The Intersection of the Internet and Psychology: The Role of Online Interactions in Terms of Mental Health

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From Helping Give Away Psychological Science at the University of Maryland, College Park. Team: Tony Li, Farnaz Ahmed, Austin Chau, Carrie Hill, and Wilson Lazo-Salmeron.

The Intersection of the Internet and Psychology[edit | edit source]

Summary of why we created this page here

Online Mental Health Care[edit | edit source]

Summary of Topic Here

“By blogging, psychiatrists can proactively advocate for their patients by writing directly about issues related to mental health. A blog can be a user-friendly forum with a broad audience for public health education, giving a voice to a field that is too often met with a lack of knowledge and support, directly contributing to the issue of stigma.” Talks about some of the positives of using online psychology resources[1]

In-Person vs. Online Mental Health Care[edit | edit source]

The use of accessing mental health services through online techniques, otherwise defined as "telemental health," has been increasingly popularized in recent years. Various methods include telephone calls, video conferences, and other non-person communication. Despite this popularity, there have been concerns regarding the effectiveness of psychological interventions. More specifically, there is apprehension about detecting nonverbal behavior, awareness of the client's tone or emotions, and reduced social connections. Thus, research is unclear whether or not these concerns are prevalent in online therapy formats and if they affect the quality of intervention. A systematic review was employed to examine the differences between face-to-face therapy and telephone treatment.

Precisely, 15 studies that focused on mental health intervention were gathered for analysis. Researchers plan to analyze themes, such as disclosure, attentiveness, listening skills, participation, among other factors, between face-to-face therapy and telephone therapy sessions. In regards to disclosing sensitive or personal experiences, no significant differences were observed throughout the 15 therapeutic studies. While utilizing self-report measures, clients expressed no significant changes in the therapist's attentiveness to the client. In reality, a few clients indicated higher levels of attentiveness during phone-to-phone therapy. Furthermore, the therapist's listening skills were also reported to be higher during telephone therapy sessions than in-person therapy. Finally, there are mixed results concerning participation, in which there were no prominent distinctions between face-to-face therapy and telephone sessions, while other studies concluding telephone sessions improved participation.

Ultimately, this systematic review established no notable differences between telehealth and in-person therapy, suggesting that therapy is a flexible process that may be accessed in a variety of contexts. Consequently, with the Covid-19 pandemic ongoing, the use of online telehealth practices is more essential than ever. Finally, future research may explore the long-term effects of online therapy or understanding the context of Covid-19 clients.[2]

Another systematic review explored the differences between Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) and face-to-face delivered cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). A total of 13 studies were selected, representing cases of social anxiety, depression, body dissatisfaction, and more. Researchers compared the process of intervention, patient outcomes, and similarities of client's condition between ICBT and CBT. Overall, the meta-analysis indicates insufficient significant differences between the two formats of CBT. In other words, ICBT and CBT are similar in effectiveness, concerning topics such as social anxiety disorder, depression, body image issues, and more. Thus, the minimal differences between the two treatments are consistent with previously stated research regarding in-personal and online mental health, both being effective resources. Therefore, the results of this meta-analysis may support the expansion of creating more online mental health services while establishing ICBT as an effective alternative to CBT if needed.[3]

Additionally, a randomized clinical trial further explored the effectiveness of online vs. in-person therapy regarding health anxiety. Specifically, internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) and face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions were used to treat health anxiety or anxiety disorders in general. The outcomes focused on the progression of anxiety before and after treatment and supplementary outcomes, including health economics, reported adverse events, and other discussions. Ultimately, the findings indicate no significant difference between ICBT and regular face-to-face CBT. Despite ICBT therapists reporting spending 78% less time with patients than CBT therapists, both treatments achieved significant reductions in general anxiety amongst clients. Therefore, the results actively demonstrate both in-person and online mental health care as functional meanings of seeking treatment.[4]

Effectiveness of Online Therapy[edit | edit source]

A systematic literature search explored to understand the effectiveness of internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) in treating psychiatric disorders, which include depression, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), adjustment disorder, bipolar disorder, chronic pain, and phobias. Furthermore, other medical conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, and comorbidity were explored. Overall, various studies examined established positive outcomes from ICBT treatment. For instance, ICBT assisted patients in understanding their illness, especially in circumstances involving psychosis. Consequently, this improvement also positively impact social connections, reduced stress levels, and greater cognition and life satisfaction. Thus, the findings support ICBT being an effective mode of treatment of various mental health disorders. Additionally, the cost-effectiveness of ICBT makes this treatment suitable, which is further convincing to implement for clients interested.[5]

