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Chapter on Ethernet

Presented by: Aidasadat Rezazadeh


Contents

Overview[edit]

This chapter discusses the development of a set of Ethernet and Ethernet types and properties that are involved in the control for sending data.also included in Link layer The second part of chapter is the introduction to explain the invention of the Ethernet why it was created how organizations of standard emphasized for world network,even in the third section talks about the the Ethernet History first of Ethernet 's invention what type of cable was come to network market and it deals with the definition of the view Ethernet network and its operations.The following of section 3 is,the fourth section describes to definition of standard IEEE and types of standards have worked on Ethernet also it is mentioned little of CSMA/CD and it explains that the standard have entered types of Ethernet market.The fifth section deals to description with description of critique photo ,to explanation more completely about development of Ethernet in wide area networks with different scales and with different dimensions, so the article's aim is to look be a better idea for designing the Ethernet that the sixth section begins to a definition structure of the Ethernet and description names of frame element. As the previous section has been seriously discussed in Section seventh explains CSMA/CD that is one of the important components in Ethernet to avoid data packet collisions, provide better solutions for data and it is described its applications as well as algorithms and rules also to explain sharing in the LAN network . The eighth section of article is looking presentations Ethernet components of Network and even it refers to CSMA/CD ,further development of Ethernet communication of Ethernet is highlighted, in this section is presented so more and more about Ethernet devices as well as to pay attention about sending and receiving packets data that it is written from Ethernet topology and topology types that it revise point to point protocol of Ethernet. A variety of protocols and protocol is given brief description also Ninth section is discussion summaries and tenth section develops questions of the discussions that it will increase the reader's confidence.

To collectively we can say that recently there have been a series of innovations in technology Ethernet networks, which has resulted in an increase in power of Ethernet in the position carriers and transport data and the evolution of global networks. This article explains about the of Ethernet Where did it come from and what has been invented for the networks And and? has even in been discussed about the format of Ethernet and of Ethernet equipment and devices To what extent impact the cables and switches and all directs. How development of Ethernet is a popular at the end of the subject has provided a brief familiar with Ethernet, The World Wide Web is located a part of the family. Ethernet can be defined in one of the families standard which is well known in the history of 10MB and a 1 GB is well established however, this analysis requires sophisticated technologies by a range of experts in the fields of architecture, wireless and Ethernet networking professionals carrying case is discussed. Ethernet is becoming an important carrier network technology ,but in previous years had been assigned Ethernet LAN Ethernet can be a good candidate in wide area Network.

Introduction[edit]

I suggest that you can put the four layers figure here and describe the link layer function in this "Introduction" section because Ethernet is one protocol of link layer.

Ethernet refers to of one of the family of the local networks technology that it was caused to expand the local network and the original Ethernet standard products cover IEEE 802.3 also in 1980 the brand is known as Ethernet ,anyway Ethernet networks have been used commercially for decades. The market is told that competitive Ethernet with local network technology token ring local area is large and has been replaced with token ring ,FDDI ,ARCNET ,the reason of alternative Ethernet with local network technology are included are terms of easy to understand and easy to implement and manage and maintain the network and implement low-cost and provides flexibility in the installation of Network ,Moreover the evolution of Ethernet technology and all generations of Ethernet that they can use the same frame formats and also can be readily interconnected through bridging.

You should change your reference or link in the following form through your chapter.

[1]

http://www.adckrone.com/in/en/library/White_Papers/Enterprise/401270IN.pdf(page2)

The other hand Ethernet is attended everywhere in computer networks that the ever-decreasing cost of the hardware needed to support it and the reduced panel space needed by twisted pair Ethernet. Moreover most manufacturers now build Ethernet interfaces directly into PC motherboards, eliminating the need for installation of a separate network card however, Ethernet is one of the most popular communication protocols and network architectures have proven that they willing to work more with other quartiles and Ethernet networking technology that is known more protocol, in the present time three data rates are included:

• 10 megabits per second , 10BASE-T Ethernet

• 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet

• 1000 Mbps , Gigabit Ethernet

http://docwiki.cisco.com/wiki/Ethernet_Technologies(page 1,Ethernet Technologies)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet(page1,Ethernet)

History[edit]

Ethernet was created by Xerox Corporation as an experimental coaxial cable network in 1980 years ,it was operated to Track data until at least 3 Mbps with used from sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD) for protocol in LANs Network as well as that was successful to expand been heavy data or reducing traffic data as well Network of experts and architects were eager to build a new project called Ethernet with version 1.0 in 1980 to increase the data rate of 10 was led by the three companies such as Digital Equipment Corporation, Intel Corporation, and Xerox Corporation.

As previously mentioned, the original Ethernet standard is called IEEE 802.3 was recorded ,in addition Ethernet version 1.0 was very similar after to 1980 that experts tried to provide draft a Ethernet standard 802.3 as the primary standard and has officially been named. The original IEEE 802.3 standard was based on and was very similar to the Ethernet Version 1.0 specification , The draft standard was approved by the 802.3 working group in 1983 and was subsequently published as an official standard in 1985 (ANSI/IEEE Std. 802.3-1985) since then, a number of supplements to the standard have been defined to take advantage of improvements in the technologies and to support.


http://docwiki.cisco.com/wiki/Ethernet_Technologies#Ethernet-A_Brief_History(page2,section 1,Ethernet-A Brief History)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet#History(page2,section1, History)


Additional Network media and higher data rate capabilities, plus several new optional network access control features. Throughout the rest of this article, the terms Ethernet and 802.3 will refer exclusively to network implementations compatible with the IEEE 802.3 standard that even having features to increased data rates on the contrary, it can be reduced network traffic and controlling network.

http://www.meo.etc.upt.ro/materii/cursuri/ISMT/3.pdf(page2,Ethernet—A Brief History)

In 2012, IEEE joined other leading global organizations so, including the Internet Architecture Board (IAB), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and Internet Society and World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) that Companies connected to the goal of being to promoted the data rate up to 100 G and the exchange minimum data as far as technology knows that today is announced to support the increasing data rate of 100 G to 400 G.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet(page 2,section1 ,History)

Your figures should like following example, please correct the format of your rest figures. Besides, I can not find any connection through your chapter to your figures. You should give the reader hints to see your figures.

Figure 1. example
                           * Figure1ː(refːhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet,History


Definition of Ethernet[edit]

The way protocol that is able to intend to transport data by cable. Ethernet is the "effect" and "net" has been named as well as, that as is maintaining a light that will transport data Small packets of data through light cables. Ethernet is defined in the low-level data transmission protocol.

https://globaljournals.org/GJCST_Volume12/6-Use-of-Ethernet-Technology-in-Computer.pdf(page 2,sectio2,Definitation)

The Ethernet operation[edit]

The work of Ethernet is got done only by Ethernet, computer are connected to others the computers via cable as far as history of it writes which is able to communicate The end of a cable connected to a computer and the other end of cable connected to or repeater hubs or switches is to send a signal to do the work,If this is based reaction of Ethernet as chain which computer sends a signal and the signal passes, then be sent to the destination computer using special algorithms to determine the expected of duration and the delay time.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet(section 3.1, Shared media)

http://docwiki.cisco.com/wiki/Ethernet_Technologies#Ethernet_Network_Elements(section2,ethernet element )

Standard[edit]

In February 1980, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) started project 802 to standardize local area networks by DIX-group that group is composed of companies DEC, Intel, Xerox that they submitted the so-called "Blue Book" ,also CSMA/CD Characteristics as a candidate for the LAN characteristics and In addition to CSMA/CD, Token Ring and Token Bus ,Token Ring and Token Bus as a candidate standard LAN network is considered But today Ethernet is strong competition between the two candidates (Token Ring and Token Bus),It recommendations a lot about the differences between Ethernet and two group in standard technology is presented.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet#Standardization(section 2 ,Standardization)

