Uranus is a gaseous object in orbit around the Sun.
- 1 Theory of Uranus
- 2 Electromagnetics
- 3 Meteors
- 4 Cosmic rays
- 5 Ultraviolets
- 6 Violets
- 7 Blues
- 8 Cyans
- 9 Greens
- 10 Oranges
- 11 Infrareds
- 12 Submillimeters
- 13 Astrognosy
- 14 Astrochemistry
- 15 Atmospheres
- 16 Coronal clouds
- 17 Ancient history
- 18 Physics
- 19 Hypotheses
- 20 See also
- 21 References
- 22 External links
Theory of Uranus
Here's a theoretical definition:
"The discovery of [Uranus]'s non-dipolar, non-axisymmetric magnetic [field at the right] destroyed the picture-established by Earth, Jupiter and Saturn-that planetary magnetic fields are dominated by axial dipoles."
"Planetary magnetic fields are generated by complex fluid motions in electrically conducting regions of the planets (a process known as dynamo action), and so are intimately linked to the structure and evolution of planetary interiors."
Three-dimensional "numerical dynamo simulations [...] model the dynamo source region as a convecting thin shell surrounding a stably stratified fluid interior."
This "convective-region geometry produces magnetic fields similar in morphology to [that] of Uranus [The field is] non-dipolar and non-axisymmetric, and [results] from a combination of the stable fluid's response to electromagnetic stress and the small length scales imposed by the thin shell."
The planet had "a strong planetary magnetic field of Uranus and an associated magnetosphere and fully developed bipolar magnetotail [and a] detached bow shock wave [which] was observed upstream at 23.7 Uranus radii (1 RU = 25,600 km) and the magnetopause boundary at 18.0 RU. [The] maximum magnetic field of 413 nanotesla was observed at 4.19 RU [The] planetary magnetic field is well represented by that of a dipole offset from the center of the planet by 0.3 RU. The angle between Uranus' angular momentum vector and the dipole moment vector has the surprisingly large value of 60 degrees. [The] field of Uranus may be described as that of an oblique rotator. The dipole moment of 0.23 gauss R3U, combined with the large spatial offset, leads to minimum and maximum magnetic fields on the surface of the planet of approximately 0.1-1.1 gauss. The rotation period of the magnetic field and [that] of the interior of the planet is estimated to be 17.29±0.10 [hr]."
Voyager's observations revealed that the magnetic field is peculiar, both because it does not originate from the planet's geometric center, and because it is tilted at 59° from the axis of rotation. In fact the magnetic dipole is shifted from the center of the planet towards the south rotational pole by as much as one third of the planetary radius. This unusual geometry results in a highly asymmetric magnetosphere, where the magnetic field strength on the surface in the southern hemisphere can be as low as 0.1 gauss (10 µT), whereas in the northern hemisphere it can be as high as 1.1 gauss (110 µT). The average field at the surface is 0.23 gauss (23 µT). In comparison, the magnetic field of Earth is roughly as strong at either pole, and its "magnetic equator" is roughly parallel with its geographical equator. The dipole moment of Uranus is 50 times that of Earth. Neptune has a similarly displaced and tilted magnetic field, suggesting that this may be a common feature of ice giants. One hypothesis is that, unlike the magnetic fields of the terrestrial and gas giants, which are generated within their cores, the ice giants' magnetic fields are generated by motion at relatively shallow depths, for instance, in the water–ammonia ocean."
"Despite its curious alignment, in other respects the Uranian magnetosphere is like those of other planets: it has a bow shock located at about 23 Uranian radii ahead of it, a magnetopause at 18 Uranian radii, a fully developed magnetotail and radiation belts. Overall, the structure of Uranus's magnetosphere is different from Jupiter's and more similar to Saturn's. Uranus's magnetotail trails behind the planet into space for millions of kilometers and is twisted by the planet's sideways rotation into a long corkscrew."
"Uranus's magnetosphere contains charged particles: protons and electrons with small amount of H2+ ions. No heavier ions have been detected. Many of these particles probably derive from the hot atmospheric corona. The ion and electron energies can be as high as 4 and 1.2 megaelectronvolts, respectively. The density of low energy (below 1 kiloelectronvolt) ions in the inner magnetosphere is about 2 cm−3. The particle population is strongly affected by the Uranian moons that sweep through the magnetosphere leaving noticeable gaps. The particle flux is high enough to cause darkening or space weathering of the moon’s surfaces on an astronomically rapid timescale of 100,000 years. This may be the cause of the uniformly dark colouration of the moons and rings. Uranus has relatively well developed aurorae, which are seen as bright arcs around both magnetic poles. Unlike Jupiter's, Uranus's aurorae seem to be insignificant for the energy balance of the planetary thermosphere."
"[Uranus] has a complex, layered cloud structure, with ... methane thought to make up the uppermost layer of clouds. ... With a large telescope of 25 cm or wider, cloud patterns ... may be visible. ... When Voyager 2 flew by Uranus in 1986, it observed a total of ten cloud features across the entire planet. ... Besides the large-scale banded structure, Voyager 2 observed ten small bright clouds, most lying several degrees to the north from the collar."