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have also observed internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) is an effective means of treatment for health anxiety. Specifically, within the trials, individuals with anxiety were examined, and attrition rates of ICBT lesson plans were also collected. Ultimately, the trials concluded impressive reductions in anxiety behaviors and symptoms, supporting the ICBT as a beneficial intervention for participants. Despite these promising results, participants adhering to the online treatment program and lesson plans were low. Therefore, future research may consider alternative strategies to increase adherence to the intervention. In the meantime, implications still revolve around incorporating ICBT as a valuable resource for those seeking therapy.[6]

Another randomized controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of telephone-administered short-term cognitive-behavioral therapy (T-CBT), with an emphasis on treating depression. T-CBT operates by mobile phones to overcome external barriers with the objective to consult beneficial mental health outcomes. Researchers assessed patient health outcomes through questionnaires, surveys, and other measurement forms. Consequently, T-CBT offers a flexible, cost-effective service that assists with the improvement of mental health, specifically in depression.[7]

-This article talks about how telehealth and e-therapy surged in rural communities during the COVID-19 pandemic. It focused on marginalized communities and used the perspectives of two trainees and a supervisor where the main themes they focused on were using a multicultural lens, being an advocate, and promoting flexibility and fidelity.[8] *Needs to be deleted. No longer accessible*

Covid-19 and Mental Health Services[edit | edit source]

-“Within the context of this forced transition because of the global COVID-19 pandemic, most psychotherapists identified a somewhat positive attitude toward online psychotherapy, suggesting they were likely to use online psychotherapy in the future.”[9]

-“The purpose of this article is to highlight the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic amid a preexisting loneliness epidemic, as well as argue in favor of the reconceptualization of social distancing as physical distancing. As public health measures require us to take up possibly isolating practices in order to reduce and eliminate the spread of the virus, it is important to develop or take up new forms of prosocial yet physically distant dynamics in order to address the negative psychological impact of these measures. The negative consequences of public health interventions might increase feelings of loneliness and isolation experienced within Western industrialized societies. For this reason, teletherapy serves as temporary (and limited) intervention that could ameliorate the psychological effects of isolation.” (Loneliness and its effects on teletherapy because of the pandemic).[10]

-“Infectious disease outbreaks, such as the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), create significant distress for the public and strain health care systems tasked with caring for affected individuals and containing the disease. Fear and uncertainty heavily influence public behaviors (1). Concerns focus on personal and family safety, inability to distinguish the new disease from more established and benign illnesses, potential for isolation and quarantine, effectiveness of treatments being used, and trust in institutions responsible for managing the response.”[11]

Self-Diagnosis and Treatment[edit | edit source]

In the rise of virtual health service and apps, these new technologies have given more autonomy to the patient without reliance on traditional doctors or mental health care providers. Self-diagnosis and treatment have become more and more common as the technology further develops. Insert an example. These apps and services have also opened the dialogue about its effectiveness compared to more traditional methods and about healthism of contemporary medicine. The traditional healthcare model places the doctor as the authoritative figure, however, as patients become more involved with their own health, the doctor's medical authority and the doctor-patient relationship have increasingly disputed. Talk about privacy and personal data.

-“The very existence of self-diagnosis apps speaks to several important dimensions of contemporary patienthood and healthcare in the context of a rapidly developing ecosystem of digital health technologies. Self-diagnosis apps, like other technologies designed to give lay people the opportunity to monitor their bodies and their health states and engage with the discourses of healthism and control that pervade contemporary medicine”[12]

-“social media practices can inform both how health‐related content is accessed and consumed and how it is assessed and appropriated”. Talks about a shift in young people looking for mental health and diagnosis information on social media rather than the traditional route[13]

Hotlines[edit | edit source]

This link provides a compilation of current updates on mental health treatment methods from hotlines to telehealth sessions during the pandemic.[14]

  • Disaster Distress Helpline (SAMHSA): Call 1-800-985-5990 or text TalkWithUs to 66746
  • National Suicide Prevention Lifeline: Call 800-273-8255
  • Physician Support Line: Call 1-888-409-0141
  • Crisis Textline: Text TALK to 741741
  • Veterans Crisis Line: Call 800-273-8255 or text 838255

Online Environment and Mental Health[edit | edit source]