Major concern in the Ethernet was occurred that was delay in exchange data ,it was caused that market introduction of the Xerox that Ethernet LAN products put at risk so the company is discovered a new style Local Area Networks in 1980 as previously mentioned also representative to IEEE 802, quickly achieved broader support for Ethernet beyond IEEE by the establishment of a competing Task Group "Local Networks" within the European standards in roughly 1980.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet#Standardization (section 2 ,Standardization)

http://www.ccse.kfupm.edu.sa/~nizar/download/ethernet.pdf(page1,Ethernet and IEEE 802.3)

As early as March 1982 ECMA TC24 with its corporate members reached agreement on a standard for CSMA / CD based on the IEEE 802 draft because of the speedy action taken by ECMA which decisively contributed to the conciliation of opinions within IEEE, the IEEE 802.3 CSMA / CD standard was approved in December 1982 and then that project was run finally it was followed.as well IEEE published the 802.3 standard as a draft in 1983 and as a standard in 1985.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet#Standardization (section 2 ,Standardization)

http://www.ccse.kfupm.edu.sa/~nizar/download/ethernet.pdf(page1,Ethernet and IEEE 802.3)


IEEE 802.3[edit]

This section defines the current standard and shows all Ethernet standards has been work procedures also it explains the different types of Ethernet was invented that with their work procedures describes in the CSMA/CD even in layers and their assessed ability to suggests load of subsets of section.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet#Standardization(section 2 ,Standardization)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.3(chapter IIEE 802.3,page1) http://www.adckrone.com/in/en/library/White_Papers/Enterprise/401270IN.pdf(page 6,Ethernet Standardisation)

Current Standards[edit]

The standard is a key to the wide acceptance of Ethernet. The original standard, IEEE 802.3, was finalized in 1983 , it has been updated repeatedly since then The scope of this paper does not permit a discussion on each supplement, but a brief description of the most important ones follows.

This standard is a working group that sets standards IEEE by the physical layer and data link layer has been created,in case that standard is used for some applications of WAN network and LAN network and the physical connections between nodes or Ethernet devices such as hubs or routers that are made by copper and fiber cable. The standard is defined by carrier sense access of control, the standards of its predecessors follow also this table show to name of standard with their specifications.

http://www.ccse.kfupm.edu.sa/~nizar/download/ethernet.pdf(page 2,Ethernet and IEEE 802.3 Service Differences)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.3(section 1 ,Communication Standards)


Sh standrad.gif
                        * Figure2ː(refːOwn work but sourceː https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.3)

The 100 in the media type designation refers to the transmission speed of 100 Mbit/s. The "BASE" refers to baseband signaling. The TX, FX and T4 refer to the physical medium that carries the signal.

FAST Ethernet[edit]

Fast Ethernet was introduced in 1995 on an Ethernet network ,it had great place during the 3 years We then came to the market GIGABYTE and status of Fast Ethernet was less important. Fast Ethernet main job is to be a term that is used in Ethernet that can support transport traffic at the rate of 100 megabytes per second against of speed of 10 MB. Fast Ethernet is also racing warrant further in the form of 100 base-T is produced mostly by hardware. Generally Fast Ethernet is subset of Ethernet that are used in UTP data in the fiber optic cables. also this is launching in a star wired topology, its launch as a 10BASE-t s launch which all cables are connected to the hub topology. It makes a consistent as well coordinate system and to provide other systems also promote the plug-in type 10 base-t however the position of the system is increased and even the specification CSMD/CD uses in Ethernet for controlling to accessible media or data, Eventually Fast Ethernet LAN modem and Ethernet switch operates as a full-duplex mode.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fast_Ethernet(page 1 ,paragraph 1,Fast Ethernet)


Ethernet design[edit]

Fast Ethernet adapter is enabled to share the media access control which will examine the level of physical Layer Interface (PHY) that was called as MAC, the MAC can be connected to the PHY by a 4 bit 25 MHz synchronous parallel interface is the least recognized as Media Independent Interface (MII) or a 2 bit 50 MHz ,it is the acquisition of relations with Media Independent Interface (RMII) . Repeater allows as well as connect to multiple physical interfaces for creating different interfaces as far as Ethernet is known, the MII repairs maximum data bit rate for all versions of Fast Ethernet also the data signaling rate in fact MLL revises fewer than the visionary maximum on real network because of the header and trailer on every frame, in According "lost frame" due to noise that frames have to be time waiting until to finish transmitting.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fast_Ethernet#General_design(section 1, General design)


Types of 100 BASE in fast Ethernet[edit]

All types of base are defined about limited to 100 meters for 100 BASE-T cable, all are or were standards under IEEE 802.3 (approved 1995). Almost all 100BASE-T installations are 100BASE-TX.that are included:

1. 100BASE-TX: 100 Mbit/s over two-pair Cat5 or twisted pair cables

2. 100BASE-T4 :100 Mbit/s over four-pair Cat3 or twisted pair cables

3. 100BASE-T2 :100 Mbit/s over two-pair Cat3 or twisted pair cables

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fast_Ethernet#Copper(section 2,2 Copper{2.1 100BASE-TX,2.2 100BASE-T4,2.3 100BASE-T2})


two type of 100 BASE-t are available in fast Ethernet that are 100BASE-T4,100BASE-T2 which are supported until limited to 100 meters also they could be half-duplex.

Type of 100 BASE in Ethernet by Fiber optics Cable[edit]

1. 100BASE-FX: It keeps track of 1300 nm near-infrared (NIR) light wavelength transmitted via two strands of optical fiber, It is Possible to send data at a distance Maximum length roughly 412meters and it is required for half-duplex connections to follow 2 kilometers distance so this is one of the good qualities.

2. 100BASE-SX: 100BASE-SX is a version of Fast Ethernet over optical fiber, It uses two strands of multi-mode optical fiber for receive and transmit then Can be replaced with other technologies because of the low price also it can be act at distances up to 550 meters. 100BASE-SX uses the same wavelength as 10BASE- FL, the10 Mbit/s version over optical fiber, also Because of part of shorter wavelength is used to send data then, applies the shorter time interval.

3. 100BASE-BX: 100BASE-BX is a version of Fast Ethernet over a single strand of optical fiber , one-mode of fiber is reach to be special multiplexer which splits the signal into transmit and receive wavelengths. we can tell that to transmitting and receiving for two wavelengths is 1310/1550 nm. Distances can be 10, 20 or 40 km.

4. 100BASE-LX10: 100BASE-LX10 is a version of Fast Ethernet ,it is used over two single-mode optical fibers also It is incredible to reachable Distance for sending10 km and a nominal wavelength of 1310 nm.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fast_Ethernet#Fiber_optics(Section 3, Fiber optics)

Ethernet terabit[edit]

Ethernet terabits who called TBE is described as follows and the top speed to 100 GB in Ethernet, like Ethernet, Facebook or Google also some think that Ethernet is followed or at least up to 400 GB are also supported but in 2011, researchers purpose to build a fast 100 GB Ethernet for 2014 or 2013. The IEEE Company also announced that will shape the industry for a bandwidth Ethernet For the evaluation of ad-hoc business that is to be What to do business for both short-term and long-term Who need the best bandwidth for faster access to the network, In 2017 it is expected that the IEEE company will provide Ethernet 400 GB.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terabit_Ethernet(section 1 ,paragraph 1,Terabit Ethernet)

Gigabit Ethernet[edit]

gigabit Ethernet (GBE or 1 GigE) is a subset of Ethernet which is used in computer networking for Transferring Ethernet frames in terms of the rate a gigabit per second also it was created by IEEE 802.3-2008 standard as well it came into market in the early 1999, as before mentioned it had abilities to replace with Fast Ethernet in wired local networks just as it turns out this could keep it's positions. The cables and Facilities are so rivals to Fast Ethernet and even in 2010 it was extended better facilities, Half-duplex gigabit links clung via hubs are allowed to transfer or detect with characteristics, although with Using full-duplex with switches is used exclusively.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gigabit_Ethernet(section 1,paragraph 1,Gigabit Ethernet)

Diversity of Gigabit Ethernet[edit]

As previously has been said three types of Ethernet cable those are optical fiber, twisted pair cable, shielded balanced copper cable, as well gigabit Ethernet has five physical layer standards in optical fiber (1000BASE-X), twisted pair cable (1000BASE-T), or shielded balanced copper cable (1000BASE-CX).


