However that event is unique in that it shares 100% phase coherence with matter in this universe, as those events are the root cause of this universe's unique phase harmonic.

Simply put, the angle at which a particle intersects our universe and the percentage of time spent by that region of space-time within our universe compared to regions outside the prime axis determines what a particle is and how it behaves.

How to determine location in space.

Generally speaking in our universe we do well with a three digit coordinate system. An XYZ axis or prime axis. However there are more spatial dimensions than three. As explained earlier there are nine spatial dimensions. This results in three separate prime axes. So an objects location in space would look like this:

(P1 23,2,34) (P2 12,34,12 ),(P3 35,56,12)

Thus an object whose spatial coordinates were (P1 1,1,2) (P2 23,34,45) (P3 12,1,13) could seem to have instantaneous communication with another object at (P1 1000,2000,3000) (P2 23,35,45)(P3 12,2,13). The object's true spatial coordinates allowed for near colocation along P2 and P3, however the energy state change of those particle would be observed along P1, which is a vast distance away, yet seemingly no energy passed between the two objects. However this only refers to energy being transferred along P1. For colocation to take place an object must possess three matching coordinate values to the second object in a three dimensional vector space. Entanglement experiments simply cause colocation between objects along an vector on P2,3. Then as the distances along P1 increase, the colocation along P2 or P3 would remain constant as no additional force is transferred between prime axes.


Vortex Science maintains rigorous adherence to

Newtonian laws of motion:

The first law states that if the net force (the vector sum of all forces acting on an object) is zero, then the velocity of the object is constant. Velocity is a Euclidean vector|vector quantity which expresses both the object's speed and the direction of its motion; therefore, the statement that the object's velocity is constant is a statement that both its speed and the direction of its motion are constant.
The second law states that the net force on an object is equal to the rate of change (that is, the derivative) of its Momentum p in an inertial reference frame:

The third law states that all forces between two objects exist in equal magnitude and opposite direction: if one object A exerts a force FA on a second object B, then B simultaneously exerts a force FB on A, and the two forces are equal and opposite: FA = −FB.[10] The third law means that all forces are interactions between different bodies,[11][12] and thus that there is no such thing as a unidirectional force or a force that acts on only one body. The first law can be stated mathematically as


  • An object that is at rest will stay at rest unless an external force acts upon it.
  • An object that is in motion will not change its velocity unless an external force acts upon it.

The amount of force necessary to accelerate an object in a gravitational field,

Where F is the force, m1 and m2 are the masses of the objects interacting, r is the distance between the centers of the masses and G is the gravitational constant.


Vortex theory, in accordance to the third law of motion, assumes that All forces involve the transfer of energy or motion. Such transfer requires direct physical contact between core matter particles. Unlike the other known forces, in gravity, the kinetic impact of core matter particles happens in a location removed from P1.The encounter then increases P2,3 null space pressure on both objects (this is inevitable as they meet each other on an axis where P2,3 null space pressure originates.) The increase in null space pressure results in the transfer of kinetic energy into P1 until equilibrium is reached between both particles and null space pressure. Increasing tangential acceleration along P2,3 vectors results in negative acceleration on P1 travel. This pushes both particles towards each other along P1. Or more accurately, it pushes them towards their combined center of prime axis acceleration. This is why objects move in ellipses around each other.

  1. The point to which both objects are drawn is not a straight line between the two, but an intersection along their respective vectors of motion. However with massive objects, there is more force being applied by the sun than the earth. This causes a larger net force being applied to the earth than the sun which results in the appearance of the earth revolving around the sun, when in actuality, both objects are being pushed to a separate location.

  2. A stable orbit occurs when the increase of null space pressure which imparts null space pressure to an orbiting body reaches equilibrium, yet the velocity and angle of deflection along P1 prevents the object from a more straight line path towards the center of mass of the two objects. As velocity increases along P1 null space pressure decreases along P2,3.

  3. There exists a stable equilibrium factor when the angle of incidence and velocity of an object in relation to the second object prevents a straight line descent into each other. For objects in our solar system, as the object gets closer to the sun, the object’s null space pressure decreases while increasing its relative velocity along P1. It then reaches a point where its velocity along P1 in relation to the sun decreases.

  4. This is the results of an increase of null pressure to that object in relation to the sun across P2,3. This causes the object to experience acceleration along the prime axis in the opposite direction of its tangential travel along P1. This is what draws an object back towards the sun after it shoots past it. The stable cycle of increasing and decreasing null force pressures depending on relative distance and velocity between two objects is what causes a stable orbit.

Strong and weak nuclear forces[9]

As was described earlier, protons and neutrons are a metastable configuration of 3 vortices of expanding space-time The weak nuclear force is an emergent force that occurs due to the relative inequality, yet complementary vector inertias between a proton and a neutron.

