Botany

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This is a traditional cultural association between Maize, squash and beans, called Milpa in the region. Credit: Isabelle Fragniere.

Botany is the scientific study of plant life. As a branch of biology, it is also called plant science(s) or plant biology. Botany covers a wide range of scientific disciplines that study plants including: structure, growth, reproduction, metabolism, development and diseases of plants, chemical properties and evolutionary relationships between different plant groups. The study of plants and botany began with tribal lore, used to identify edible, medicinal and poisonous plants, making botany one of the oldest sciences. From this ancient interest in plants, the scope of botany has increased to include the study of over 550,000 kinds or species of living organisms.

"Traditionally, botany included the study of fungi, algae and viruses. Botany covers a wide range of scientific disciplines including structure, growth, reproduction, metabolism, [morphogenesis] development, [phytopathology] diseases, chemical properties, and evolutionary relationships among taxonomic groups. Botany began with early human efforts to identify edible, medicinal and poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest branches of science. Today botanists study about 400,000 species of living organisms."[1]

To propose a definition for say a plant whose flowers open at dawn on a warm day to be pollinated during the day time using the word "thing", "entity", "object", or "body" seems too general and is.

Control groups[edit]

Main source: Control groups

A control group for botany may be a group of living organisms with a rigorously defined genome to which the genome of a plant can be compared so as to clearly state the possible genome is a plant and only a plant.

Biology[edit]

Main source: Biology

Def. the "study of all life or living matter"[2] is called biology.

Colors[edit]

Cells contain chlorophyll a and b.

Theoretical botany[edit]

Def. "[t]he scientific study of plants, ... [t]ypically those disciplines that involve the whole plant"[3] is called botany.

Usage notes:

"The scientific definition of what organisms should be considered plants changed dramatically during the 20th century. Bacteria, algae, and fungi are no longer considered plants by those who study them. Many textbooks do not reflect the most current thinking on classification."[4]

Entities[edit]

Main sources: Astronomy/Entities and Entities

Dominant species:

"[I]n any limited country, the species which is most common, that is abound most in individuals, and the species which are most widely diffused within their country (and this is a different consideration from wide range, and to a certain extent from commonness), often give rise to varieties sufficiently well-marked to have been recorded in botanical works. Hence it is the most flourishing, or as they may be called, the dominant species -- those which range widely over the world, are the most diffused in their own country, and are the most numerous in individuals, -- which oftenest produce well-marked varieties, or, as I consider them, incipient species."[5]

Objects[edit]

Def. an "organism of the kingdom Plantae; now specifically, a living organism of the Embryophyta (land plants) or of the Chlorophyta (green algae), a eukaryote that includes double-membraned chloroplasts in its cells containing chlorophyll a and b, or any organism closely related to such an organism"[4] is called a plant.

Def. "a multicellular eukaryote that includes chloroplasts in its cells, which have a cell wall"[4] is called a plant.

Agriculture[edit]

Main source: Agriculture

Def. "[t]he art or science of cultivating the ground, including the harvesting of crops, and the rearing and management of livestock; tillage; husbandry; farming"[6] is called agriculture.

Agronomy[edit]

Main source: Agronomy

Def. "[t]he science of utilizing plants, animals and soils for food, fuel, feed, and fiber and more"[7] is called agronomy.

Angiosperms[edit]

Def. a "member of the plant group characterized by having ovules enclosed in an ovary"[8] is called an angiosperm.

Bacteriology[edit]

Main source: Bacteriology

Def. the "scientific study of bacteria, especially in relation to disease and agriculture"[9] is called bacteriology.

Biochemistry[edit]

"Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within, and relating to, living organisms.[10]"[11]

"Organic phosphates are important in biochemistry and biogeochemistry or ecology."[12]

"In biological systems, phosphorus is found as a free phosphate ion in solution and is called inorganic phosphate, to distinguish it from phosphates bound in various phosphate esters. Inorganic phosphate is generally denoted Pi and at physiological (neutral) pH primarily consists of a mixture of HPO42- and H2PO4- ions."[12]

Bryology[edit]

Main source: Bryology

Def. "[t]he study of bryophytes (non-vascular plants including mosses and liverworts)"[13] is called bryology.