The IEEE 802.3z made type of 1000BASE-SX for transferring frame in all mod of fiber also 1000BASE-LX was created for transmission in single-mode fiber and the nearly 1000BASE-CX was accepted for transferring frame in the shielded balanced copper cabling. 8b/10b encoding are usable for transmission in standard that Rated speed can be calculated until 25%, from 1000 Mbit/s to 1250 Mbit/s for ensure a DC balanced signal. also it can tell about IEEE 802.3ab, which defines 1000BASE-T for transmission in twisted, it's coding design is different from the previous standard that keep the symbol rate as low as possible.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gigabit_Ethernet(section2 , Varieties)

IEEE 802.3ap was created in Gigabit Ethernet to do Operation over Electrical Back planes and it is different about in reaching speeds that the Class of 1000BASE is from 1000BASE-LX10 to -BX10.

Pic 4.gif
                  * Figure3ː(refːOwn work but sourceː https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gigabit_Ethernet)

Based on the table been compared all 1000BASE to According in speed and cable type:

Ethernet Development[edit]

<<The picture of critique >>

Critiquepic.jpg
                      * Figure4ː(refːOwn work but sourceː <<The picture of critique >> )

If this section is also a part of Ethernet history, you should combine this section with last section.

As previously this article were taken to discuss about development of Ethernet, the first evolution of Ethernet was developed by Xerox Corporation also From important developments in Ethernet that reads the name of the CSMD system for controlling to send data in network what more, since 1980 the company has started to expand more of the Ethernet such as: new types of cables(In early development in Ethernet was changed coaxial, but gradually that changed has been cable twisted pair cable),new typologies (Ethernet was invented for bus topology but with coming a new standard is coming in Ethernet that has been started to change Ethernet star topology or a combination star and bus.),increased bandwidth(The standards now define speeds between 1 Mbps and 1 GBPS (soon 10 GBPS)and support for full-duplex operation( The original standard supported half-duplex only) additionally Expansion of the distances supported , Support for new applications(Gigabit and 10 Gigabit Ethernet are able to provide transport for voice and video as well as data).

Advanced Ethernet can have functionality to develop a computer network that uses these capabilities to each to reduce traffic and collision data so Feature is called in Ethernet has evolved to include higher bandwidth, improved media access control methods and different physical media. One Ethernet features that now are being discussed is about Ethernet stations communicate, These stations are also large data packets as blocks of data from one server to another server to be sent or Delivered, likewise each Ethernet station is given a 48-bit MAC address although The MAC addresses are used to specify both the destination and the source of each data packet, Ethernet establishes link level connections, which can be defined using both the destination and source addresses.

For ensure the transmission of information that Recipients must follow to transmit information using the destination address to determine whether or not the station ,adapters are available like Special to schedule the completed correctness of the data is sent and eventually globally each servers must have a unique name or a special code but The second feature Ethernet is that the Ethernet frame is said to be automatically identifies because of frame type,The reason of Frames can be mixing to allow the protocol to be able to use a computer on a network of physical units together.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet#Shared_media(section 3,Shared media and briefly of Evolution )

http://www.colt.net/cdnucm/groups/public/@cdn/@public/documents/generalcontent/cdnp_007181.pdf(briefly of whole chapter,5 myths about Ethernet and VPNs)
http://www.adckrone.com/in/en/library/White_Papers/Enterprise/401270IN.pdf(page5,development)


3Com 3c905-tx NIC.jpg
                    * Figure5ː(refːhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gigabit_Ethernet )

10-gigabit Ethernet[edit]

10 gigabit Ethernet (10GE or 10GbE or 10 GigE) Covers one of type of technologies for transmitting Ethernet frames at a rate of 10 gigabits per second in computer networking (10×109 or 10 billion bits per second) which it was created by the IEEE 802.3ae standard in 2002 . After forming draft this plan was implemented in 2007. As previous type of Ethernet, 10GbE supports both copper and fiber cabling, because of its minimum of bandwidth, higher-Level copper cables are required: category 6a or Class F/Category 7 cables for links up to 100m ,although Unlike previous Ethernet standards 10 gigabit Ethernet has been introduced for full duplex point-to-point links via it can connected by network switches. 10GbE Obeys from gigabit Ethernet As we mentioned in type of Ethernet, then like The 10 gigabit Ethernet standard is surrounded by a number of different physical layer (PHY) standards. In general the 10 gigabit Ethernet standard was Evolved, in wide area network (WAN), for it has abilities to take the form of transport in a WAN PHY ,although The WAN PHY encapsulates Ethernet packets in SONET OC-192c frames and operates at a slightly slower data-rate (9.95328 GBIT/s) than the local area network (LAN) PHY.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/10_Gigabit_Ethernet(section 1, paragraph 1 ,briefly of other section , 10-gigabit Ethernet)


Standards of 10-gigabit Ethernet[edit]

Over of creating 10 gigabit, it was interested in to publish several standards relating to 10GbE. These several standards are included: 802.3ae-2002 for running fiber optic cable, the second standard is 802.3ak-2004 for running copper twin- type cable so the next standard s 802.3an-2006 for in10GBASE-T copper twisted pair, 802.3ap-2007 is for copper backplane -KR and -KX4 PMDs and the next one is created with name of 802.3aq-2006 for fiber -LRM PMD however The table below shows the details of the standards:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/10_Gigabit_Ethernet(section 1, Standards )


Shp 10 gigabte.gif
                         * Figure6ː(ref: Own work but sourceːhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/10_Gigabit_Ethernet  )

100 Gigabit Ethernet[edit]

100 Gigabit Ethernet (or 100GbE) and 40 Gigabit Ethernet (or 40GbE) was invented to type technologies computer network for transferring Ethernet frames at a rates of 100 or 40 gigabits per second which it was created for the first time by the IEEE 802.3ba-2010 standard. The last type of 100 Gigabit Ethernet was added on the standards in Network in March 2011 that it want to operate task four lane back plane and copper 100 GBIT/s standard and also the standard 802.3bm works in lower cost 100 GBIT /s optical physical interfaces.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/100_Gigabit_Ethernet(section 1, paragraph 1, 100 Gigabit Ethernet)

Standards of 100-gigabit Ethernet[edit]

Mainly, The IEEE 802.3 Target to expand of the Ethernet data communications standard, Additions this 802.3 standard are added lots of subset such as 802.3z was designated by one or two letters. 802.3ba is designed for upgrading speed Ethernet task force to more higher which follows its work to design of the 802.3 standard to support speeds higher than 10 GBIT /s. The 40/100 Gigabit Ethernet standards are created by a number of different Ethernet physical layer (PHY) specifications, a networking device leads different of PHY types by usage of plug able modules also Optical modules are not standardized by any official standards body but are in multi-source agreements (MSAs) ,as before mention in type of Ethernet is supported 40 and 100 Gigabit Ethernet is the C Form-factor plug able which is directed until distances of upper of 100 meters.

It is supported shorter distances by some of modules which supported issue are included:

1) the reservation Ethernet frame format by 802.3 MAC

2) keeping Preserve minimum and maximum frame size of current

3) Support a bit error ratio or detect errors equal to 10−12 at the MAC/PLS service interface

4) Providing appropriate support for OTN ,supporting MAC data rates of 40 and 100 GBIT /s, Providing Physical Layer specifications (PHY) for operation over single-mode optical fiber (SMF)


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/100_Gigabit_Ethernet(section 2, Standards )

The under label is followed characteristic of rate of gigabit in the physical layers:

Shp 100 gigabte.gif
                            * Figure7ː(ref: Own work but sourceːhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/100_Gigabit_Ethernet  )

Ethernet Structure[edit]

Vidio of fram.gif
      *Figure8ː(ref:https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Topic:Web_Science/Part1:_Foundations_of_the_web/Internet_Architecture/Ethernet/Ethernet_Header)

I suggest you to link this section with video of Ethernetframe in our class.