  1. As a proton encounters a neutron, an equalization effect occurs as three vortexes from event one and three vortexes from event 2 enter into the same system. The equalization allows both particles to meet and form a thin space-time vortex shell around the new combined system.

  2. This shell has a spin and energy equal to the total energy and spin of the first vortex shell minus the remaining null space pressure. This loosely binds protons and neutrons together.

  3. Neutrons are known to be the unstable partner in this system. This can be attributed to the inherent null space pressure across P2,3 that creates the neutron being higher than the null space pressure of the proton. This results in a neutron possessing more kinetic energy (which is measured as mass) along P1 than a proton. Thus when energy is added to a system neutrons are ejected first. Since Neutrons already possess a higher P2,3 null space pressure, the neutron has relatively more kinetic energy being transferred into the prime axis than the proton, so it is first to be ejected from the metastable nuclei of an atom. This is the cause of fission reactions.

The strong nuclear force is the result of a total null space pressure imbalance. When two protons are held together, the total null space pressure between those two particles results in 4 vortices from event 1 and 2 from event 2. Compared to a system of similar size in P1 it has a far lower null space pressure. This results in a space-time shell forming around fused protons that has a much higher energy state than a system held together by the weak nuclear force. Thus a much larger amount of energy must be forced into this system before equilibrium is reached on P2,3 to create it. Additionally more energy must be introduced into that system to force that system to fly apart on P1 compared to the weak nuclear force.

  1. To create this strong bond, protons must have their respective pressures across P1,2,3 increased or decreased in relation to the second proton’s current energy state. This usually occurs in the cores of stars undergoing a fusion reaction.

  2. By adding huge amounts of energy to the vortex surrounding the proton through kinetic impacts at high energy levels P2,3 null space pressure is increased, as the object reaches a star’s core it has its directional motion along P1 curtailed. This results in an artificial lowering of the P2,3:P1 kinetic energy ratio.

  3. This allows particles that would normally deflect each other along P1 to get close enough for long enough to form a stable vortex system (multi proton atom). Thus hydrogen becomes helium, so on and so forth. However, there comes a time, when no matter what happens P2,3:P1 pressure reaches equilibrium. This happens when the surface area of an object on P1 has a relative surface that is smaller than the surface area required for P1 null space force to force protons close enough to each other to form stable vortices.

  4. This results in the sudden stop of nuclear fusion. In our universe this occurs with iron. Then as fusion stops, kinetic energy caused by gravity forces particles towards the object’s center of acceleration and you get either a supernovae, black hole, or just a plain burning out. However, as it requires a truly massive star to generate iron, a supernova or black hole is the usual occurrence from that type of event.

The Speed of Light[edit]

The speed of light limit. [4]

Simply put, an object can never accelerate to the speed of light within its own frame of reference.

  1. The speed of light is the speed at which space-time from the core of matter particles expands outwards from that object. Ordinarily an object is restricted from moving at a velocity higher than the rate of that object’s expansion into the prime axis.

  2. As space-time quite literally expands into the future, faster than light travel in a literal sense would result in the traveler arriving in a location prior to the universe arriving there. Before this occurs, the traveler would encounter the forward edge of their own zone of expanding space-time .

  3. There is an impenetrable barrier blocking entrance into the future by another universe which is presently occupying the temporaspatial coordinates that our universe will occupy at that time in the future.

  4. As was shown earlier, C=rXP1, c-V=t, rXP1-V=t, c=V+t, rXP1=V+t


As the universe ages, all matter in the universe eventually becomes dispersed due to entropy. The only coherent thing that remains are the black holes. [10]Eventually all that will remain in the universe is dispersed space-time

  1. As black holes continue to devour space-time, the reversal of nullspace pressure on P1 in relation to the motion of space-time into the black hole becomes negative. This results in a corresponding increase along P2,3 this forces these black holes to move along P1 towards each other.

  2. As these monsters continue to fly towards each other, their continued acceleration and consumption of surrounding space-time causes the surrounding space-time to have a much lower energy state, further decreasing P1 nullspace pressure in relation to P2,P3 nullpsace pressure.

  3. At this point, the nullspace pressure across P1 decreases, which increases the amount of matter that can be held inside the black hole before it reaches cosmogenesis.

  4. Eventually, dark matter from this ancient supermassive black hole intersects with a seed galaxy traveling along another prime axis.

  5. At this point all the space-time from that black hole is ejected into the pocket universe first generated by the seed galaxy. This results in the formation of a stable complex universe. It also matches the behavior of particles in our own universe. One set of core vortices has a much higher P1 Null space pressure ratio than the other. This would seem to indicate that the second creation event is actually a few orders of magnitude smaller than the primary.

  6. Since it is clear that galactic black holes do not themselves carry enough mass to successfully overcome an entire universe’s worth of null space pressure, it indicates much more space-time is required to create a stable universe. However, the larger a black hole becomes towards the end of the universe, the lower P1 null space pressure becomes in relation to P2,3 pressure.