Dendrology[edit]

Main source: Dendrology

Def. "the study of trees and other woody plants"[14] is called dendrology.

Embryophytology[edit]

Main source: Embryophytology

Ethnobotany[edit]

Main sources: Botany/Ethnology and Ethnobotany

Def. the "scientific study of the relationships between people and plants"[15] is called ethnobotany.

Forestry[edit]

Main source: Forestry

Def. the science or practice of planting, managing, and caring for forests is called forestry.

Horticulture[edit]

Main source: Horticulture

Def. the "art or science of cultivating gardens"[16] is called horticulture.

Def. "the process or action of cultivating of the soil particularly in"[17] an "outdoor area containing one or more types of plants"[18] is called gardening.

Lichenology[edit]

Main source: Lichenology

Def. "the scientific study of lichens"[19] is called lichenology.

Mycology[edit]

Main source: Mycology

Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicine (e.g., penicillin), food (e.g., beer, wine, cheese, edible mushrooms), and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as poisoning or infection.[20]

Paleobotany[edit]

Main source: Paleobotany

Def. the "branch of paleontology that deals with the study of plant fossils"[21] is called paleobotany.

Palynology[edit]

Main source: Palynology

Def. the "scientific study of spores, pollen and particulate organic matter in rocks"[22] is called palynology.

Phycology[edit]

Main source: Phycology

Def. the "scientific study of algae"[23] is called phycology.

Virology[edit]

Main source: Virology

Def. the "branch of microbiology that deals with the study of viruses and viral diseases"[24] is called virology.

Taxonomy[edit]

Main source: Taxonomy
Composite image illustrates the diversity of plants. Credit: Ryan Kitko.

Superregnum: Eukaryota[25] Regnum: Plantae[26] Divisiones (8): "Algae" (first four)

  1. Charophyta
  2. Chlorophyta
  3. Glaucophyta
  4. Rhodophyta
  5. Anthocerotophyta
  6. Bryophyta
  7. Marchantiophyta
  8. Tracheophyta

Hypotheses[edit]

Main source: Hypotheses
  1. Plant classification before genomics may not agree with classification after application of genomics.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. "Botany, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. March 25, 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-25. 
  2. "biology, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 23 February 2015. Retrieved 2015-02-23. 
  3. "botany, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. July 18, 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-07. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "plant, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. August 7, 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-07. 
  5. Charles Robert Darwin (1859). On the origin of the species by means of natural selection: or, The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. London: John Murray. pp. 516. http://books.google.com/books?id=_cvGifvlQiIC&source=gbs_navlinks_s. 
  6. "agriculture, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. June 17, 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-07. 
  7. "agronomy, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. February 11, 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-07. 
  8. "angiosperm, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. October 18, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-25. 
  9. SemperBlotto (23 May 2005). "bacteriology, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  10. http://portal.acs.org/portal/acs/corg/content?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=PP_ARTICLEMAIN&node_id=1188&content_id=CTP_003379&use_sec=true&sec_url_var=region1&__uuid=aa3f2aa3-8047-4fa2-88b8-32ffcad3a93e
  11. "Biochemistry, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. April 15, 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-21. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 "Phosphate, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. April 10, 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-21. 
  13. "bryology, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. February 16, 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-07. 
  14. "dendrology, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. October 7, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-25. 
  15. "ethnobotany, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. June 20, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-25. 
  16. "horticulture, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. October 8, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-25. 
  17. "gardening, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. October 8, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-25. 
  18. "garden, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. October 15, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-25. 
  19. "lichenology, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. October 9, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-25. 
  20. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycology
  21. "paleobotany, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. October 8, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-25. 
  22. "palynology, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. June 17, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-25. 
  23. Nadando (29 November 2007). "phycology, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  24. SemperBlotto (1 October 2006). "virology, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  25. "Eukaryota, In: Wikispecies". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 13 November 2015. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  26. "Plantae, In: Wikispecies". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 5 December 2015. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 

External links[edit]

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