Frames[edit]

In IEEE 802.3 datagrams are called "frames". A frame begins with preamble and start frame delimiter, followed by an Ethernet header featuring source and destination MAC addresses. The middle section of the frame consists of payload data including any headers for other protocols (e.g., Internet Protocol) carried in the frame that The frame ends with a 32-bit cyclic redundancy check, which is used to detect corruption of data in transit.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet_frame(paragraph 1,Ethernet frame)


Definition ofFrame[edit]

In computer networking and telecommunications, a frame is equivalent to a single digital data transmission which it includes to coordinate frame is made of bits or characters, as well this enables the receiver detects the beginning and end of the pack be the character or bit. If the receiver is connected to the middle of a frame transmission of network and Network system that ignores the pre- Data When a new frame of sequence to be coordinated.

In computer networking, a frame is a data packet on the Layer Data Link of the OSI model, although the unit of transmission revises in a link layer protocol and layer is consisted of a link-layer header followed by a packet. The frame of the network system which in this case would be to check the time frame for the receiver and the transmitter are included specifically time-division multiplex (TDM) and time-division multiple access (TDMA). A frame is composed of repeating blocks of data that blocks are included some of fixed number of time slots this slot is used For TDM channel and TDMA channel.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frame_(telecommunications)(section 1,paragraph 1, Frame (networking))

Definition of Ethernet frame[edit]

If we want to explain frame we should look to the data packet the data packet consists of a small portion of the data or into separate packages split the data to this can the purpose of the data transmission is performed to be sent to the receiver station. Finally, the frame can be explained Each packet has a separate frames for implementing MAC addresses And increase the efficiency of the protocol but the frame is defined in computer science Data packets on the Ethernet link is called an Ethernet frame.

Definition of the frame structure[edit]

Frame is divided into several sections that form of frame starts with preamble that is followed the second part of frame that called frame delimiter. Following that, each Ethernet frame is been explained features of MAC addresses which it has two part such as Ethernet header as well as destination and source those can be completed destination address.

If we can better explain the form of frames the form is divided into two sides of the frame Right part consists of Preamble, Start of frame delimiter, MAC destination, MAC source so the left part of frame is consisted by Payload, Frame check sequence, Inter frame gap but payload data is located The middle section of the frame which it's task has abilities to do with any headers for other protocols as well exchanged packet of data from protocols to frame at end of frame is Frame check sequence that it does to be Identify transitions and collision detection data is belonging only 32 bits for cyclic for checking.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet_frame#Structure(section 1, Ethernet frame)

Structure of the frame[edit]

According to the data packet is called frames on the Ethernet cable the frame itself consists of a series of binary numbers but the point that is significant the binary data in the form of Ethernet octet is shown. And as you can see in sections of Ethernet frame that is accompanied octet in all parts but one thing is significant in payload size is until 1500 octets for transmitting via some implementations of Gigabit Ethernet support larger frames, it was known as jumbo frames.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet_frame#Structure(section 1, Structure)

The table below shows that the internal structure of an Ethernet frame was created in IEEE 802.3, although it was remade again in 2012.

Sh frame ethernet.jpg
                 * Figure9ː(ref: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet_frame#Structure)

Description of part of the Ethernet frame[edit]

Generally frames can be described although one frame divided with parts but they are being described. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frame_(networking)(frame Ethernet )

Preamble and start frame delimiter[edit]

Preamble is that one of first component in a section frame, consisting of 7 words and the alternating pattern of zero and it is called as a binary so able to performing signal receiving stations that a frame is coming to the destination station and while creates device for providing synchronization The signal received at the physical layer At the end of the input into a series of bits in this episode.

on the other side , the second of part frame is frame delimiter(SFD) that is started 1-octet, as it will be mentioned that bit pattern in frame of two part is 10101010 10101010 so case it is repeated. Since octets are transmitted to show as hexadecimal representation is 0x55. This part uses from PHY transceiver chips Fast Ethernet to show feature a 4-bit Media independent interface ,Therefore the preamble has value of 14 instances of 0x5 and the start frame delimiter 0x5 0xD but Gigabit Ethernet uses from transceiver chips for showing Gigabit Media Independent Interface that works 8-bits at a time and 10 GBIT/s.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet_frame#Preamble_and_start_frame_delimiter(section 1.1 ,Preamble and start frame delimiter)

http://docwiki.cisco.com/wiki/Ethernet_Technologies#The_Basic_Ethernet_Frame_Format(section 5.1 ,The Basic Ethernet Frame Format)


Header[edit]

Based on the history of the network address and we can collect MAC address source, Destination , they say it's a header of MAC address. This section has the only feature that each MAC address has 6 bytes. The protocol of Ethernet has in be able to identify Ether Type standard optional so in the EEE 802.1Q tag is given. Destination address is known as DA that we told, it consists of 6 bytes. This section is the ability to show a bit of the destination address, or frame by destination, putting The left-most bit or first bit in the DA field shows whether the address is an individual address(to be zero) or a group address (indicated by a 1). The second bit will be that it shows to be from globally administered (if to be 0) or locally administered (to be 1).

On the other side, in Source addresses it consists of 6 bytes so That section is the ability to show a bit of the Source address or frame by Source, Contrary to previous section, the second bit of The SA is always an individual address to be 0 forever.

http://docwiki.cisco.com/wiki/Ethernet_Technologies#The_Basic_Ethernet_Frame_Format(section 1.2 ,Preamble and start frame delimiter)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet_frame#Header(section 5.1 ,Header)

802.1Q tag[edit]

The IEEE 802.1Q tag is one of part of frame to have an optional 4-octet field that it is accessible to indicate relationship with Virtual LAN (VLAN) and IEEE 802.1p priority.

http://docwiki.cisco.com/wiki/Ethernet_Technologies#The_Basic_Ethernet_Frame_Format(section 5.1 ,The Basic Ethernet Frame Format)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet_frame#802.1Q_tag(section 1.2 ,802.1Q_tag)

Ether Type or length[edit]

This part takes place in just two words as well as this two-octet field can be used for two different purposes, Values of 1500 or 0x05DC, one of word is used for indicating the size of the payload in octets on the other hand, the second word is values of 1536 (0x0600) also it wants to indicate represent Ether Type. Duty of Ether Type is placed to indicate which protocol is worked in the payload of an Ethernet Frame, if we wants to say more about this part that and the Length/Type field value identifies the particular type of frame being sent or received.

http://docwiki.cisco.com/wiki/Ethernet_Technologies#The_Basic_Ethernet_Frame_Format(section 5.1 ,The Basic Ethernet Frame Format)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet_frame#EtherType_or_length(section 1.3 ,EtherType_or_length)

Payload[edit]

As was said in this discussion this section requires more bits have placed in this section. To saving word until minimum of 42 octets in fact it is got from an 802.1Q tag with 46 octets but they are absent, the maximum payload is 1500 octets. Non-standard jumbo frames allow for larger maximum payload size But it is expanded from octet to be 1500 octet.

http://docwiki.cisco.com/wiki/Ethernet_Technologies#The_Basic_Ethernet_Frame_Format(section 5.1 ,The Basic Ethernet Frame Format)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet_frame#Payloadsection (section 1.4 ,Payloadsection)

Frame check sequence[edit]

The frame check has 4-octet to let check recognition, corrupted data within the entire frame sequentially.

http://docwiki.cisco.com/wiki/Ethernet_Technologies#The_Basic_Ethernet_Frame_Format(section 5.1 ,The Basic Ethernet Frame Format)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet_frame#Frame_check_sequence(section 1.5 ,Frame check sequence)

Inter frame gap[edit]

Inter frame gap is shown to have idle time between frames, after a frame was sent then Inter frame gap is calculated some of idle time between frames that needs to has 12 octet .

http://docwiki.cisco.com/wiki/Ethernet_Technologies#The_Basic_Ethernet_Frame_Format(section 5.1 ,The Basic Ethernet Frame Format)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet_frame#Interframe_gap (section 1.6 ,Interframe_gap)

Definition of 5-4-3 rule[edit]

They are made which to covering problems which may act earlier in Ethernet for access to the network. It means that with putting a set of rules in a collision domain ,it can intend for forwarded data aim better and earlier , for example collision domain should has most 5 segments with 4 repeaters, with 3 segments for active senders.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5-4-3_rule(section 1,5-4-3 rule)

According to the protocol works with Ethernet If a signal is placed too much the collision area or data is faced with consecutive collisions, law must be designed this is Signals to be available if any part of the network time. Each signal passes through the repeater Meet the legal and the signal with a small amount of time Should be added to the total time for the purpose of the law is designed to achieve its goal is to minimize the transfer time. For having reachable to all purposes of this rule, part of the IEEE is created to define for being better reachable an electrical connection between networked devices.