A black hole the size of a universe would have the secondary effect of decreasing its prime axis null space pressure below a point from which it could bypass Nullspace pressure along either P2 or P3. As a pocket universe formed by a seed galaxy is already in a state of metastable equilibrium. It only requires a small amount of force to push it into stability. Combined with the expanding space-time force from a ultramassive black hole, space-time could conceivably keep expanding into that pocket universe in a sustained and stable fashion for an extended period of time.

  1. As the Ultramassive black hole releases its space-time content, initially it rapidly decreases its null space pressure along the prime axis into which it is dumping matter. This has the net effect of decreasing its native nullspace pressure. This decrease in P1 pressure then slows the rate of spacetime expansion into the new universe which we can imagine is in either P2 or P3.

  2. As this occurs, a region of empty/diffuse nullspace emerges between the UM black hole’s universe, and the universe adjacent to it along the same prime axis. Almost immediately, that gap is filled by another expanding universe. This continues happening across all points in time and space both forward and backward in time, generating a continuous and eternal system of space-time from one universe creating space-time in another, creating space-time in the next, then recursing back and forth.

  3. As a result, space-time that left one dying universe reemerges from this constant timeless cycle from one universe to the next, eventually some of it returning as a piece of the formative space-time of the universe that it originally left as it died.

  4. Like the ancient legend of the Oroborous, the twisted recursive tangle of time, space, and multiple dimensions is a tale of the life, death, and rebirth. A cycle known by civilized peoples for thousands of years.

Why does cosmogenesis have to occur on another prime axis?

Simply put, prime axes have no vector colocation with other prime axes. So any forces applied by or to an object in one prime axis will never encounter direct kinetic forces along another prime axis. So the gravity of the parent black hole will not affect the motion of those particles except as a primary pushing force. As long as the rate of expansion caused by the black hole is consistently greater than the null space force a stable universe will form.


Gravity is the net effect of two objects encountering each other off of the prime axis. As two objects impact off the prime axis, they impart energy from one to the other forming equilibrium. To equalize null space pressure between the two objects, kinetic energy is transferred along the prime axis in the opposite direction of the object's natural vector of acceleration.

  1. This results the rate and direction of motion between the two objects towards their respective center of acceleration/motion to increase or accelerate.

  2. This causes null space pressure to equalize between the two objects and those two objects are then pushed tangentially towards each other along the prime axis.

  3. This is why two gravitationally linked objects always appear to be drawn to each other’s center of mass. However, the force is in fact generated by two objects physically encountering one another in a non prime axis vector.

Maximum gravity, gravity never reaches infinity. The maximum gravity that an object can create is dependent on the matter within it. Gravity can increase only until the null space pressure across all three axes of either P2,3 on the trapped space-time within the core is defeated. Once this occurs, then matter then free to escape the prime axis and enter another prime axis.

  1. The rate at which a black hole expels space-time into another prime axis is directly related to the input of space-time into the generating black hole.

  2. Until Null space pressure is completely defeated across all 3 axes of either P2,3 that region of expanding space-time is deflected partially off of P1 as Dark matter.

  3. Once cosmogenic minimum is reached, space-time erupts along P2 or P3 at all linked spatial coordinates nearly simultaneously.

Why does gravity extend over such long distances? [11]

Due to such a high amount of null space pressure existing along P2,3 relative to our universe the actual linear distances that an object can travel along those axes is much smaller. So even though matter may have expanded 14 plus billion light years along P1, the actual distance traveled along P2,3 is much smaller.

So for example we could say that all the space-time in our universe that travels along P2,3 is still clumped together very closely due to the null space pressure being applied across those axes to space-time being extruded into P1. This is also why even at the outer edge of the galaxy, the classic spiral shape is maintained.

The angular deflection towards a center of mass along P1 will always force those particles to create a spiraling vortex pattern. From the smallest structures in the universe to the largest, aggregate forces reflect microscopic forces, and microscopic forces can be easily understood by observing macroscopic events.

Singularity, does not exist.

Logically speaking, if a place in our universe existed into which an infinitely small space into which an infinite amount of matter could fit, then its event horizon would be infinitely small. However it is clear that black holes do not shrink into infinity, but instead grow over time. What happens in a black hole is the secondary vortex force of gravity draws objects together along the prime axis.

  1. According to the Schwarzschild radius calculation (which has been observationally confirmed [13]):
    rs is the Schwarzschild radius;
    G is the gravitational constant;
    M is the mass of the object;
    c is the speed of light in vacuum.
    The proportionality constant, 2G/c2, is approximately 1.48×10−27
    m/kg, or 2.95 km/Solar mass. where:
    is the volume of the object if singularity occurs;
    is its density.
    This calculation leads to a mathematical paradox.
  2. As objects reach a concentration where kinetic motion along P1 becomes impossible, the inertia of that object then deflects a small amount off of the prime axis. It does this a number of times until it reaches a vector where it is only weakly gravitationally bound to the black hole's location on P1. This creates a massive dark matter shell that sends gravitational forces over vast distances in relation to the physical size of the black hole along P1.