“In the 1990s, the number of the observed bright cloud features grew considerably partly because new high resolution imaging techniques became available. Most were found in the northern hemisphere as it started to become visible. An early explanation - that bright clouds are easier to identify in the dark part of the planet, whereas in the southern hemisphere the bright collar masks them - was shown to be incorrect: the actual number of features has indeed increased considerably. Nevertheless there are differences between the clouds of each hemisphere. The northern clouds are smaller, sharper and brighter. They appear to lie at a higher altitude. The lifetime of clouds spans several orders of magnitude. Some small clouds live for hours, while at least one southern cloud may have persisted since Voyager flyby. Recent observation also discovered that cloud features on Uranus have a lot in common with those on Neptune. For example, the dark spots common on Neptune had never been observed on Uranus before 2006, when the first such feature dubbed Uranus Dark Spot was imaged. The speculation is that Uranus is becoming more Neptune-like during its equinoctial season."
"On August 23, 2006, researchers at the Space Science Institute (Boulder, CO) and the University of Wisconsin observed a dark spot on Uranus's surface, giving astronomers more insight into the planet's atmospheric activity."
"The wind speeds on Uranus can reach 250 meters per second (900 km/h, 560 mph). ... The tracking of numerous cloud features allowed determination of zonal winds blowing in the upper troposphere of Uranus. At the equator winds are retrograde, which means that they blow in the reverse direction to the planetary rotation. Their speeds are from −100 to −50 m/s. Wind speeds increase with the distance from the equator, reaching zero values near ±20° latitude, where the troposphere's temperature minimum is located. Closer to the poles, the winds shift to a prograde direction, flowing with the planet's rotation. Windspeeds continue to increase reaching maxima at ±60° latitude before falling to zero at the poles. Windspeeds at −40° latitude range from 150 to 200 m/s. Since the collar obscures all clouds below that parallel, speeds between it and the southern pole are impossible to measure. In contrast, in the northern hemisphere maximum speeds as high as 240 m/s are observed near +50 degrees of latitude. ... Observations included record-breaking wind speeds of 229 m/s (824 km/h) and a persistent thunderstorm referred to as "Fourth of July fireworks"."
"[F]or the regions of the giant planets, especially Uranus and Neptune, ... ionization is due mainly to cosmic rays."
The images at the top of the article are in the ultraviolet showing the aurorae of Uranus.
"These are among the first clear images, taken from the distance of Earth, to show aurorae on the planet Uranus. Aurorae are produced when high-energy particles from the Sun cascade along magnetic field lines into a planet's upper atmosphere. This causes the planet's atmospheric gasses to fluoresce. The ultraviolet images were taken at the time of heightened solar activity in November 2011 that successively buffeted the Earth, Jupiter, and Uranus with a gusher of charged particles from the Sun. Because Uranus' magnetic field is inclined 59 degrees to its spin axis, the auroral spots appear far from the planet's north and south poles. This composite image combines 2011 Hubble observations of the aurorae in visible and ultraviolet light, 1986 Voyager 2 photos of the cyan disk of Uranus as seen in visible light, and 2011 Gemini Observatory observations of the faint ring system as seen in infrared light."
"This false-color view of the rings of Uranus was made from images taken by Voyager 2 on Jan. 21, 1986, from a distance of 4.17 million kilometers (2.59 million miles). All nine known rings are visible here; the somewhat fainter, pastel lines seen between them are contributed by the computer enhancement. Six 15-second narrow-angle images were used to extract color information from the extremely dark and faint rings. Two images each in the green, clear and violet filters were added together and averaged to find the proper color differences between the rings. The final image was made from these three color averages and represents an enhanced, false-color view. The image shows that the brightest, or epsilon, ring at top is neutral in color, with the fainter eight other rings showing color differences between them. Moving down, toward Uranus, we see the delta, gamma and eta rings in shades of blue and green; the beta and alpha rings in somewhat lighter tones; and then a final set of three, known simply as the 4, 5 and 6 rings, in faint off-white tones. Scientists will use this color information to try to understand the nature and origin of the ring material. The resolution of this image is approximately 40 km (25 mi). The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory."
The image shows Uranus through a blue filter.
"In larger amateur telescopes with an objective diameter of between 15 and 23 cm, the planet appears as a pale cyan disk with distinct limb darkening."
"Methane possesses prominent absorption bands in the visible and near-infrared (IR) making Uranus aquamarine or cyan in color."
“In 1986 Voyager 2 found that the visible southern hemisphere of Uranus can be subdivided into two regions: a bright polar cap and dark equatorial bands (see figure on the right). Their boundary is located at about -45 degrees of latitude. A narrow band straddling the latitudinal range from -45 to -50 degrees is the brightest large feature on the visible surface of the planet. It is called a southern "collar". The cap and collar are thought to be a dense region of methane clouds located within the pressure range of 1.3 to 2 bar (see above). Besides the large-scale banded structure, Voyager 2 observed ten small bright clouds, most lying several degrees to the north from the collar. In all other respects Uranus looked like a dynamically dead planet in 1986. Unfortunately Voyager 2 arrived during the height of the planet's southern summer and could not observe the northern hemisphere. At the beginning of the 21st century, when the northern polar region came into view, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Keck telescope initially observed neither a collar nor a polar cap in the northern hemisphere. So Uranus appeared to be asymmetric: bright near the south pole and uniformly dark in the region north of the southern collar. In 2007, when Uranus passed its equinox, the southern collar almost disappeared, while a faint northern collar emerged near 45 degrees of latitude.”