Rule of Collision detection[edit]

In general it uses in Ethernet varieties of 10BASE5 and 10BASE2 , a segment would like to connect to single coax cable that it should have devices tapped into it. On the modern network to should be new rule in Bases at Ethernet which twisted-pair Ethernet and a network segment like to join with end station to network equipment or the connections as connections sequentially to require devices tapped to connect different pieces of network equipment.

Some of rules are divided in part of a collision domain to be two forms two of physical segments: populated (user) segments, and unpopulated (link) segments, User segments can users connect to them via name of user. with using the Links segment Can [proceed communicate between users just with calling repeater. there is only one rule Compulsory that can only be a maximum of five segments have been connected with four repeaters but only three of the five segments of user connections shall be lighted.This last facility can be surrounded just in Ethernet segment of 10BASE5 and 10BASE2.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5-4-3_rule#Collision_detection(section 1.1, Collision detection)


Rule in the part of Preamble[edit]

Additionally Despite having collision detection can cause reliably in network, one of rule in preamble is that Transitions frame cannot be repeated too many in same times because of a repeater cannot try to listen normally for the 0101 preamble then each time, repeater must add one bit to part of preamble so locking can be good ideas onto the bit stream. Once locked on, the repeater can ingeminate but it should put bit in other port However, numbers of bits may be used on the first of operation while the repeater was locking onto the bit stream.

If us consider As the frame of preamble also to pay attention preamble’s length to would be got by each repeater then it's length is shorter and shorter because of lock command, the main reason lock command has caused to has short length: too many bits lost as well as in the end of node does not have enough preamble's length for bits to lock on ,the whole frame are missed. As far as we can say conclusion is reason configuration rule is created in the Ethernet way that it can let to use 2 repeaters on the single network but it is not possible to hosts cannot connect with all repeaters.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5-4-3_rule#Preamble_consumption(section 1.2, Preamble consumption)

Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection[edit]

I suggest you to link this section with video of collision detection in our class.

The original work of the algorithm[edit]

The main task is to chart that the three stages are examined to do to get the best transfers between stations also it is important of time of transmission range.The first examination of chart is signal that is sending when do other stations wish to send a signal, if the answer was yes until that signal is Waiting to get time for sending Otherwise then the second of examination chart is revising ,This the second review is getting, the collision has occurred if the answer is yes so their collision will make traffic in cable then under normal also the signal will go to expected queue Otherwise fallow it's transition to the destination station. A third examination is that the transfer was got successful then transfer will end as well CSMD method to follow to go revision on second signal otherwise if it was unsuccessfully in transfer data then it should go to revise the second examination.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carrier_sense_multiple_access_with_collision_detection(section 1 ,Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection)

Jam signal[edit]

Jam signal, is a signal with a 32-bit binary pattern that is sent by the station data that transmits if the data is not required. For the newscast If the transfer is not necessary , Maximum time of Calculation it looks like this: Installation is limited to a minimum of 232 bits, the cycle time is 464 bits, as the slot time in Ethernet is 512 bits, the difference between slot time and round-trip-time is 48 bits (6 bytes), which is the maximum "jam-time".

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carrier_sense_multiple_access_with_collision_detection#Jam_signal( section 2, Collision detected procedure ,section 3 ,Jam signal)

Shp jam chart.gif
               * Figure10ː(ref: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carrier_sense_multiple_access_with_collision_detection#Jam_signal)
Example of the chart[edit]

This chart is used to minimize traffic without allowing any transfer that would not be traffic .This algorithm, like the movement of airplane is that wishes the path is A to B without aircraft's let is not moved anywhere Because while if the plane is going to from A to B way in the air on the one time other airplane wants to fly as that way at the same time to in the one way it become accident from both of them then it is caused collision but if one of airplane's fly will be done successfully aircraft of command let to fly While it is a busy route or aircraft is in motion, the aircraft must be Its motion is delayed until the route is free.

Applications of CSMA/CD[edit]

This section seeks to explain CSMA/CD with the trend of CSMA/CD and to explain its work with Ethernet ,the section must need a full explanation of CSMA/CD

CSMA/CD[edit]

Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Method is for controlling signals or frames to be used in LAN Network. In this way, the source station wants to send data to the destination station and the CSMA control those signals and it takes the specified time to transfer ,to allow transferring the frame and distributing frame during sending the frame and CSMA recognizes that time frame will be sent in the future. The main job of this method is that given the short time frame before the frame is sent again. CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense, Multiple Access/Collision Detection) that Specifies which one system allow sending data as well control limited time data but that can it prevents data collision if two stations transmit data at a given time ,it has caused to approach data from two ways in the same time what 's more than it should be given more time to be spent for data transmission.CSMA/CD was used Relying on shared media Ethernet variants (10BASE5, 10BASE2) also Its function to protect versions of twisted-pair in Ethernet which used by repeater , hubs. CSMA always is used in types of Ethernet as 10BASE5, 10BASE2 twisted-pair cable with supported of Ethernet hubs and switches or devices on nowadays,but in modern networks today and made a complete switch with two threaded connections and no method need not of collision detection mostly due to the Ethernet segment or collision domain is separated ,on the other hand still send and receive signals for compatibility CSMA and avoid collision in Ethernet is now supported.

http://www.adckrone.com/in/en/library/White_Papers/Enterprise/401270IN.pdf(page 5,CSMD)


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet#Standardization(section 2,Standardization)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carrier_sense_multiple_access(section 1,paragraph 1 ,Carrier sense multiple access)

Relation of Ethernet with OSI[edit]

In the OSI model, Ethernet technology operates at the physical and data link layers- layers one and two respectively that Physical layer relies on a network of hardware components such as hubs or repeaters, on the other Link layer also has a duty to send one node to another node Although Ethernet has a detailed to control packet data which is to say carrier sense multiple access that has the three sets of rules:

Carrier sense: This part does always listen or to check the cable for accommodate traffic to determine time to send data packets Before sending data checks the destination station that is free and it makes sense to slow down traffic on the cable.

Multiple accesses: Stations may begin transmitting any time they detect that the network is quiet as far as we know, this part is that each station can send interested Separate multiple data into multiple stations at the same time but this is the time for doing duty to check or control the occurrence of a deadlock or no traffic.