  3. At a certain size one or more supermassive black holes traveling along one or more prime axes reach sufficient gravitational force individually or through intersection, to overcome the null space pressure along a third prime axis. This results in cosmogenesis.

  4. All the gravitationally bound space-time is released along that prime axis forming a universe.

Dark matter interaction. [6]

Dark matter is simply normal core matter deflected off the prime axis. This is why dark matter creates directional movement towards the center of mass of the larger system. If dark matter was indeed a separate object or material, it then would gravitationally accelerate that object towards that unique dark matter object. This does not occur, instead the observed motion of matter affected by dark matter is always towards the center of mass of standard core matter.

  1. Particles that were actually native to P2 or P3 would deflect particles along a P1 vector, however, the vector of movement would be in a direction and velocity that would be measurably different than normal gravitational interaction.

  2. Since the center of motion between space-time expanding into P1 and an object that has no P1 interaction is not in our universe, directional motion would tend to be random when it came to gravitational interaction. This is not the case however with dark matter gravitation. By looking at the night sky, one can clearly observe matter clearly being drawn in a spiral towards the central black hole of the galaxy.

  3. The rules of gravitational energy transfer remain the same. When dark matter encounters other matter both particles are deflected along the prime axis towards their respective center of motion.

  4. In reality, all gravity is caused by dark matter interaction. When our matter particles are traveling along P2,3 they encounter particles from the earth traveling also along P2,3. During this portion of their linear travel they are what scientists now refer to as dark matter.


Electromagnetic forces, unlike gravitational forces in which both objects radiate their own space time energy, is transmitted by the discarded shell of expanding space-time from the center of core matter particles. Thus an electron carries only the energy imparted by an object as it left the core matter. This results in an electron having a negative motion effect on any core matter.

  1. This causes core matter particles to be pushed away from each other at a tangent across the prime axis. However as there is no internal radiant force inside dispersive particles such as electrons, their force only remains powerful over short distances.

  2. Also as there is no core matter contact between both emanating objects, contact between two electrons will result in tangential deflection along the prime axis away from each other, or if an electron encounters another piece of core matter, the emanating object is affected only slightly by the encountering object’s attempts to restabilize null space pressure, which draws the object of higher P1 pressure into the vortex of the object with the lower P1 nullspace pressure.

  3. In the case of highly magnetic objects, like ferromagnetic metals, the region of nullspace pressure inequality is greater, thus affecting a larger sphere of powerful electromagnetic attraction. Thus the effect is of the piece of core matter encountering an electron, then that piece of dispersed space-time is absorbed into the convective shell of the encountering atom.

  4. If the encountering atom is in a low energy state, then that piece of space-time is absorbed into the vortex. That piece of space-time is then free to re-radiate out across P2,3 until equilibrium is reached.

  5. When the vortex reaches equilibrium between null space force applied across P2,P3, and vortex effects caused by radiant space-time expanding across P1 then the atom reaches equilibrium state.

  6. If the encountering atom is at a high energy state, then the electron is absorbed into the core matter vortex increasing the pressure across P2 and P3. This releases a burst of space-time energy as a photon into the prime axis along the path of least resistance.

  7. Thus electrons carry a repulsive force against an atom at a high energy state relative to P1, and an apparent attractive force at a low energy state.

Macro effects.[edit]

Predictions about galactic behavior. [10]

During the lifetime of galaxies, supermassive black holes form in their centers. As the black hole grows, intense gravitational forces shift linear motion and kinetic energy of space-time from having the majority of its linear motion be along P1, to as state in which almost all the trapped matter is being deflected a full two vectors off the prime axis. This along with increased P2,3 velocity increases the zone of interaction of the black hole’s dark matter shell. The dark matter shell becomes large enough to affect all matter within that galaxy.

It is safe to assume that the dark matter shell is related to and probably primarily generated by the galactic core, due to the angle of deflection of all the stars in the galaxy. Every star is positioned at a deflection angle in relation to the P1 spatial coordinates of the black hole. Even when a star which lies at the galactic edge, reacts to dark matter gravitation it seems to orbit the center of the galaxy. If dark matter began at the galaxy’s edge as many physicists assume, then the spiral shape would quickly disintegrate.

Neither the laws posited by Einstein for space-time curvature creating gravity [4]or the addition of dark matter as an omnipresent material would generate the spiral galaxy without the need for several added values added.

  1. It usually requires physical contact between material objects to affect linear motion change in other physical objects. (inertia)

  2. With objects the mass of a planet, the number of required interactions is massive, it would require an generating event such as a galactic black hole to push enough space-time into P2,3 to generate that level of interaction.