“On August 23, 2006, researchers at the Space Science Institute (Boulder, CO) and the University of Wisconsin observed a dark spot on Uranus's surface, giving astronomers more insight into the planet's atmospheric activity. Why this sudden upsurge in activity should be occurring is not fully known, but it appears that Uranus's extreme axial tilt results in extreme seasonal variations in its weather. Determining the nature of this seasonal variation is difficult because good data on Uranus's atmosphere have existed for less than 84 years, or one full Uranian year. A number of discoveries have been made. Photometry over the course of half a Uranian year (beginning in the 1950s) has shown regular variation in the brightness in two spectral bands, with maxima occurring at the solstices and minima occurring at the equinoxes. A similar periodic variation, with maxima at the solstices, has been noted in microwave measurements of the deep troposphere begun in the 1960s. Stratospheric temperature measurements beginning in the 1970s also showed maximum values near the 1986 solstice. The majority of this variability is believed to occur owing to changes in the viewing geometry."
"There are some reasons to believe that physical seasonal changes are happening in Uranus. While the planet is known to have a bright south polar region, the north pole is fairly dim, which is incompatible with the model of the seasonal change outlined above. During its previous northern solstice in 1944, Uranus displayed elevated levels of brightness, which suggests that the north pole was not always so dim. This information implies that the visible pole brightens some time before the solstice and darkens after the equinox. Detailed analysis of the visible and microwave data revealed that the periodical changes of brightness are not completely symmetrical around the solstices, which also indicates a change in the meridional albedo patterns. Finally in the 1990s, as Uranus moved away from its solstice, Hubble and ground based telescopes revealed that the south polar cap darkened noticeably (except the southern collar, which remained bright), while the northern hemisphere demonstrated increasing activity, such as cloud formations and stronger winds, bolstering expectations that it should brighten soon. This indeed happened in 2007 when the planet passed an equinox: a faint northern polar collar arose, while the southern collar became nearly invisible, although the zonal wind profile remained slightly asymmetric, with northern winds being somewhat slower than southern.”
"Spring has finally come to the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, both the visible-wavelength ones described here and those taken a few days earlier with the Near Infrared and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), show a planet with banded structure and detectable clouds."
"The "aqua" image (on the right) is taken at 5,470 Angstroms, which is near the human eye's peak response to wavelength. Color has been added to the image to show what a person on a spacecraft near Uranus might see. Little structure is evident at this wavelength, though with image-processing techniques, a small cloud can be seen near the planet's northern limb (rightmost edge)."
"Spring has finally come to the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, both the visible-wavelength ones described here and those taken a few days earlier with the Near Infrared and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), show a planet with banded structure and detectable clouds."
"The "red" image (on the right) is taken at 6,190 Angstroms, and is sensitive to absorption by methane molecules in the planet's atmosphere. The banded structure of Uranus is evident, and the small cloud near the northern limb is now visible."
At right is an infrared image of Uranus "showing Ariel in transit across Uranus, taken on July 26, 2006. Due to the planet's extreme axial tilt--carried through in the tilt of its satellites's orbits--transits are only possible near the equinoxes. Taken in the near-infrared, atmospheric banding and the planet's oblateness are readily apparent."
The second pair of images on the left are an "infrared composite ... of the two hemispheres of Uranus obtained with Keck adaptive optics. The component colors of blue, green, and red were obtained from images made at near infrared wavelengths of 1.26, 1.62, and 2.1 microns respectively. The images were obtained on July 11 and 12, 2004. The representative balance of these infrared images which were selected to display the vertical structure of atmospheric features gives a reddish tint to the rings, an artifact of the process. The North pole is at 4 o'clock."
The lower right image shows an apparent linear arrangement of clouds in the southern hemisphere using the Hubble Space Telescope in 1998.
The second image at the left is in the "near infrared wavelengths by the Gemini North Telescope [revealing] what scientists are calling an “anvil cloud of methane” rising up from the depths into the sunshine. Reflections from methane ice crystals are supposed to be causing the bright patch."
"Over the years, the Hubble Space Telescope has observed many bright spots on Uranus. They appear similar to the bright spots seen in Jupiter’s southern latitudes, as well as in its polar aurorae."
On Saturn, a “great white spot” periodically appears in its southern latitudes."
“Saturn occasionally ‘burps’, creating a great white spot 3 times the size of the Earth. It is inexplicable on standard models. However, it is the kind of thing to be expected following an exceptionally powerful lightning discharge deep into Saturn’s atmosphere. The discharge forms a vertical jet of matter from the depths that spouts into the upper atmosphere.”
For observations on "UT 1991 November 19 and 20[, the] primary pointing and calibration source was Uranus, for which we used S0.8 = 73.5 Jy (TB = 84 K) and S1.1 = 43.4 Jy (TB = 93 K)."
"As a demonstration of ALMA's new short wavelength capabilities, the commissioning team released a new image of planet Uranus as it appears in submillimetre wavelength light. The image — obtained with ALMA's shortest wavelength, Band 10 receivers — reveals the icy glow from the planet's atmosphere, which can reach temperatures as low as -224 C (giving Uranus the coldest atmosphere in the Solar System). ALMA's now broader range of capabilities will enable astronomers and planetary scientists to study and monitor temperature changes at different altitudes above the clouds of Uranus and other giant planets in our Solar System."
Uranus has a core and a mantle as shown in the model on the right.
“In January 1986, the Voyager 2 spacecraft flew by Uranus at a minimal distance of 107,100 km providing the first close-up images and spectra of its atmosphere. They generally confirmed that the atmosphere was made of mainly hydrogen and helium with around 2% methane. The atmosphere appeared highly transparent and lacking thick stratospheric and tropospheric hazes. Only a limited number of discrete clouds were observed.”.