Summary of Topic Here

Internet Trolls/Online Bullying (Commenting Online and Anonymity):[edit | edit source]

When discussing online harassment and bullying, the two terms of cyberbullying and internet trolling are the most commonly affiliated phrases used to describe those actions. To further explain these behaviors and the people behind them, a study done pooling from participants from Amazon's Mechanical Turk, found that for those who displayed both cyberbullying and trolling behaviors, there was also a correlated amount of low self-esteem, low conscientiousness, and low internal moral values within those same individuals. Additionally, there were differentiating factors between individuals who only engaged in cyberbullying behaviors (high on neuroticism) and trolling-only behaviors (high on openness to experience). Individuals who engaged in both behaviors scored higher on extraversion, lower on agreeableness, and lower on self-esteem compared to individuals who engaged in neither behavior.[15]

Studies investigating the similarities and differences in traditional bullying and cyberbullying experiences have demonstrated considerable gender differences concerning its determinants. The aim of the present study was to provide further evidence for the differential role of determinants for males and females by investigating the moderating role of traditional bullying and anger rumination in the relationship of past cyberbullying victimization and recent cyberbullying perpetration in respect to gender. A total of 1500 Hungarian adolescents and adults (57.9% male, Mage = 28.9 years, SD = 8.7) completed an online survey on bullying experiences. Results indicated that males were more likely than females to engage in cyberbullying when they had been previously bullied online. Furthermore, high anger rumination elevated the risk of perpetration among male cyberbullying victims, while repeated victimization in traditional bullying increased the risk of cyberbullying perpetration among females. These results underline the importance of considering gender differences in intervention efforts against bullying.[16]

Social media is a platform for public around the World to discuss their issues and opinions. Before knowing the actual aspects of social media people must have to know what does social media mean? Social media is a term used to describe the interaction between groups or individuals in which they produce, share, and sometimes exchange ideas, images, videos and many more over the internet and in virtual communities. Children are growing up surrounded by mobile devices and interactive social networking sites such as Twitter, MySpace, and Facebook, Orkut which has made the social media a vital aspect of their life. Social network is transforming the behavior in which youthful people relate with their parents, peers, as well as how they make use of technology. The effects of social networking are twofold. On the positive side, social networks can act as invaluable tools for professionals. They achieve this by assisting young professionals to market their skills and seek business opportunities. Social networking sites may also be used to network efficiently. On the negative side, the internet is laden with a number of risks associated with online communities. Cyber bullying, which means a type of harassment that is perpetrated using electronic technology, is one of the risks. In this paper we cover every aspect of social media with its positive and negative effects. Focus is on the particular field like health, business, education, society and youth. During this paper we explain how these media will influence the society in a broad way.[17]

Problem behavior theory postulates that different forms of norm violations cluster and can be explained by similar antecedents. One such cluster may include cyberbullying and cyberhate perpetration. A potential explanatory mechanism includes toxic online disinhibition, characterized by anonymity, an inability to empathize and to recognize and interpret social cues. The current study to develop a better understanding of the relationship between cyberhate and cyberbullying to inform effective intervention and prevention efforts. To test the link between cyberbullying and cyberhate and whether this relationship was moderated by toxic online disinhibition. Self‐report questionnaires on cyberbullying, cyberhate, and toxic online disinhibition were completed by 1,480 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old (M = 14.21 years; SD = 1.68). Increases in cyberbullying perpetration and toxic online disinhibition were positively related to cyberhate perpetration. Furthermore, cyberbullies reported more cyberhate perpetration when they reported higher levels of toxic online disinhibition and less frequent cyberhate perpetration when they reported lower levels of toxic online disinhibition. The current study provides evidence of a possible link between cyberbullying and cyberhate perpetration, moderated by toxic online disinhibition. This suggests that, to be effective, prevention and intervention programs should (i) consider the co‐occurrence of varying forms of cyberaggression and (ii) consider potential effects of the online environment on aggressive online behavior among young people.[18]

Media Intake: Perceptions of In-Group/Out-Groups Mindsets[edit | edit source]

Here we report two separate studies. In Study 1, conducted in collaboration with Mark Polifroni, we posted messages on the discussion forum to examine how members of Stormfront would respond to different types of in-group positivity, out-group negativity, and intergroup threat. The content of the posted messages was manipulated such that it emphasized in-group positivity or one of two types of out-group negativity and intergroup threat (miscegenation vs. media control). In Study 2, instead of posting messages to the group, we simply downloaded and content analyzed a large number of messages from the discussion forum to gain a representative sample of the key concerns of Stormfront members.[19]