  3. Galactic black holes would then continue to grow until certain conditions are met. If the null space pressure on P1 plus the added vortex effect of gravity becomes greater than the null space pressure across all three axes of either P2 or P3, then space-time quickly escapes into the other prime axis.

  4. Then depending on the physical characteristics of that zone of Nullspace, the black hole can do one of a few things.

    1. If the Nullspace zone into which space-time is expanding has a value of

      Nullspace pressure P2>Nullspace pressure P1+gravitational force of black hole

      after the initial burst of space-time expansion, then much of the space-time that was ejected into the new universe is deflected back towards the core of each of the matter vortexes that emerged from the penetration of our space-time into P2.

  1. This results in a massive rebounding force that then returns to P1 as a wave of destabilized dark matter. This wave of dark matter has the effect of gravitational reversal. It blasts stars apart from each other linearly and not at a tangent towards the core of the galaxy. All diffuse core matter such as dust and gas are blown clear of the galaxy. This leaves a giant ellipsoid galaxy devoid of gases and nebulae.

  2. After this massive rebound effect equilibrium is reached between the black hole and the pocket universe. Much of the compressed space-time trapped within the black hole has now escaped the black hole’s gravitational reach due to the massive energy of the cosmogenic rebound event. The remaining space-time then coalesces gravitationally into a much smaller and lower gravity object. It no longer has sufficient mass to form a vast dark matter interaction zone, so the spiral shape does not return.

  3. Occasionally galaxies can form a pocket universe. This occurs when a supermassive black hole or two simultaneously reach a nullspace zone into which space-time from P1 can escape into either P2 or P3.

  4. Similar to the previous explanation, space-time continues pouring into that pocket universe until a dynamic equilibrium is reached. This also results in a rebound effect as the initial explosive expansion is then countered by opposing null space pressure. However in this case, equilibrium is reached between the two systems before total rebound can occur. The period of time from the beginning of rebound to equilibrium results in the galactic core generating an energy event known as a quasar.

  5. A Quasar is the ejection of highly energized space-time from a supermassive black hole along the vectors of lowest P1 nullspace pressure. For any spinning spherical object the lowest null space pressure will be experienced at the poles. After equilibrium is reached the galactic core continues to pour space-time into a pocket universe at a rate only slightly lower than the rate of space-time accretion by the black hole itself. This results in the generation of a pocket of space-time in which stable matter cannot form. The nullspace pressure required to form a powerful stable vortex is significant. The spiral galaxy continues. This is what I call a seed galaxy.

Matter is always drawn to an accelerating object through the prime axis.

Acceleration is motion through the prime axis during which velocity does not reach equilibrium, but continues increasing in relation to the object's space-time expansion for an extended duration.

  1. While an object is accelerating null space pressure across all other vectors in P2,3 is reduced due to spatial expansion being routed linearly along P1. This reduction of null space force results in all affected matter to be pushed by equalizing null space force in the direction opposite of acceleration along the prime axis.

  2. This is what is known as centrifugal/centripetal force.

  3. Radiant space-time=null space force at equilibrium state inside of the universe.

Dark Energy[edit]

Dark energy refers to the force that drives the expansion of space-time Until this paper, scientists naturally assumed that space-time just grows. They have no idea from where or why. Vortex science has a simple and easily calculable method for determining the rate of space-time expansion and the force that generates it.

  1. It is generally accepted that the forces that caused the big bang have long since ended and that we exist on the residual energy from that event.[3] However no matter the amount of energy involved, that number doesn’t reach infinity, and after billions of years of travel across an infinitely large spatial zone, those energies would long since have dissipated.

  2. The equation for this is ΔS increases/t . The rate of entropy, or diffusion into lower energy states, increases over time. As the size of the system increases, the rate of ΔS increases up to the speed of light.

However the universe is not dead or static. It is a dynamic system that is continuously creating and radiating energy. So what is energy? Energy is motion. Motion of what? As all matter and energy are equivalent, and now space-time itself has been explained as a form of matter, energy is simply the difference in rates of motion of expanding space-time between two or more objects. Thus dark energy is a way to give a name to the space-time erupting from the cores of every particle in our bodies.

So why do scientists believe the universe is accelerating? This is a complex question. There may in fact be an inherent acceleration, but relative to the observers within the universe, the expansion of space-time is not really detectable in a normal fashion. So what astronomers have done is determine the gravitational range of matter within galactic clusters. They then found galaxies that were too distant to be gravitationally linked to that cluster. Then it turned out that those galaxies were moving away from each other at a steadily increasing velocity. [13]

Now that we know that gravity is due to physical interaction between regions of expanding space-time along the P2,P3 axes. Once outside of the range of that interaction the only forces at work would be the repulsive forces of the two aggregate space-time shells being generated by galaxies.

  1. As each space-time shell meets the other the additive force of their impact pushes the core matter that generated that space-time tangentially away from the core matter object that produced the second space-time shell.