Collision detection: As we might have two stations that want to transmit information as one same time and the resulting data is deadlock, this part allows the station before sending any given time determines that reduce to prevent of deadlock.


https://globaljournals.org/GJCST_Volume12/6-Use-of-Ethernet-Technology-in-Computer.pdf(section 3, Relation of Ethernet with OSI modal )

http://docwiki.cisco.com/wiki/Ethernet_Technologies#Half-Duplex_Transmission-The_CSMA.2FCD_Access_Method(section 5.2.1 , Half-Duplex Transmission-The CSMA/CD Access Method)

Shared CSMA/CD on an Ethernet LAN[edit]

The CSMA/CD is designed for a shared bus network – required some method for allocating use of the communication channel among multiple network stations, however which can be divided into three types or classes: centralized, deterministic, and contention so The method the Ethernet designers developed, CSMA/CD.

http://www.adckrone.com/in/en/library/White_Papers/Enterprise/401270IN.pdf(page 4,Shared Access on an Ethernet LAN: The Alternatives)

Description Centralized Access[edit]

Centralized access is characterized by a single point of control. CSMA/CD in this section is said control station is that controls to transfer of data between servers or stations Each station has a specific time to send data to a vote when the name is control station Surveys which turns of the computer to send data to the destination computer.

http://www.adckrone.com/in/en/library/White_Papers/Enterprise/401270IN.pdf(page 4,table)

Shp pic morde 1.gif
          * Figure11ː(ref: Own work but source:http://www.adckrone.com/in/en/library/White_Papers/Enterprise/401270IN.pdf )
Description Deterministic Access[edit]

For this purpose it is used Which for transferring of data packets as essential and fundamental but only by using an electronic token that is like a the electronic password that data can be easily and confidently to pass certain around the ring.

http://www.adckrone.com/in/en/library/White_Papers/Enterprise/401270IN.pdf(page 4,table)


Shp mored2.gif
         * Figure12ː(ref: Own work but source:http://www.adckrone.com/in/en/library/White_Papers/Enterprise/401270IN.pdf )
Description Contention[edit]

Basically would be transparent this stage of the network, any stations or all station in the kind of topology as an example star or ring can transmit own data at any times but on the other side it will be huge problem for that , if two or many of stations want to transmit at the same time. As can be noted to CSMA/CD before about it and its process are discussed, for the purpose of using this one to this part to manage data and control them in time to avoid a collision.
http://www.adckrone.com/in/en/library/White_Papers/Enterprise/401270IN.pdf(page 4,table)


Shp morde 3.gif
          * Figure13ː(ref: Own work but source:http://www.adckrone.com/in/en/library/White_Papers/Enterprise/401270IN.pdf )

Performance of Ethernet[edit]

Ethernet was originally an idea for a computer to communicate and share media in a coaxial cable as the transmission of data to be taken. Like the radio was invented in the 19th century either way radio with a shared cable subscriber can establish a remote connection from far ways also radio with the common cable providing the communication channel in 19th century physics and it was from this reference that the name "Ethernet" was derived.

The Ethernet cable is a shared core that can communicate with one or more large buildings and controlled by their relationship to sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA / CD). In general, it is said, CSMA / CD are General guidance Ethernet has caused competition between token ring or token bus technologies. Computer can be connected with attachment Unit Interface (AUI) via a single cable to transmit data while the wire can be a simple and unique in small networks,reliable data for transferring also the time that it wants a simple wire be used in large networks but not reliable.

Through the first half of the 1980s, Ethernet's 10BASE5 implementation used a coaxial cable 0.375 inches (9.5 mm) in diameter, later called "thick Ethernet" or "thick net". Its successor, 10BASE2, called "thin Ethernet" or "thin net", used a cable similar to cable television cable of the era. The emphasis was on making installation of the cable easier and less costly,since the wireless communication only occurs on any kind of development data sent and received by wire takes place however,the network interface card it is interfered in sending packet of data to other computers or server and it gives interrupt to CPU for transmission of data packets are either receiving or sending follow also bandwidth data is important in transfer that it means, the bandwidth is shared on both servers for example available bandwidth to each device is halved when two stations are simultaneously active.

Collision occurs when two stations attempt to send data to each other at a time. In addition again will be a need times to transmit data also in the worst case is when the CPU does not have to spend more data to be transferred as well servers connected to the data transfer allowed to send them the frame was too short and clashes data can reduce the efficiency of Ethernet although the proposed scheme to avoid data collisions in LAN Networks. As Contents is said in collision with each other that causes to increased throughput degradation as each new node to the LAN is force the server has to place in the queue waiting to be successful in their current post data, for example, it can be reduced to 37% throughput.

https://fa.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%A7%D8%AA%D8%B1%D9%86%D8%AA(persian)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet(section 3.1, Shared media)

Ethernet Devices[edit]

A number of devices populate an Ethernet network.

Network Interface Cards[edit]

Network interface cards often called NICs, connect PCs to the Ethernet network and providing physical connection between the networking cable and the computer’s internal bus. Cards are available for all Ethernet standards . NICs are often 10/100 Mbps capable and will automatically adjust to the speed used on the network. Many NICs support both half- and full-duplex operation.

http://www.adckrone.com/in/en/library/White_Papers/Enterprise/401270IN.pdf(page7,Ethernet Devices,Network Interface Cards)

Repeaters and Hubs[edit]

Hubs are repeaters that connect two or more Ethernet segments by regenerating the electrical signal and broad KRON Easting it out all ports although this means that every connected segment is in the same collision domain, in other words when one device is transmitting, no other device can transmit or collisions will occur. This is in contrast to Ethernet bridges and switches which are more discriminating about where they send the transmission.In additionally Repeater in Ethernet networking is a device that allows multiple cables to be joined and greater distances to be spanned.

For signal degradation and timing reasons, coaxial Ethernet segments had a restricted size. In some places, small networks become to larger networks will not be answering data such as wide area networks must be able to use the repeater that for the reducing of signal degrades and the collision as well as rule is that only two ports are available to be abilities transfer data if the requirement should be more than two port ,can be used hubs.

As has been said, the Ethernet cable can be shared between servers but it is difficult to install large offices and the offices of the rooms are set up in a conflict of the bus topology, star topology so for improving installation errors and reduce the cost of their installation .In order to use the twisted-pair cables (UTP) telephone wiring in commercial buildings where the project was launched in early 1980. The first twisted-pair cables (UTP) was invented with 1 Mbit/s in 1980.Even with remarkable changes to Offensive became to twisted-pair cables (UTP) 10 Mbit/s .it was introduced in a star topology with a central hub this cable is designed for point-to-point links strategy, even in all the terminals.

This changed repeaters from a specialist device used at the center of large networks to a device that every twisted pair-based network with more than two machines had to use. Tree structure which is built on an Ethernet network so tree structure that is made easier because the category transferring data between the topology also avoid the defects communicate with other servers in a server in a cable of the cable. Despite the physical star topology and the presence of separate transmit and receive channels in the twisted pair and fiber media, repeater based Ethernet networks still use half-duplex and CSMA/CD. It can be repeated using time-a determined consumption can be minimized and even reaches its operations to 15% instead of 37%. Minimize repeated sending data and with only minimal activity by the repeater, primarily the Collision Enforcement signal, in dealing with packet collisions every packet is sent to every port on the repeater.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet#Repeaters_and_hubs(section 3.2, Repeaters and hubs)

http://www.adckrone.com/in/en/library/White_Papers/Enterprise/401270IN.pdf(page7,Ethernet Devices,Repeaters and Hubs)

Sh Hubs.gif
                     * Figure14ː(ref:http://www.adckrone.com/in/en/library/White_Papers/Enterprise/401270IN.pdf )
Dual speed hubs[edit]

In the early days of Fast Ethernet Networks Ethernet equipment were expensive .Hub networks have had a problem with any device connected to the 10 BASE-T which had caused the whole system speed 512 Mbit / s work. Due to the analogy between the switch and the emergence Hub so Hub makes double the speed.The apparatus includes a switch ports were built, one with a speed of 10 Mbit / s and one 100BASE-T (100Mbit) ,When considering what type of device it is connected to its port 10BASE-T or 100BASE-T speed then they work. This prevents was the transmission network 10BASE-T or 100BASE-T also these devices were known as the Hub of the two-speed traffic between devices connected to a switch capable of quickly .

https://fa.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%A7%D8%AA%D8%B1%D9%86%D8%AA#Dual_speed_hubs(persian)


Definition Bridges[edit]

Like repeaters, bridges straddle two Ethernet segments. The main goal is to bridge that Bridges reduce LAN traffic by dividing it into two segments, They perform a service similar to switches though most often bridges support one network boundary only switches support four or more segments.

http://www.adckrone.com/in/en/library/White_Papers/Enterprise/401270IN.pdf(page8,Ethernet Devices,Bridges)


Definition Switches[edit]

Though they are multi-port devices like hubs, switches are multiport bridges to distribute a frame through which hub port, say and do. In addition their goal is to deliver frames to the destination server. This means that each port becomes a separate collision domain.

http://www.adckrone.com/in/en/library/White_Papers/Enterprise/401270IN.pdf(page8,Ethernet Devices,Switches)

Task of Bridging and Switching[edit]

Although issues are in the field Repeaters on an Ethernet network that are said about at the cutting -off cable also it makes stop communication several computers. On the one hand there was some the knowledge about discovering to reduce collisions data when multiple computers to connect, being cut the cable they can continue relationships to only to use communication Bridge these issues are improved by Bridge device for establishing the Data link layer. Bridging by structured packages was moved to from on part to other parts of the network and corrupted packets are avoided. Bridge observed is disagreed with the MAC addresses of the where are the devices data packets sends to which one of the destination address.