-“Mass media have a strong effect on our expectations for family, parents, and children, creating standards for our way of life, affection, worship, and society. In simple words, we view reality in terms of our own experience that is influenced by primary groups (Family and Friends); secondary groups (School, religious institutions, and government), and mass media. While the influence of the primary group is waning and the secondary groups are time limited, the influence of mass media is increasing as it is a pervasive and permanent fixture of our lives.”[20]

Online Social Comparison and Self-Esteem[edit | edit source]

Social networking sites (SNSs), such as Facebook, provide abundant social comparison opportunities. Given the widespread use of SNSs, the purpose of the present set of studies was to examine the impact of chronic and temporary exposure to social media-based social comparison information on self-esteem. Using a correlational approach, Study 1 examined whether frequent Facebook use is associated with lower trait self-esteem. Indeed, the results showed that participants who used Facebook most often had poorer trait self-esteem, and this was mediated by greater exposure to upward social comparisons on social media. Using an experimental approach, Study 2 examined the impact of temporary exposure to social media profiles on state self-esteem and relative self-evaluations. The results revealed that participants’ state self-esteem and relative self-evaluations were lower when the target person’s profile contained upward comparison information (e.g., a high activity social network, healthy habits) than when the target person’s profile contained downward comparison information (e.g., a low activity social network, unhealthy habits). Results are discussed in terms of extant research and their implications for the role of social media in well-being.[21]

Although Facebook was created to help people feel connected with each other, data indicate that regular usage has both negative and positive connections to well-being. To explore these mixed results, we tested the role of social comparison and self-objectification as possible mediators of the link between Facebook use and three facets of psychological well-being: self-esteem, mental health, and body shame. Participants were 1,104 undergraduate women and men who completed surveys assessing their Facebook usage (minutes, passive use, and active use), social comparison, self-objectification, and well-being. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling, testing separate models for women and men. Models for each gender fit the data well. For women and men, Facebook use was associated with greater social comparison and greater self-objectification, which, in turn, was each related to lower self-esteem, poorer mental health, and greater body shame. Mediated models provided better fits to the data than models testing direct pathways to the mediators and well-being variables. Implications are discussed for young people's social media use, and future directions are provided.[22]

Negative Effects of the Internet[edit | edit source]

Summary of Topic Here

Misinformation[edit | edit source]

The internet can be a major source of deception and misinformation. In order to analyze the cognitive processes that one goes through when deciding to spread information online, there are four questions that must be asked. These questions revolve around the consistency of a message, the coherency of the message, credibility of the source, and finally the general acceptability of the message. Using these questions to understand the spread of information online can assist in obtaining answers for why people spread misinformation, and how it can potentially be stopped. Misinformation is defined as inaccurate or false information, that has been posted with the intent to deceive, or make people believe that it is true. Similarly, disinformation is also false information, posted with the intent to mislead people, commonly used by governments in an attempt to challenge their perceived rivals. Finally, propaganda is misleading information that is biased and used to promote something in the political sphere. These distinctions are important because the internet has allowed these different types of false, or biased information to spread at unprecedented rates.[23]

Misinformation in the healthcare sphere is particularly problematic because the dissemination of false information can prevent or delay effective care in ways that have life-threatening consequences. Accurate, scientific information may be eclipsed by all of the false information that spreads so quickly online. The wildfire-like spread of misinformation online has started harmful trends such as the anti-vaxxer movement and the popularization of the term "fake news" that can be used to describe anything that people do not agree with. Another huge threat of misinformation is the fact that it is increasingly difficult to prove that false information posted online is in fact false. This is unique to the internet, because in traditional media such as newspapers and radio, it is easy to verify the publisher and author of the source. With online material, it is often self-published and determining source credibility is difficult. When people are afraid, they can be more susceptible to misinformation. Thus, once the false information gains traction, it is difficult to correct and can go on to impact even more people.[24]

One study surrounding use of social media for information sharing found that 60% of respondents had shared misinformation online. Interestingly, the top reasons stated for sharing said misinformation were the perceived characteristics of the information, and self-expression or socializing. Notably, some of the reasons that were not top ranked included accuracy and authoritativeness. In terms of demographics, the study focused on a population of students in Singapore. The study found that women had a higher prevalence of sharing misinformation or intending to do so. Overall, it seems as though many people do not care if they are spreading inaccurate information, they mainly care about how their online friends are perceiving them.[25]