  2. If neither galaxy had expanding space-time, then the net effect would be closer to a standard velocity, motion would be entirely based on gravitation or inherent inertia.

  3. With two radiant and repulsive force generators at work, the net effect is additive resulting in acceleration of those objects away from each other.

  4. Thus dark energy is not a separate force at all from any of the known forces, but a logical extension of the known physical properties of matter itself.


Microwave background radiation is actually the emanation of energy generated as the exterior shell of our region of space-time encounters the edge of another region of space-time within our universe. The reason this has not dissipated due to entropy, is simply because it is still going on. As you read this paper, the outside edge of our space-time bubble is encountering the edges of other space-time bubbles. Since the outer edge of the space-time shell contains the highest energy of any of the layers of space-time being ejected from the centers of our core matter particles, encounters between it and the outer edges of another zone results in a large increase in null space pressure across P2,3.

  1. This results in a burst of EM radiation being generated thus creating an energy field which we cannot see beyond.

  2. However the MBE does not represent the edge of the universe. It is only the edge of the space-time shell created by the local group of core matter collections. It actually moves outward in relation to the observer.

  3. In a million years, the MBE will have moved a million light years further out, and there will be stars revealed that we did not see before. That doesn’t mean the universe is actually older or younger than we thought, it just means that more bits of the expanding space-time along P1 that were created by the same event that generated matter within the MBE finally were reached by the edge of our bubble of space-time

  4. This could lead to a shocking realization, if stars exist beyond the MBE, then the age of the universe can’t be calculated by determining the time of travel from the edge edge of the MBE back to the center of that zone in P1, all that can be calculated is the age of the matter that created that MBE shell.

How can I assume that the events and space-time expansion of the big bang are still occurring? Wouldn’t we constantly be feeling the effects of expanding space-time?

This question is the easiest to answer. All matter generates light. Light is EM energy, EM energy is space-time expanding outward from a core matter vortex, which means source of this EM energy is matter. So every time you open your eyes you are being bombarded by the space-time shells of all the matter around you, your eyes translate this into images of objects.

  1. Ice specifically, as the space-time emitted by the sun, strikes an object, the object’s vortex becomes energized. As the vortex energizes, it increases pressure across P2,3. As the system returns to equilibrium, space-time is ejected back into P1 at a vector, spin, and energy matching the inherent properties of the object in question.

  2. As that emitted space-time reaches your eye, the particles in your eye have their energy states increased and their P1,2,3 spin changed. The brain then converts that raw data into what we perceive around us as the universe. Therefore the big bang never ended.

Proposed Technologies[edit]


Gravitational repulsion technology.

By increasing the relative voltage of an object in relation to the surroundings increases the pressure along P1 on that object relative to other matter on P1. This allows the object in question to travel further along a P2 or P3 axis in relation to its motion along P1. Thus by increasing the objects voltage by a high enough amount the object can actually seem to teleport. The reason for this behavior is simple.

  1. Increasing an object’s voltage actually decreases an object’s electromagnetic wavelength. This is usually designated as hertz. Khz, Mhz, etc etc.

  2. After all this explanation it should be clear that the wavelength of any object expanding along P1 is actually a reference to the relative state of their motion across the prime axis in relation to their interaction with other objects along a straight line path with said object.

  3. So a longer wavelength means that the electron has a lower incidence of P1 interaction per distance traveled. The opposite then must be true for shorter wavelengths.

  4. Increasing an object’s voltage decreases the length of an object’s wavelength. The decreased wavelength means the object is spending more of its time along . As linear acceleration or motion along P1 increases, P2,3 pressure decreases in relation to the added energy output into P1 until equilibrium is reached. This added percentage of total time spent along P1 is caused by adding electromagnetic energy to the system.

  5. However, reemergence into P1 will be determined by null space pressure across all objects in relation to their motion along P1. Unless stable voltage is maintained across all objects during both initialization and reintegration, matter will often be drawn into itself causing horrific accidents.

  6. However, voltage combined with acceleration could result in lift effects.

    1. Take a highly magnetic material, form it into a disc and start spinning it. This will cause all matter within it to be accelerated along one axis along P1. This decreases null space pressure across the object in relation to P1 across two vectors, or an entire axis.

    2. By increasing then matching the voltage gradient of all objects within the object, the matter in the object will have a much lower null space pressure than the surrounding matter adjacent to the polar zones of the spinning object.

    3. The spinning of the magnetic shell itself helps form a stabilizing space-time bubble around itself which keeps matter from being affected negatively in relation to itself during motion or reintegration with P1.

    4. The faster the object’s magnetic disc spins, the lower the Null space pressure becomes on one full axis of P1 (two opposing polar vectors). This allows for P1 travel and acceleration at high velocities before P2,3 null space pressure becomes equalized. Remember that the gravitational effects are the net effect of high P1 pressure causing the kinetic reactionary force in the opposite direction as null space pressure tries to reach equilibrium across all prime axes.