"Uranus's atmosphere [has a] primary composition of hydrogen and helium [and] contains more "ices" such as water, ammonia, and methane, along with traces of hydrocarbons. ... The helium molar fraction, i.e. the number of helium atoms per molecule of gas, is 0.15 ± 0.03 in the upper troposphere, which corresponds to a mass fraction 0.26 ± 0.05. ... The third most abundant constituent of the Uranian atmosphere is methane (CH4). ... Methane molecules account for 2.3% of the atmosphere by molar fraction below the methane cloud deck at the pressure level of 1.3 bar (130 kPa); this represents about 20 to 30 times the carbon abundance found in the Sun. The mixing ratio is much lower in the upper atmosphere owing to its extremely low temperature, which lowers the saturation level and causes excess methane to freeze out. The abundances of less volatile compounds such as ammonia, water and hydrogen sulfide in the deep atmosphere are poorly known. ... Along with methane, trace amounts of various hydrocarbons are found in the stratosphere of Uranus, which are thought to be produced from methane by photolysis induced by the solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. They include ethane (C2H6), acetylene (C2H2), methylacetylene (CH3C2H), and diacetylene (C2HC2H). Spectroscopy has also uncovered traces of water vapor, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the upper atmosphere, which can only originate from an external source such as infalling dust and comets."
“The weather on Uranus is incredibly active.”
“This type of activity would have been expected in 2007, when Uranus’s once-every-42-year equinox occurred and the Sun shined directly on the equator. But we predicted that such activity would have died down by now. Why we see these incredible storms now is beyond anybody’s guess.”
Eight "large storms [were detected] on Uranus when observing the planet with the Keck Observatory on August 5 and 6, 2014."
"The troposphere is the lowest and densest part of the atmosphere and is characterized by a decrease in temperature with altitude. The temperature falls from about 320 K at the base of the nominal troposphere at −300 km to 53 K at 50 km. The temperatures in the coldest upper region of the troposphere (the tropopause) actually vary in the range between 49 and 57 K depending on planetary latitude. The tropopause region is responsible for the vast majority of the planet’s thermal far infrared emissions, thus determining its effective temperature of 59.1 ± 0.3 K." Bold added.
"The middle layer of the Uranian atmosphere is the stratosphere, where temperature generally increases with altitude from 53 K in the tropopause to between 800 and 850 K at the base of the thermosphere. The heating of the stratosphere is caused by absorption of solar UV and IR radiation by methane and other hydrocarbons, which form in this part of the atmosphere as a result of methane photolysis. Heat is also conducted from the hot thermosphere. The hydrocarbons occupy a relatively narrow layer at altitudes of between 100 and 300 km corresponding to a pressure range of 10 to 0.1 mbar (1000 to 10 kPa) and temperatures of between 75 and 170 K. The most abundant hydrocarbons are methane, acetylene and ethane with mixing ratios of around 10−7 relative to hydrogen. The mixing ratio of carbon monoxide is similar at these altitudes. Heavier hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide have mixing ratios three orders of magnitude lower. The abundance ratio of water is around 7×10−9. Ethane and acetylene tend to condense in the colder lower part of stratosphere and tropopause (below 10 mBar level) forming haze layers, which may be partly responsible for the bland appearance of Uranus. The concentration of hydrocarbons in the Uranian stratosphere above the haze is significantly lower than in the stratospheres of the other giant planets." Bold added.
"The outermost layer of the Uranian atmosphere is the thermosphere and corona, which has a uniform temperature around 800 to 850 K. The heat sources necessary to sustain such a high value are not understood, since neither solar far UV and extreme UV radiation nor auroral activity can provide the necessary energy. The weak cooling efficiency due to the lack of hydrocarbons in the stratosphere above 0.1 mBar pressure level may contribute too. In addition to molecular hydrogen, the thermosphere-corona contains many free hydrogen atoms. Their small mass together with the high temperatures explain why the corona extends as far as 50 000 km or two Uranian radii from the planet. This extended corona is a unique feature of Uranus. Its effects include a drag on small particles orbiting Uranus, causing a general depletion of dust in the Uranian rings. The Uranian thermosphere, together with the upper part of the stratosphere, corresponds to the ionosphere of Uranus. Observations show that the ionosphere occupies altitudes from 2 000 to 10 000 km. The Uranian ionosphere is denser than that of either Saturn or Neptune, which may arise from the low concentration of hydrocarbons in the stratosphere. The ionosphere is mainly sustained by solar UV radiation and its density depends on the solar activity. Auroral activity is insignificant as compared to Jupiter and Saturn. " Bold added.
"It is the coldest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System, with a minimum temperature of 49 K (−224 °C). ... The lowest temperature recorded in Uranus's tropopause is 49 K (−224 °C), making Uranus the coldest planet in the Solar System." Bold added.
"The upper part of the thermosphere, where the mean free path of the molecules exceeds the scale height, [The scale height sh is defined as sh = RT/(Mgj), where R = 8.31 J/mol/K is the gas constant, M ≈ 0.0023 kg/mol is the average molar mass in the Uranian atmosphere, T is temperature and gj ≈ 8.9 m/s2 is the gravitational acceleration at the surface of Uranus. As the temperature varies from 53 K in the tropopause up to 800 K in the thermosphere, the scale height changes from 20 to 400 km.] is called the exosphere. The lower boundary of the Uranian exosphere, the exobase, is located at a height of about 6,500 km, or 1/4 of the planetary radius, above the surface. The exosphere is unusually extended, reaching as far as several Uranian radii from the planet. It is made mainly of hydrogen atoms and is often called the hydrogen corona of Uranus. The high temperature and relatively high pressure at the base of the thermosphere explain in part why Uranus's exosphere is so vast. The corona contains a significant population of supra-thermal (energy of up to 2 eV) hydrogen atoms. Their origin is unclear, but they may be produced by the same mechanism that heats the thermosphere. The number density of atomic hydrogen in the corona falls slowly with the distance from the planet, remaining as high a few hundred atoms per cm3 at a few radii from Uranus. The effects of this bloated exosphere include a drag on small particles orbiting Uranus, causing a general depletion of dust in the Uranian rings. The infalling dust in turn contaminates the upper atmosphere of the planet."