Sh Bridging.gif
                   * Figure15ː(ref:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet#Bridging_and_switching )

Before identifying connected devices,it acts as being Hub’s operation as well all traffic will pass but if identify switch devices connected to each port addresses in network that traffic is just a necessary part of this subject cab be increased network performance which is called Broadcast distributed Broadcast send for all ports of devices. Bridge on overcoming constraints and allows communication between two computers having different speeds that will be fast Ethernet .Initial Bridge each package with the software they looked slow in sending traffic was over Hub . In particular the use of multiple ports at once Kale panda in 1989 the company introduced its first Ethernet switch.Bridging Ethernet a switch to operate the hardware does and can send data at the maximum possible speed that is necessary to remind that the term switch (Switch) query_results.html was used for the Device Makers not the standard of 802.3.

Data packets in network switch ports that are connected will be sent only to the devices. Switch networks by ARP spoofing or Mac flooding can still be risky in terms of security but another advantage of bandwidth that is allowed to use that equipment with different speeds when a twisted pair or fiber optic communication network that is not connected to the Hub to connect to the network is possible on both sides. In bidirectional mode ,both devices can be synchronized with each other to exchange data without any accident happen to this twice the rate as twice the rate as to the bandwidth of ( for example, 200 Mbit / s) is transferred to the traffic in the case at twice the rate it is a symmetric pattern . In a collision domain Art batty bandwidth can be used all over the field and the collision detection is not limited network.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet#Bridging_and_switching(section 3.3, Bridging and switching)

Shp Switching.gif
                     * Figure16ː(ref:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet#Bridging_and_switching )
Routers[edit]

The task of defining a Local Area Network (LAN) domain is accomplished using a router,Router’s task is to offer their services on a local network and for passing data traffic to destination server. Different router that will provide for greater local networks and wide area networks still apply today. http://www.adckrone.com/in/en/library/White_Papers/Enterprise/401270IN.pdf

Ethernet topology and protocols[edit]

Ethernet topology and protocols Ethernet supports a bus, star and tree typologies. Traditionally Ethernet employs a bus topology, meaning that all devices or hosts on the network use the same shared communication line so each device possesses an Ethernet address also known as MAC address, To send data to the destination address of the destination computer needs .In addition, it specifies the address of the computer which will prevent data loss also Data sent over the Ethernet exists in the forms of frames. An Ethernet frames contains a header, a data section and a footer having a combined length of no more than 1518 bytes. Data sent over the Ethernet is automatically broadcast to all devices on the network.

http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/~ross/Ethernet/protocol.htm(page 1, Ethernet Protocol)

https://globaljournals.org/GJCST_Volume12/6-Use-of-Ethernet-Technology-in-Computer.pdf(section VII, Ethernet topology and protocols)

Ethernet protocols[edit]

The Ethernet protocol is made up of a number of components, such as the structure of Ethernet frames, the Physical Layer and its MAC operation. Previous sections had explained structure of Ethernet frames.In some previous sections has been said about Ethernet standards as well as their relationship ,in some of the cases standard between Ethernet are different and to can be seen differences such as token ring, and token bus technology so their Technology devise expands with physical and MAC layer ,though an additional protocol is added to the Ethernet Ethernet is mostly Name SNAP (subnetwork access protocol) they will be provided and adjust by the MAC layer.

http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/~ross/Ethernet/protocol.htm(section 2 ,Ethernet vs 802.3)


Shp pic last.gif
                      * Figure17ː(refːOwn work but sourceː http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/~ross/Ethernet/protocol.htm)
Ethernet Physical Layer[edit]

The Physical Layer is connected with the low level electronic way in which the signals are transmitted. In Ethernet, signals are transmitted with using Manchester Encoding for sending. for ensuring transferment data Manchester Encoding is used clocking data is sent along with the data, so that the sending and receiving device clocks are in sync.

http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/~ross/Ethernet/protocol.htm(section 2.1, Physical Layer)

MAC Layer[edit]

These technologies that had been said,they are Coordinated together by a layer on top of MAC Layers also it is called Logical Link Control (LLC) however, Ethernet does not use this LLC layer directly.SNAP (subnetwork access protocol) is recognized by MAC layers and by MAC layers compatible with Ethernet. This mode of operation is the MAC layer for seeing Broadcast Network Operation Ethernet is a CSMA/CD network that it start to send a frame in a station on an 802.3 Standard Network,for first time it listens to check , aftrer revising if the medium is busy so If that is busy then the station must use the stable style that it think to avoid frame gap and transmits those data after only a short fixed delay . the work of CSMA/CD is that if there is no collision, then this message will be sent normally. If the device check a collision what 's more the frame transmission is stoped and the station jamming signal start to send alert to some of stations of the their situation that was happend on Ethernet ,then the station decides how long to wait before re-sending using a binary exponential backoff algorithm.

http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/~ross/Ethernet/protocol.htm(section 2.2,MAC Operation)

Point-to-point protocol over Ethernet[edit]

PPPOE was evolved by UUNET, Red back Networks and Router Ware. And that version does not have fast enough access to DSL after this a new version entered the market for network connections PAP was PISP.

Point to Point Protocol works On network protocol which does encapsulating frames PAP inside Ethernet frames. Using from Internet services speaking PPPOE has Modem router that can connect to the SSL server and requires each router to talk to the PPPOE. when the PPPOE-speaking DSL modem is connected to a PPPOE-speaking Ethernet-only router using an Ethernet cable, for Launch Point to Point Protocol is a common case of two-component systems, such as the names of PPPOE that 1) a modem-to-router protocol 2) part of a protocol stack. Although Some od issues had for Business customers in the Point to Point Protocol as Modem While they had a distinct profile, but as a home user was connected Modem and network problems such as:

• connect a whole LAN Network to the Internet

• Providing access to services to wide area networks

• access Users simultaneously for using of resource

They said there was no point in the protocol, including the problems it was negative. And limited network access which is why the new model was built.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Point-to-Point_Protocol_over_Ethernet(section 1 ,Original rationale,page 1, paragraph 1 ,Point-to-point protocol over Ethernet)

Ethernet Topology[edit]

http://www.intea.hr/downloads/introduction_to_ethernet.pdf(page 6 ,7)

Linear Bus[edit]

The original Ethernet standard specified a linear bus. This topology is seldom used in new installations that a cable break on a linear bus brings down the whole network and cabling costs can be reduced by using twisted pair cables in a star configuration.

http://www.adckrone.com/in/en/library/White_Papers/Enterprise/401270IN.pdf(page 6,Ethernet Topology, Linear Bus)

http://www.intea.hr/downloads/introduction_to_ethernet.pdf(page 6,bus topology )


Shp liner bus.gif
               * Figure18ː(refːOwn work but sourceːhttp://www.adckrone.com/in/en/library/White_Papers/Enterprise/401270IN.pdf)
Star[edit]

The star topology is the most common ,It mitigates Ethernet distance limitations then can use inexpensive unshielded twisted pair cables, and the entire network doesn’t go down if a cable breaks or is disconnected.

http://www.adckrone.com/in/en/library/White_Papers/Enterprise/401270IN.pdf(page 6,Ethernet Topology, Star)

http://www.intea.hr/downloads/introduction_to_ethernet.pdf(page 6,star topology )