Internet Addiction[edit | edit source]

One common form of internet addiction is Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). Cognitive behavioral therapy has been considered to be an effective treatment for IGD in the past, however more research needs to be done to understand the underlying conditions that cause this addiction. One study that focuses on IGD found four underlying cognitive factors that can contribute to the disorder. These factors include (1) beliefs about game reward value and tangibility, (2) maladaptive and inflexible rules about gaming behavior, (3) over-reliance on gaming to meet self-esteem needs, and (4) gaming as a method of gaining social acceptance. These cognitive factors reveal an underlying overvaluation of game rewards and identities, as well as a desire to adhere to maladaptive game rules. Understanding these cognitive factors more will assist with gaining a deeper understanding of different reasons for internet addiction.[26]

Internet addiction has been referred to in the past as a serious public health problem around the world. One study investigated the relationship between internet addiction and stressful life events & psychological symptoms among students in China. The study revealed that internet addiction was significantly associated with stressors from interpersonal problems as well as school-related issues and anxiety. Additionally, negative coping styles for these problems can also increase the risk of internet addiction. The study suggests that there is a high prevalence of internet addiction among Chinese internet users, and calls for more research done on the topic of mental health issues and internet addiction.[27]

Addiction to the internet can cause several negative outcomes, including but not limited to, failure in personal relationships, risk of depression, changes in sleeping patterns, ignoring responsibilities, impulse control disorder, and a range of other behavioral, social, physical and psychological problems. This addiction is especially problematic as the rates have been rising specifically in children due to the easy accessibility of the internet. A study of internet use and addiction in Korea discovered that children whose parents underestimated the risk of the internet were at a greater vulnerability for internet addiction. This means that parents should make it their responsibility to learn about the dangers of internet addiction and thus limit the time their children spend online. A lot more research is needed to show the impacts of internet addiction in children, and what parents can do to create a change. [28]

-Study on the links between internet addiction and negative mental health outcomes including suicidality and depression. “Moderate and severe internet addiction were strongly associated with a broad group of adverse mental health outcomes, including somatic symptoms that are the core features of many medical illnesses, although clinically significant depression showed the strongest association”[29]

Privacy Concerns[edit | edit source]

find articles

Online vs. In-Person Social Interactions and Social Anxiety[edit | edit source]