The ancient history period dates from around 8,000 to 3,000 b2k.
“Uranus ... is named after the ancient Greek deity of the sky Uranus ..., the father of Cronus (Saturn) and grandfather of Zeus (Jupiter). Though it is visible to the naked eye like the five classical planets, it was never recognized as a planet by ancient observers because of its dimness and slow orbit.”
The second image at right is a painting by artist Giorgio Vasari (1511–1574). The main focus is on Cronus (Saturn) castrating Uranus (the Greek sky god). As both Uranus and Cronus are represented by men, this suggests that they were similar in nature. "[T]he ancients’ religions and mythology speak for their knowledge of Uranus; the dynasty of gods had Uranus followed by Saturn, and the latter by Jupiter. ... It is quite possible that the planet Uranus is the very planet known by this name to the ancients. The age of Uranus preceded the age of Saturn; it came to an end with the “removal” of Uranus by Saturn. Saturn is said to have emasculated his father Uranus."
“Uranus ... , Ouranos meaning "sky" or "heaven") was the primal Greek god personifying the sky. His equivalent in Roman mythology was Caelus. In Ancient Greek literature, Uranus or Father Sky was the son and husband of Gaia, Mother Earth. According to Hesiod's Theogony, Uranus was conceived by Gaia alone, but other sources cite Aether as his father.”
"According to the poet Alcman, Aether was the father of Ouranos, the god of the sky. While Aether was the personification of the upper air, Ouranos was literally the sky itself, composed of a solid dome of brass."
“Caelus or Coelus was a primal god of the sky in Roman myth and theology, iconography, and literature (compare caelum, the Latin word for "sky" or "the heavens", hence English "celestial").”
“The name of Caelus indicates that he was the Roman counterpart of the Greek god Uranus ..., who was of major importance in the theogonies of the Greeks. Varro couples him with Terra (Earth) as pater and mater (father and mother), and says that they are "great deities" (dei magni) in the theology of the mysteries at Samothrace.”
“According to Cicero and Hyginus, Caelus was the son of Aether and Dies ("Day" or "Daylight"). Caelus and Dies were in this tradition the parents of Mercury. Caelus was the father with Hecate of the distinctively Roman god Janus, as well as of Saturn and Ops. Caelus was also the father of one of the three forms of Jupiter, the other two fathers being Aether and Saturn.”
"Aion (Greek Αἰών) is a Hellenistic deity associated with time, the orb or circle encompassing the universe, and the zodiac. The "time" represented by Aion is unbounded, in contrast to Chronos as empirical time divided into past, present, and future. He is thus a god of eternity, associated with mystery religions concerned with the afterlife, such as the mysteries of Cybele, Dionysus, Orpheus, and Mithras. In Latin the concept of the deity may appear as Aevum or Saeculum. He is typically in the company of an earth or mother goddess such as Tellus or Cybele, as on the Parabiago plat]." The picture at page right top is of Aion-Uranus.
Uranus has an equatorial radius of 25,559 ± 4 km and a polar radius of 24,973 ± 20 km.
- Uranus was closer to the Sun about 40,000 b2k.
- What was to become Uranus may have been in a binary system with the Sun.
- Red Prince (25 April 2004). "Uranus, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2016-03-29.
- "Uranus, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 24 March 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-29.
- Sabine Stanley and Jeremy Bloxham (March 2004). "Convective-region geometry as the cause of Uranus' and Neptune's unusual magnetic fields". Nature 428 (6979): 151-3. doi:10.1038/nature02376. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004Natur.428..151S. Retrieved 2014-03-29.
- Norman F. Ness, Mario H. Acuña, Kenneth W. Behannon, Leonard F. Burlaga, John E. P. Connerney, Ronald P. Lepping, and Fritz M. Neubauer (July 4, 1986). "Magnetic Fields at Uranus". Science 233 (4759): 85-9. doi:10.1126/science.233.4759.85. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986Sci...233...85N. Retrieved 2014-03-29.
- C.T. Russell (1993). "Planetary Magnetospheres". Rep. Prog. Phys. 56 (6): 687–732. doi:10.1088/0034-4885/56/6/001.
- S. Atreya, Egeler, P.; Baines, K. (2006). "Water-ammonia ionic ocean on Uranus and Neptune?" (PDF). Geophysical Research Abstracts 8: 05179. http://www.cosis.net/abstracts/EGU06/05179/EGU06-J-05179-1.pdf.
- Sabine Stanley, Bloxham, Jeremy (2004). "Convective-region geometry as the cause of Uranus' and Neptune's unusual magnetic fields" (PDF). Letters to Nature 428 (6979): 151–153. doi:10.1038/nature02376. PMID 15014493. Archived from the original on August 7, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070807213745/http://mahi.ucsd.edu/johnson/ES130/stanley2004-nature.pdf. Retrieved August 5, 2007.
- "Uranus". Wikipedia (San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc). June 5, 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uranus. Retrieved 2012-06-08.
- S. M. Krimigis, T. P. Armstrong, W. I. Axford, A. F. Cheng, G. Gloeckler (4 July 1986). "The magnetosphere of Uranus - Hot plasma and radiation environment". Science 233 (07): 97-102. doi:10.1126/science.233.4759.97.