Sh star pic.gif
        * Figure19ː(refːOwn work but sourceːhttp://www.adckrone.com/in/en/library/White_Papers/Enterprise/401270IN.pdf)
Ring[edit]

The ring is used in Metropolitan Area Networks to deliver Ethernet using Add/Drop Multiplexers (ADMs) at customer sites. The ADMs connect to the LAN router to deliver Ethernet.

http://www.adckrone.com/in/en/library/White_Papers/Enterprise/401270IN.pdf(page 6,Ethernet Topology,Ring

http://www.intea.hr/downloads/introduction_to_ethernet.pdf(page 6, ring topology )

Shp ring pic.gif
         * Figure19ː(refːhttp://www.adckrone.com/in/en/library/White_Papers/Enterprise/401270IN.pdf)

Conclusion[edit]

In 1980 there was the first Ethernet local area network with 1 MBIT1Mbit may be better were not changed day to day including the transfer of technology to local area networks to wide area networks, instead of 1MBIT to 10 MBIT and 100MBIT and has led to the conversion of GB. Ethernet is a network technology able to build solutions for transmitting data through a cable or switch and hub for data to be sent as well as one piece, which is called CSMD/CD to control the flow of data through the prevents collision data or missing data. Today, Ethernet is mostly IEEE802.3 standardized is invented and Expanded and created a series of different types or versions of Ethernet base station can achieve that with a more fundamental band data.

Ethernet Works with all topologies but mostly is associated with star topology, although has little associated with all layers of the operations link layer is for establishing the relationship between the two stationshost may be better that it can be to Datadata transfer layer will follow his duties. A frame begins with preamble and start frame delimiter, followed by an Ethernet header featuring source and destination MAC addresses so the middle section of the frame consists of payload data including any headers for other protocols (e.g., Internet Protocol) carried in the frame.

However, to avoid data collision and errors of lost data can reduce should be investigated and evaluate an algorithm. there is a frame where the data is divided into small packets which aims to adapt and synchronize data and transfer the data to avoid loss, the sender and receiver must be written within the frame of the data packet a frame has its own separate and data packets are always received with frame-up if any changes are recorded in the frame.

According to this article, Ethernet impacts greater on society Network even in Ads-Ls although in the last 3 years also Ethernet is being developed more efficiently in Wirelesses , Ethernet has expanded communications wireless with Ads-ls .

Quiz[edit]

All questions should be new, and there are some of following questions are the same with questions in video page.

1

Ethernet makes sure that the data has arrived at the recipient

true
false

2

Which of the following statements are characteristic for communication over a shared medium?

The smallest amount of information that can be transferred is a Bit.
Everyone who has access to the medium can receive all the data that is being put on the medium.
Several computers use the same medium to communicate with each other
Collisions will occur if using a shared medium .
Communication must be encrypted.

3

How many the carrier sense multiple access has got rules?

two sets of rules such as Multiple accesses,Collision detection
four sets of rules such as Carrier sense,Multiple accesses,Collision detection,Collision Avoidance
three sets of rules such as Carrier sense,Multiple accesses,Collision detection

4

how many rate of a few seconds is transfering data in Cables 10 GB in the computer network?

10×220 or 20 billion bits per second
10×109 or 10 billion bits per second
20×109 or 20 billion bits per second

5

what does Preamble work in frame?

able to performing signal receiving stations that a frame is coming to the destination station
creates device for providing synchronization
The signal received at the physical layer At the end of the input into a series of bits in this episode
all of choice

6

How far can a Bit travel approximately on a 10 Mbit/s ethernet device during one clock cycle?

1 meter
3 meter
30 meter
100 meter

7

How many header fields exist in ethernet?

2
3
4
5
6

8

How many meter the IEEE 10 BASE-T or TX will be supported ?

550 meters
100 meters
2 kilo meters

9

How big is a slot time?

Maxiumum ethernet frame size
Minimum ethernet frame size
512 Clock cycles
none of the above

10

The MAC can be connected to the PHY by.............

by a 4 bit 25 MHz synchronous parallel interface
by a 2 bit 50 MHz synchronous parallel interface
by a 4 bit 50 MHz synchronous parallel interface

Reference quiz:

1.https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Topic:Web_Science/Part1:_Foundations_of_the_web/Internet_Architecture/Ethernet/Summary,_Further_readings,_Homework


2.https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Topic:Web_Science/Part1:_Foundations_of_the_web/Internet_Architecture/Ethernet/Communication_over_a_shared_Medium


6.https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Topic:Web_Science/Part1:_Foundations_of_the_web/Internet_Architecture/Ethernet/Summary,_Further_readings,_Homework4


9.https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Topic:Web_Science/Part1:_Foundations_of_the_web/Internet_Architecture/Ethernet/Collision_Detection

Reference[edit]

  1. http://www.intea.hr/downloads/introduction_to_ethernet.pdf (page3 , intorduction)

1.http://www.cse.ohio-state.edu/~panda/788/papers/1h_pro10gbe_lr_sa_wp.pdf

2.http://www.ccse.kfupm.edu.sa/~nizar/download/ethernet.pdf

3.http://www.meo.etc.upt.ro/materii/cursuri/ISMT/3.pdf

4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet_frame

5. Don Provan (17 September 1993). "Ethernet Framing". comp.sys.novell. Web link. — a classic series of Usenet postings by Novell's Don Provan that have found their way into numerous FAQs and are widely considered the definitive answer to the Novell Frame Type usage.

6. "Ethernet Prototype Circuit Board". Smithsonian National Museum of American History. Retrieved 2007-09-02.

7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.3

8. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carrier_sense_multiple_access_with_collision_detection

9. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Institute_of_Electrical_and_Electronics_Engineers

10.http://www.intea.hr/downloads/introduction_to_ethernet.pdf

11.http://www.adckrone.com/in/en/library/White_Papers/Enterprise/401270IN.pdf

12. https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Topic:Web_Science/

13. http://ethernethistory.typepad.com/papers/EthernetPaper.pdf

14. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet

15.Fundamentals of Ethernet Technology http://www.adckrone.com/in/en/library/White_Papers/Enterprise/401270IN.pdf

16. http://metroethernetforum.org/carrier-ethernet/white-papers

17. http://www.automationworld.com/information-management/white-paper-ethernet-basics-presented-bb-electronics

18. http://www.cse.ohio-state.edu/~panda/788/papers/1h_pro10gbe_lr_sa_wp.pdf

19. http://www.rad.com/21/Ethernet-OAM-White-Paper/4465/

20. http://www.jdsu.com/ProductLiterature/fundethernet_wp_cpo_tm_ae.pdf

21. http://docwiki.cisco.com/wiki/Ethernet_Technologies

24. http://ethernethistory.typepad.com/papers/EthernetPaper.pdf

25. http://ethernethistory.typepad.com/papers/EthernetSpec.pdf

26.http://www.ieeeusa.org/policy/policy/2001/01aug27IEEE802.pdf

27.http://decnet.ipv7.net/docs/dundas/aa-k759b-tk.pdf

28.http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/~ross/Ethernet/protocol.htm

29.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Point-to-Point_Protocol_over_Ethernet

30.https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Topic:Web_Science/Part1:_Foundations_of_the_web/Internet_Architecture/Ethernet/Summary,_Further_readings,_Homework

31.https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Topic:Web_Science/Part1:_Foundations_of_the_web/Internet_Architecture/Ethernet/Communication_over_a_shared_Medium

32.https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Topic:Web_Science/Part1:_Foundations_of_the_web/Internet_Architecture/Ethernet/Summary,_Further_readings,_Homework4

33.https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Topic:Web_Science/Part1:_Foundations_of_the_web/Internet_Architecture/Ethernet/Collision_Detection

34.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/100_Gigabit_Ethernet

35.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/10_Gigabit_Ethernet

36.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terabit_Ethernet

37.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gigabit_Ethernet

38.http://www.colt.net/cdnucm/groups/public/@cdn/@public/documents/generalcontent/cdnp_007181.pdf

39.https://globaljournals.org/GJCST_Volume12/6-Use-of-Ethernet-Technology-in-Computer.pdf