    5. The entire object’s relative null space pressure will then be negative in relation to its surroundings. This allows for increased acceleration and velocity along P1 by just changing relative voltage gradients across the object in specific locations. As the entire object is in a matching state of spatial expansion in relation to itself, it will feel much less force from the acceleration than an object normally would across the prime axis which allows for acceleration in a P vector using decreased relative energy compared to the usual amount of energy required to accelerate the same object without the change in Nullspace pressure.

    6. However the energy used in creating the antigravity will have the effect of increased rates of electromagnetic radiation from the object across all dimensions. This could cause EMP type effects on electronics.


In conclusion Vortex Science reduces all known forces, matter, energy, space and time into a singular equation. Ths equation makes the bold claim that there is only one force in the universe.

This force is the expansive force of space-time Interaction of this force with itself causes all matter and energy to arise in all universes. The force and relative rotational inertia of expanding space-time along each of the prime axes generates the null space force resisting space-time expansion along the other axes. The complex interactions resulting from interactions between different regions of expanding space-time across different prime axes results in emergent forces such as gravity and electromagnetism.


In English this equation states, The ratio of the force of expansion of space-time in P1 in relation to the force of expansion along P2 and P3 is equal to apparent energy in our universe. As the ratio of expansion of space-time across different prime axes is what generates an object's apparent mass that factor reduces to m. While the actual rate of expansion of space-time along a prime axis would also be the corresponding speed of light along the corresponding dimensions and there is a two item ratio, that is then convertible to C2. Which ends with the fully reduced equation.


Predictions and Experimental Data[edit]

Quantum theory assumptions and Vortex science rebuttal: Vortex Science makes several claims in direct contradiction to the standard model. As such, it becomes controversial. However, there are claims made by the standard model which are of still mysterious or controversial nature. When reading these statements, it is suggested that the reader divorce themselves from taking sides and examine each claim on its own merit.

  1. QT: Physical objects are not always real. Particles change from real things moving in a straight line into pure thought or a concept like “probability”. [4]

    VS: All physical objects are real things created from the difference in energy and relative motion between other objects. All matter always moves in a straight line vector from one point to another. As there are 9! Vectors, this allows matter to continue to be real even after our equipment stops being able to zero in on it. Differences in distances of energy requirements to travel along P2,3 vectors as opposed to P1 vectors results in P1 interaction locations that are not always in a straight line from the emitting object and the receiving object.

  2. QT: A particle’s velocity and location are mutually exclusive pieces of knowledge. This is the core of the uncertainty principle. The more you know about one, the less you can know about the other. [8]

    VS: This is an assumption made due to artifacts of the experiments themselves. To determine a particle’s location requires that it’s P2,3 velocity be decreased enough to draw the particle fully into P1. However, as an object fully on P1 isn’t likely to be practical to create, there would always be linear motion inherent to the particle that could not be detected on a standard EM detector. Similarly, attempts to measure velocity actually change that particle’s vector of travel and velocity relative to the detecting object. As the number of possible vectors is 9! Previous attempts to know either location or velocity possessed (9!-3!) vectors worth of inaccuracy. Particles thus stop being “neither here nor there”, instead, they remain stable real objects that continue traveling along straight lines.

  3. QT: Particles can exist in two places at the same time. (double slit experiment).

    VS: Once again this is an artifact of measurement and not due to the properties of matter itself. Instinctively humans know this is not a viable concept. Instead what is happening is a particle traveling partially off of a P1 axis simultaneously encounters multiple closely linked particles. As those impacted particles then transfer kinetic energy from P2,3 to P1 it seems as though the emitted particle suddenly split into three, however that is purely ridiculous. The object continues its straight line travel and stays a real single object.

  4. QT: There is no law of physics that prevents time from moving backward.

    VS: This is obviously untrue on the face of it. If time could move backward in our universe, we would see objects doing it all the time. There is an omnipresent force accompanying all actions which most physicists have completely ignored. To reverse time one also has to reverse the expansion of space-time Even to reverse time in a localized area would require the reversal of space-time expansion for all matter that falls within the range of the time traveler’s space-time expansion bubble. For all known matter, this would require all matter across 14billion light years to have their expanding space-time returned to their core.

  5. QT: Universes are magic and ignore basic rules such as conservation of matter and energy. In the primary paradigm, matter and energy only exist as an idea until someone goes to look at it, then it suddenly materializes into our universe from some imaginary place called the quantum probability zone. This is called the collapse of the wave function The next most commonly accepted paradigm is that at each moment of time in a universe, an infinite number of other universes are created representing all possible decisions or actions that could have been taken by the object in question. This is the many worlds hypothesis. The last declares that the core of particles are highly electromagnetically energized objects called strings. [13]

    VS: The universe is a real place made of real stuff. While humans have great imaginations, reality is not a product of that imagination. It exists regardless of what any observer may think or want. The path of particles is not governed by a wave function that either collapses or splits, but is instead governed by Newtonian principles in which objects travel in straight lines and are affected by inertia, the energy of other objects, and gravitation. Infinite sums of energy cannot be generated by an event that is inherently finite in nature. If an infinite number of universes pop up every time a decision needs to be made, where did all that energy and space come from? Each universe and every object in it are unique occurrences that happen only once. Even if the whole of the cosmos is recursive in nature, there still only exists one of anybody or thing in this universe. The core of matter isn’t made of tiny pieces of vibrating energy that somehow continue to generate motion and energy forever, it is made of expanding space-time The core building blocks of this and every other universe are all the same.