- "Voyager: Uranus: Magnetosphere". NASA. 2003. Retrieved June 13, 2007.
- H.S. Bridge, J.W. Belcher, B. Coppi, A. J. Lazarus, R. L. McNutt, S. Olbert, J. D. Richardson, M. R. Sands, R. S. Selesnick (1986). "Plasma Observations Near Uranus: Initial Results from Voyager 2". Science 233 (4759): 89–93. doi:10.1126/science.233.4759.89. PMID 17812895.
- "Voyager Uranus Science Summary". NASA/JPL. 1988. Retrieved June 9, 2007.
- Floyd Herbert and Bill R. Sandel (August 1999). "Ultraviolet observations of Uranus and Neptune". Planetary and Space Science 47 (8-9): 1119-39. doi:10.1016/S0032-0633(98)00142-1. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999P%26SS...47.1119H. Retrieved 2016-06-27.
- Hoanh An Lam, Steven Miller, Robert D. Joseph, Thomas R. Geballe, Laurence M. Trafton, Jonathan Tennyson, and Gilda E. Ballester (1 January 1997). "Variation in the H3+ Emission of Uranus". The Astrophysical Journal Letters 474 (1): L73-6. doi:10.1086/310424. http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1086/310424/fulltext/. Retrieved 2016-06-27.
- Jonathan I. Lunine (1993). "The Atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 31: 217–63. doi:10.1146/annurev.aa.31.090193.001245.
- Nowak, Gary T. (2006). "Uranus: the Threshold Planet of 2006". Retrieved June 14, 2007.
- Smith, B. A.; Soderblom, L. A.; Beebe, A.; Bliss, D.; Boyce, J. M.; Brahic, A.; Briggs, G. A.; Brown, R. H. et al (4 July 1986). "Voyager 2 in the Uranian System: Imaging Science Results". Science 233 (4759): 43–64. doi:10.1126/science.233.4759.43. PMID 17812889.
- Emily Lakdawalla (2004). "No Longer Boring: 'Fireworks' and Other Surprises at Uranus Spotted Through Adaptive Optics". The Planetary Society. Archived from the original on May 25, 2006. Retrieved June 13, 2007.
- "Uranus". Wikipedia (San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc). February 17, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uranus. Retrieved 2013-02-20.
- Sromovsky, L. A.; Fry, P. M. (December 2005). "Dynamics of cloud features on Uranus". Icarus 179 (2): 459–484. Bibcode 2005Icar..179..459S. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2005.07.022.
- Karkoschka, Erich (May 2001). "Uranus' Apparent Seasonal Variability in 25 HST Filters". Icarus 151 (1): 84–92. Bibcode 2001Icar..151...84K. doi:10.1006/icar.2001.6599.
- Hammel, H. B.; de Pater, I.; Gibbard, S. G.; Lockwood, G. W.; Rages, K. (May 2005). "New cloud activity on Uranus in 2004: First detection of a southern feature at 2.2 µm". Icarus 175 (1): 284–8. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.11.016.
- Sromovsky, L.; Fry, P.;Hammel, H.;Rages, K. "Hubble Discovers a Dark Cloud in the Atmosphere of Uranus" (PDF). physorg.com. Retrieved August 22, 2007.
- Hammel, H.B.; Lockwood, G.W. (2007). "Long-term atmospheric variability on Uranus and Neptune". Icarus 186: 291–301. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2006.08.027.
- Devitt, Terry (2004). "Keck zooms in on the weird weather of Uranus". University of Wisconsin-Madison. Retrieved December 24, 2006.
- Rages, K. A.; Hammel, H. B.; Friedson, A. J. (11 September 2004). "Evidence for temporal change at Uranus' south pole". Icarus 172 (2): 548–54. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.07.009.
- Hammel, H. B.; de Pater, I.; Gibbard, S. G.; Lockwood, G. W.; Rages, K. (June 2005). "Uranus in 2003: Zonal winds, banded structure, and discrete features". Icarus 175 (2): 534–45. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.11.012.
- Hanel, R.; Conrath, B.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V.; Maguire, W.; Pearl, J.; Pirraglia, J.; Samuelson, R. et al (4 July 1986). "Infrared Observations of the Uranian System". Science 233 (4759): 70–4. doi:10.1126/science.233.4759.70. PMID 17812891.
- Hammel, H. B.; Rages, K.; Lockwood, G. W.; Karkoschka, E.; de Pater, I. (October 2001). "New Measurements of the Winds of Uranus". Icarus 153 (2): 229–35. doi:10.1006/icar.2001.6689.
- Chushiro Hayashi (1981). "Structure of the Solar Nebula, Growth and Decay of Magnetic Fields and Effects of Magnetic and Turbulent Viscosities on the Nebula". Progress Theoretical Physics Supplement (70): 35-53. doi:10.1143/PTPS.70.35. http://ptp.ipap.jp/link?PTPS/70/35/. Retrieved 2012-08-23.
- Ray Villard and Laurent Lamy (April 19, 2012). "Hubble Spots Aurorae on the Planet Uranus". STScI. Retrieved 2013-04-27.
- Sue Lavoie (January 29, 1996). "PIA00033: Uranus Rings in False Color". Pasadena, California USA: NASA/JPL. Retrieved 2013-03-31.
- Sromovsky, L. A.; Fry, P. M.; Hammel, H. B.; Ahue, W. M.; de Pater, I.; Rages, K. A.; Showalter, M. R.; van Dam, M. A. (September 2009). "Uranus at equinox: Cloud morphology and dynamics". Icarus 203 (1): 265–286. Bibcode 2009Icar..203..265S. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2009.04.015.
