User:B9 hummingbird hovering/Blog/Learning Persian & Arabic Weblog
The Perso-Arabic Alphabet: Template:Persian/text
The six vowels and 23 consonants of Persian are written using a modified version of the Arabic alphabet with four extra Persian letters to represent sounds which do not exist in Arabic. Its Persian name is Template:Persian/text, which is the equivalent of the English “ABCs”.
|Isolated||Initial||Middle||End||Pronunciation, ‹UniPers›, [IPA]||Name|
|ا||—||ﺎ||‹â› [ɒː] as in North American English caught, Received Pronunciation father, South African English park,
|ﺏ||ﺑ||ﺒ||ﺐ||‹b› [b] as in big||‹be›|
|ﭖ||ﭘ||ﭙ||ﭗ||‹p› [p] as in park||‹pe›|
|ﺕ||ﺗ||ﺘ||ﺖ||‹t› [t] as in tea||‹te›|
|ﺙ||ﺛ||ﺜ||ﺚ||‹s› [s] as in salad||‹se›|
|ﺝ||ﺟ||ﺠ||ﺞ||‹j› [d͡ʒ] as in jade||‹jim›|
|ﭺ||ﭼ||ﭽ||ﭻ||‹c› [t͡ʃ] as in cheese||‹ce›|
|ﺡ||ﺣ||ﺤ||ﺢ||‹h› [h] as in house||‹he›|
|ﺥ||ﺧ||ﺨ||ﺦ||‹x› [x] as in Bach or Loch||‹xe›|
|ﺩ||—||ﺪ||‹d› [d] as in dog||‹dâl›|
|ﺫ||—||ﺬ||‹z› [z] as in zoo||‹zâl›|
|ﺭ||—||ﺮ||‹r› [ɾ] as in rain||‹re›|
|ﺯ||—||ﺰ||‹z› [z] as in zoo||‹ze›|
|ﮊ||—||ﮋ||‹ž› [ʒ] as in mirage or French je||‹že›|
|ﺱ||ﺳ||ﺴ||ﺲ||‹s› [s] as in sand||‹sin›|
|ﺵ||ﺷ||ﺸ||ﺶ||‹š› [ʃ] as in sugar||‹šin›|
|ﺹ||ﺻ||ﺼ||ﺺ||‹s› [s] as in sand||‹sâd›|
|ﺽ||ﺿ||ﻀ||ﺾ||‹z› [z] as in zoo||‹zâd›|
|ﻁ||ﻃ||ﻄ||ﻂ||‹t› [t] as in tiger||‹tâ›|
|ﻅ||ﻇ||ﻈ||ﻆ||‹z› [z] as in zoo||‹zâ›|
|ﻉ||ﻋ||ﻌ||ﻊ||‹'› [ʔ] as in uh-oh||‹'eyn›|
|ﻍ||ﻏ||ﻐ||ﻎ||‹q› [ɣ] Voiced velar fricative.ogg (help·info) or [ɢ], Voiced uvular stop.oga (help·info)||‹qeyn›|
|ﻑ||ﻓ||ﻔ||ﻒ||‹f› [f] as in France||‹fe›|
|ﻕ||ﻗ||ﻘ||ﻖ||‹q› [ɣ] Voiced velar fricative.ogg (help·info) or [ɢ], Voiced uvular stop.oga (help·info)||‹qâf›|
|ک||ﻛ||ﻜ||ک||‹k› [k] as in kid||‹kâf›|
|ﮒ||ﮔ||ﮕ||ﮓ||‹g› [g] as in golf||‹gâf›|
|ﻝ||ﻟ||ﻠ||ﻞ||‹l› [l] as in love||‹lâm›|
|ﻡ||ﻣ||ﻤ||ﻢ||‹m› [m] as in music||‹mim›|
|ﻥ||ﻧ||ﻨ||ﻦ||‹n› [n] as in new||‹nun›|
|ﻭ||—||ﻮ||‹w›, ‹u›, ‹o› and ‹v› as in||‹vâv›|
|ﻩ||ﻫ||ﻬ||ﻪ||‹h› [h] as in horse||‹he›|
|ى||ﻳ||ﻴ||ى||‹y› [j] as in year or ‹i› [iː] as in free||‹ye›|
Most letters in this system of transcription can be pronounced like their English equivalents, but some deserve special attention.
Differing Systems of Transcription
There are several different systems of transcription in use for Persian, and no one official system. This can cause difficulties when more than one textbook is consulted, and may lead an absolute beginner to confuse the different letters. There are too many differences to be listed here, but it is useful to be familiar with the most significant examples:
Some common differences include:
- Template:Persian/text listen (help·info) may be transcribed as ā, á, A, aa, or a. For example, Template:Persian/text may be written elsewhere as bābā, bábá, bAbA, baabaa, or baba. In texts where ‹â› is transcribed as a, the short ‹a› sound may be written as æ or there may be no written distinction between the long and short sounds.
- Short ‹a› listen (help·info) may be transcribed as æ, especially in texts where a represents long ‹â›. For example, Template:Persian/text may be written elsewhere as æbr and Template:Persian/text as baba.
- Template:Persian/text may be transcribed as ch or č. For example, Template:Persian/text may be written elsewhere as chetor or četor.
- Template:Persian/text may be transcribed as kh. For example, Template:Persian/text may be written elsewhere as khub.
- Template:Persian/text may be transcribed as sh or s. For example, Template:Persian/text may be written elsewhere as shoma or soma.
- Long ‹u›, may be transcribed as oo. For example, Template:Persian/text may be written elsewhere as doost.
Learning Persian from English with Rumi
- Dīwān-e Kabīr, Dīwān-e Šams-e Tabrīzī (The Works of Shams of Tabriz) (Persian: دیوان شمس تبریزی) or Dīwān-e Šams
- I sourced this from Scribd and though the Persian is not in Unicode it has attendant English translation.
- "The Diwan, which was written over a thirty-year time span, is thought to have been started after Shams's arrival in Konya in 1244. Comprising approximately 40,000 verses, it contains poems which focus mainly on various mystical states, such as spiritual intoxication and ecstatic love. Scholars believe that many of the poems in the Diwan were composed spontaneously by Rumi while engaged in mystical dancing."
"He believed one had to go beyond the forms of religious rites to reach divine reality."