  6. QT: There are dozens of types of the most basic particles, electrons orbit around a nucleus, etc etc. [9]

    VS: The entire paradigm of what an atom is and how it is composed has changed. Electrons are not separate orbiting particles, but are trapped compressed space-time held to the core of an atom by Null space pressure across P1. These shells of space-time once reaching a high enough energy state then shed a layer of space-time into P1 with its greatest energy and spin energy traveling along what can be tracked as a straight line vector across P1, then as an expanding shell of interaction as it continues its linear travel, but moves further and further off of P1 vectors. The nucleus of an atom is formed of protons and neutrons. Each of which is a metastable aggregation of three space-time vortices. In Vortex science there exists only two types of matter, core matter which is borne from active space-time vortices (in our universe protons and neutrons are the norm, however this is not true in all universes, however the requirement for a radiant space-time vortex remains the same across all universes.) and diffuse matter which is the space-time that the core matter emits. All properties of any elemental property are purely the result of kinetic motion across three different prime axes interacting with the expansion of space-time into the third prime axis.

  7. QT: Gravity is the result of the curvature of space-time [4]

    VS: The apparent curvature of space-time is the result of gravitational interaction between objects. Diffuse space is far too nebulous to lend any sort of three dimensional support to create gravitational wells into which planets fall. Gravity is actually the result of matter and space time coming into contact with core matter particles traveling along the P2,3 axes. This causes tangential deflection towards each object’s center of acceleration along P1. As empty space is also a real object and also travels across P2,3, the deflection of empty space and electrical particles changes the relative motion of space at a slight angle to the attracting core matter. This results in the appearance of space having an inherent curvature down which objects slide. As a general rule, physical objects made of core matter have far greater energy than diffuse objects. Thus a structure built entirely of diffuse particles ,such as the curvature of space-time, at most has a secondary enhancing effect on core matter's linear motion. It requires interaction with other core matter, or with a very high energy region of diffuse space to generate linear motion along the prime axis by core matter.

  8. QT: Black holes form singularities. These objects can arrive at a point in which it occupies zero space yet contain infinite mass. [4]

    VS: Real objects take up space. Because they are made of Space. There is both a maximum gravitational value for any physical object in our universe, and a minimum size that an object can be in relation to its mass before prime axis deflection takes place. Both values can be calculated, and the observed data supports the fact that singularity does not occur. Black holes don’t shrink to infinitely small points, they in fact grow in diameter. This growth indicates that a maximum inequality state has been reached by that system.


  1. Planck, M. (1897/1903), p. 100.
  2. Planck, M. (1926), p. 463, translation by Uffink, J. (2003), p. 131.
  3. Roberts, J.K., Miller, A.R. (1928/1960), p. 382. This source is partly verbatim from Planck's statement, but does not cite Planck. This source calls the statement the principle of the increase of entropy.
  4. Itzkov, Mikhail (2009). Tensor Algebra and Tensor Analysis for Engineers: With Applications to Continuum Mechanics. Springer. p. 4. ISBN 978-3-540-93906-1. 
  5. Tisza, L. (1966), p. 41.
  6. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named M.C3.BCnster_51
  7. Callen H. B. (1960/1985), p. 54.
  8. Tisza, L. (1966), p. 110.
  9. Tisza, L. (1966), p. 111.
  10. Resnick; Halliday; Krane (1992). Physics, Volume 1 (4th ed.). p. 83. 
  11. C Hellingman (1992). "Newton's third law revisited". Phys. Educ. 27 (2): 112–115. doi:10.1088/0031-9120/27/2/011. "Quoting Newton in the Principia: It is not one action by which the Sun attracts Jupiter, and another by which Jupiter attracts the Sun; but it is one action by which the Sun and Jupiter mutually endeavour to come nearer together." 
  12. Resnick; Halliday (1977). Physics (Third ed.). John Wiley & Sons. pp. 78–79. "Any single force is only one aspect of a mutual interaction between two bodies." 
  13. McConnell, Nicholas J. (2011-12-08). "Two ten-billion-solar-mass black holes at the centres of giant elliptical galaxies". Nature. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-12-06. Retrieved 2011-12-06.

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13: Robert M. Wald, , 1984


Lee, Jung Hoon "A New Paradigm of Quantum Certainty"

Added many more citations

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