- "Hubble Discovers Dark Cloud In The Atmosphere Of Uranus". Science Daily. Retrieved April 16, 2007.
- Lockwood, G. W.; Jerzykiewicz, Mikołaj A. (February 2006). "Photometric variability of Uranus and Neptune, 1950–2004". Icarus 180 (2): 442–452. Bibcode 2006Icar..180..442L. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2005.09.009.
- Klein, M. J.; Hofstadter, M. D. (September 2006). "Long-term variations in the microwave brightness temperature of the Uranus atmosphere". Icarus 184 (1): 170–180. Bibcode 2006Icar..184..170K. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2006.04.012.
- Young, Leslie A.; Bosh, Amanda S.; Buie, Marc; et al. (2001). "Uranus after Solstice: Results from the 1998 November 6 Occultation" (PDF). Icarus 153 (2): 236–247. doi:10.1006/icar.2001.6698. http://www.boulder.swri.edu/~layoung/eprint/ur149/Young2001Uranus.pdf.
- Heidi Hammel (July 31, 1997). "Clouds on Uranus". Boston, Massachusetts: NASA. Retrieved 2012-07-21.
- Erimus (February 28, 2011). "File:Arieluranus.jpg, In: Wikimedia Commons". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2012-07-21.
- Samantha Harvey (August 19, 2004). "Uranus from Earth". NASA and Keck Observatory. Retrieved 2012-07-21.
- Stephen Smith (November 10, 2011). "Sturm und Drang". The Thunderbolts Project. Retrieved 2014-03-29.
- Wal Thornhill (November 10, 2011). "Sturm und Drang". The Thunderbolts Project. Retrieved 2014-03-29.
- David Jewitt and Jane Luu (November 1992). "Submillimeter Continuum Emission from Comets". Icarus 108 (1): 187-96. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0019103592900286. Retrieved 2013-10-22.
- Ann14065b (10 September 2014). "ALMA short wavelength image of Uranus". Chile: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO). Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- Stone, E. C. (December 30, 1987). "The Voyager 2 Encounter with Uranus". Journal of Geophysical Research 92 (A13): 14,873–14,876. Bibcode 1987JGR....9214873S. doi:10.1029/JA092iA13p14873
- Fegley, Bruce Jr.; Gautier, Daniel; Owen, Tobias; Prinn, Ronald G. (1991). "Spectroscopy and chemistry of the atmosphere of Uranus". In Bergstrahl, Jay T.; Miner, Ellis D.; Matthews, Mildred Shapley (PDF). Uranus. University of Arizona Press. ISBN 978-0-8165-1208-9. OCLC 22625114.
- "Atmosphere of Uranus, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. July 3, 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-30.
- B. Conrath, R. Hanel, D. Gautier, A. Marten, and G. Lindal (30 December 1987). "The helium abundance of Uranus from Voyager measurements". Journal of Geophysical Research 92 (12): 15003-10. doi:10.1029/JA092iA13p15003.
- J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, R. A. Hanel, and J. A. Pirraglia (March 1990). "The albedo, effective temperature, and energy balance of Uranus, as determined from Voyager IRIS data". Icarus 84 (03): 12-28. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(90)90155-3. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990Icar...84...12P.
- G. F. Lindal, J. R. Lyons, D. N. Sweetnam, V. R. Eshleman, D. P. Hinson, and G. L. Tyler (30 December 1987). "The atmosphere of Uranus: Results of radio occultation measurements with Voyager 2". Journal of Geophysical Research Space Physics 92 (A13): 14987-15001. doi:10.1029/JA092iA13p14987. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/JA092iA13p14987/abstract.
- Tyler, J.L.; Sweetnam, D.N.; Anderson, J.D.; Campbell, J. K.; Eshleman, V. R.; Hinson, D. P.; Levy, G. S.; Lindal, G. F. et al. (1986). "Voyger 2 Radio Science Observations of the Uranian System: Atmosphere, Rings, and Satellites". Science 233 (4759): 79–84. doi:10.1126/science.233.4759.79. PMID 17812893.
- J. Bishop, S. K. Atreya, F. Herbert, and P. Romani (December 1990). "Reanalysis of Voyager 2 UVS occultations at Uranus - Hydrocarbon mixing ratios in the equatorial stratosphere". Icarus 88 (12): 448-64. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(90)90094-P. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990Icar...88..448B.
- Michael E. Summers and Darrell F. Strobel (1 November 1989). "Photochemistry of the atmosphere of Uranus". The Astrophysical Journal 346 (11): 495-508. doi:10.1086/168031. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989ApJ...346..495S.
- Martin Burgdorf, Glenn Orton, Jeffrey van Cleve, Victoria Meadows, and James Houck (October 2006). "Detection of new hydrocarbons in Uranus' atmosphere by infrared spectroscopy". Icarus 184 (02): 634-7. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2006.06.006. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006Icar..184..634B. Retrieved 2016-06-28.
- Thérèse Encrenaz (February 2003). "ISO observations of the giant planets and Titan: what have we learnt?". Planetary and Space Science 51 (2): 89-103. doi:10.1016/S0032-0633(02)00145-9. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003P%26SS...51...89E. Retrieved 2016-06-28.
- Th. Encrenaz, E. Lellouch, P. Drossart, H. Feuchtgruber, G. S. Orton, and S. K. Atreya (January 2004). "First detection of CO in Uranus". Astronomy and Astrophysics 413 (01): L5-9. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20034637. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004A%26A...413L...5E. Retrieved 2016-06-28.