find articles

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Peek, H.S., Richards, M., Muir, O. et al. (2015) Blogging and Social Media for Mental Health Education and Advocacy: a Review for Psychiatrists. Curr Psychiatry Rep 17, 88.
  2. Irvine, A., Drew, P., Bower, P., Brooks, H., Gellatly, J., Armitage, C. J., Barkham, M., McMillan, D., & Bee, P. (2020). Are there interactional differences between telephone and face-to-face psychological therapy? A systematic review of comparative studies. Journal of affective disorders, 265, 120–131.
  3. Andersson, G., Cuijpers, P., Carlbring, P., Riper, H., & Hedman, E. (2014). Guided internet-based vs. face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychiatric and somatic disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. World psychiatry : official journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA), 13(3), 288–295.
  4. Axelsson E, Andersson E, Ljótsson B, Björkander D, Hedman-Lagerlöf M, Hedman-Lagerlöf E. (2020). Effect of internet vs face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for health anxiety: A randomized noninferiority clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry. 77(9), 915–924.    
  5. Kumar, V., Sattar, Y., Bseiso, A., Khan, S., & Rutkofsky, I. H. (2017). The effectiveness of internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy in treatment of psychiatric disorders. Cureus.  
  6. Newby, J. M., Haskelberg, H., Hobbs, M. J., Mahoney, A. E. J., Mason, E., & Andrews, G. (2020). The effectiveness of internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for health anxiety in routine care. Journal of Affective Disorders, 264, 535–542.  
  7. Watzke, B., Haller, E., Steinmann, M., Heddaeus, D., Härter, M., König, H.-H., … Rosemann, T. (2017). Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of telephone-based cognitive-behavioural therapy in primary care: Study protocol of TIDe – telephone intervention for depression. BMC Psychiatry, 17(1). 
  8. Ralston, A. L., Holt, N. R., & Hope, D. A. (2020). Tele-mental health with marginalized communities in rural locales: Trainee and supervisor perspectives. Journal of Rural Mental Health, 44(4), 268–273.
  9. Békés, V., & Aafjes-van Doorn, K. (2020). Psychotherapists’ attitudes toward online therapy during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 30(2), 238-247.
  10. Luiggi-Hernández, J. G., & Rivera-Amador, A. I. (2020). Reconceptualizing social distancing: teletherapy and social inequality during the COVID-19 and loneliness pandemics. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 60(5), 626–638.
  11. Morganstein, J. (2020, February 19). Coronavirus and mental health: Taking care of ourselves during infectious disease outbreaks. American Psychiatric Association (APA).
  12. Lupton, D., & Jutel, A. (2015). 'It's like having a physician in your pocket!' a critical analysis of self-diagnosis smartphone apps. Social Science & Medicine, Volume 133, 128-135.
  13. Fergie, G., Hilton, S., & Hunt, K. (2015). Young adults' experiences of seeking online information about diabetes and mental health in the age of social media. Health Expectations.
  14. American Psychiatric Association. (2021, January). APA Coronavirus Resources. Psychiatry.
  15. Zezulka, L., & Seigfried-Spellar, K. (2016). Differentiating cyberbullies and internet trolls by personality characteristics and self-esteem. Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law, 11(3).
  16. Zsila, Á., Urbán, R., Griffiths, M. D., & Demetrovics, Z. (2018). Gender Differences in the Association Between Cyberbullying Victimization and Perpetration: The Role of Anger Rumination and Traditional Bullying Experiences. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 17(5), 1252–1267.
  17. Akram, W., & Kumar, R. (2017). A study on positive and negative effects of social media on society. International Journal of Computer Science and Engineering, 5(10).
  18. Wachs, S., Wright, M. F., & Vazsonyi, A. T. (2019). Understanding the overlap between cyberbullying and cyberhate perpetration: Moderating effects of toxic online disinhibition. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 29(3), 179–188.
  19. Gonsalkorale, K., & Hippel, W. (2011). Intergroup relations in the 21st century: In-group positivity and out-group negativity among members of an internet hate group. In R. M. Kramer, G. J. Leonardelli, & R. W. Livingston (Eds.), Psychology Press Festschrift series. Social cognition, social identity, and intergroup relations: A Festschrift in honor of Marilynn B. Brewer (p. 163–188). Psychology Press.
  20. Srivastava, K., Chaudhury, S., Bhat, P. S., & Mujawar, S. (2018). Media and mental health. Industrial Psychiatry Journal, 27(1), 1.
  21. Vogel, E. A., Rose, J. P., Roberts, L. R., & Eckles, K. (2014). Social comparison, social media, and self-esteem. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 3(4), 206–222.
  22. Hanna, E., Ward, L. M., Seabrook, R. C., Jerald, M., Reed, L., Giaccardi, S., & Lippman, J. R. (2017). Contributions of Social Comparison and Self-Objectification in Mediating Associations Between Facebook Use and Emergent Adults’ Psychological Well-Being. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 20(3), 172–179.
  23. Kumar, K.P.K., Geethakumari, G. (2014). Detecting misinformation in online social networks using cognitive psychology. Hum. Cent. Comput. Inf. Sci. 4(14)
  24. Wang, Y., McKee, M., Torbica, A., & Stuckler, D. (2019). Systematic Literature Review on the Spread of Health-related Misinformation on Social Media. Social Science & Medicine, 240, 112552.
  25. Chen, X., Sin, S.-C. J., Theng, Y.-L., & Lee, C. S. (2015). Why Students Share Misinformation on Social Media: Motivation, Gender, and Study-level Differences. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 41(5), 583–592.
  26. King, D. L., & Delfabbro, P. H. (2014). The cognitive psychology of Internet gaming disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 34(4), 298–308.
  27. Tang, J., Yu, Y., Du, Y., Ma, Y., Zhang, D., & Wang, J. (2014). Prevalence of internet addiction and its association with stressful life events and psychological symptoms among adolescent internet users. Addictive Behaviors, 39(3), 744–747.
  28. Young, K. S. (2004). Internet Addiction. American Behavioral Scientist, 48(4), 402–415.
  29. Guo, W., Tao, Y., Li, X., Lin, X., Meng, Y., Yang, X., Wang, H., Zhang, Y., Tang, W., Wang, Q., Deng, W., Zhao, L., Ma, X., Li, M., Chen, T., Xu, J., Li, J., Hao, W., Lee, S., … Li, T. (2020). Associations of Internet Addiction Severity With Psychopathology, Serious Mental Illness, and Suicidality: Large-Sample Cross-Sectional Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(8), e17560.