- Imke de Pater (14 November 2014). "Astronomers Spot Large Storms on Uranus". Sci-News.com. Retrieved 2014-11-25.
- Heidi Hammel (14 November 2014). "Astronomers Spot Large Storms on Uranus". Sci-News.com. Retrieved 2014-11-25.
- Imke de Pater, Paul N. Romani, and Sushil K. Atreya (December 1989). "Uranus deep atmosphere revealed". Icarus 82 (12): 288-313. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(89)90040-7. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989Icar...82..288D. Retrieved 2016-06-28.
- Herbert, Floyd; Sandel, B. R.; Yelle, R. V.; Holberg, J. B.; Broadfoot, A. L.; Shemansky, D. E.; Atreya, S. K.; Romani, P. N. (December 30, 1987). "The Upper Atmosphere of Uranus: EUV Occultations Observed by Voyager 2" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research 92 (A13): 15,093–15,109. doi:10.1029/JA092iA13p15093. http://www-personal.umich.edu/~atreya/Articles/1987_Upper_Atm_Uranus.pdf.
- Young, Leslie A.; Bosh, Amanda S.; Buie, Marc; Elliot, J. L.; Wasserman, Lawrence H. (2001). et al. 2001Uranus.pdf "Uranus after Solstice: Results from the 1998 November 6 Occultation" (PDF). Icarus 153 (2): 236–247. doi:10.1006/icar.2001.6698. http://www.boulder.swri.edu/~layoung/eprint/ur149/Young et al. 2001Uranus.pdf.
- L. M. Trafton, S. Miller, T. R. Geballe, J. Tennyson, G. E. Ballester (October 1999). "H2 Quadrupole and H+3 Emission from Uranus: The Uranian Thermosphere, Ionosphere, and Aurora". The Astrophysical Journal 524 (2): 1059-83. doi:10.1086/307838. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999ApJ...524.1059T. Retrieved 2016-06-28.
- Th. Encrenaz, P. Drossart, G. Orton, H. Feuchtgruber, E. Lellouch, and S. K. Atreya (December 2003). "The rotational temperature and column density of H3+ in Uranus". Planetary and Space Science 51 (14-15): 1013-6. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2003.05.010. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003P%26SS...51.1013E. Retrieved 2016-06-28.
- Floyd Herbert and Doyle T. Hall (May 1996). "Atomic hydrogen corona of Uranus". Journal of Geophysical Research 101 (A5): 10,877–10,885. doi:10.1029/96JA00427.
- "Sailormoon Terms and Information". The Sailor Senshi Page. Retrieved March 5, 2006.
- "Asian Astronomy 101". Hamilton Amateur Astronomers 4 (11). 1997. http://amateurastronomy.org/EH/Oct97.txt. Retrieved August 5, 2007.
- "MIRA's Field Trips to the Stars Internet Education Program". Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy. Retrieved August 27, 2007.
- Immanuel Velikovsky. "Uranus". The Immanuel Velikovsky Archive. Retrieved 2013-01-14.
- "Planet symbols". NASA Solar System exploration. Retrieved August 4, 2007.
- "AETHER: Greek protogenos god of upper air & light ; mythology : AETHER". Theoi.com.
- "Uranus (mythology), In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. January 13, 2013. Retrieved 2013-01-14.
- "AETHER: Greek protogenos god of upper air & light ; mythology : AETHER". Theoi.com.
- "Aether (mythology), In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. November 8, 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-25.
- "Caelus, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. December 26, 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-14.
- Varro, De lingua Latina 5.58.
- Cicero, De natura deorum 3.44, as cited by E.J. Kenney, Apuleius: Cupid and Psyche (Cambridge University Press, 1990, 2001), note to 6.6.4, p. 198; Hyginus, preface. This is not the theogony that Hesiod presents.
- Cicero, De natura Deorum 3.56; also Arnobius, Adversus Nationes 4.14.
- Ennius, Annales 27 (edition of Vahlen); Varro, as cited by Nonius Marcellus, p. 197M; Cicero, Timaeus XI; Arnobius, Adversus Nationes 2.71, 3.29.
- Arnobius, Adversus Nationes 4.14.
- Doro Levi, "Aion," Hesperia 13.4 (1944), p. 274.
- Levi, "Aion," p. 274.
- Levi, "Aion," p.
- "Aion (deity), In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. January 6. 2013. Retrieved 2013-01-14.
- P. Kenneth Seidelmann, B. A. Archinal, M. F. A'hearn, A. Conrad, G. J. Consolmagno, D. Hestroffer, J. L. Hilton, G. A. Krasinsky, G. Neumann (2007). "Report of the IAU/IAG Working Group on cartographic coordinates and rotational elements: 2006". Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy 98 (3): 155-80. doi:10.1007/s10569-007-9072-y.
- African Journals Online
- Bing Advanced search
- Google Books
- Google scholar Advanced Scholar Search
- International Astronomical Union
- Lycos search
- NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database - NED
- NASA's National Space Science Data Center
- NCBI All Databases Search
- Office of Scientific & Technical Information
- PubChem Public Chemical Database
- Questia - The Online Library of Books and Journals
- SAGE journals online
- The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System
- Scirus for scientific information only advanced search
- SDSS Quick Look tool: SkyServer
- SIMBAD Astronomical Database
- SIMBAD Web interface, Harvard alternate
- Spacecraft Query at NASA.
- Taylor & Francis Online
- Universal coordinate converter
- Wiley Online Library Advanced Search
- Yahoo Advanced Web Search
Learn more about Uranus